Livelihoods approaches and climate change


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Presentation by Terry Cannon from the Institute of Development Studies, at the Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches seminar on 26th January 2011, at the Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.

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Livelihoods approaches and climate change

  1. 1. SLA conference Terry Cannon, IDS Livelihoods approaches and climate change
  2. 2. Relevance of livelihoods to CC <ul><li>Climate change will directly affect livelihoods of very high proportion of people in developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Increased poverty arising from damaged livelihoods will also make many more vulnerable to climate-related hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Using a livelihoods approach helps to identify climate impacts on livelihoods and through hazards – a key approach </li></ul>
  3. 3. Climate Trends & Shocks Primary livelihood impacts Secondary Impacts Precipitation regimes Variability Extent Intensity Crop yields, income & subsistence Crop range – shifts in agro-economic zones; Land use changes; Land cover changes; Forest changes Irrigation impacts – changes in amount, extent, seasonality, quality… Food crops and nutrition Food and cash crops and food supply & cash income Impacts on traded crops, livestock, fodder, grazing Human needs Drinking water Conflicts Changes in crop, pasture, income etc have impacts on security, crime, Migration Changes in government revenue and foreign exchange leads to changes in welfare spending, foreign trade, food imports Effects on debt repayments Tourism-related livelihoods National parks and game reserves Coast and island holiday destinations Employment impacts of changes in HEP output Revenue and balance of payments impacts of HEP output Floods Droughts Temperature regimes Variability Extent Extremes of hot and cold Humidity and human range Desiccation Wildfires & set fires Storms Frequency; Precipitation; Wind speed extremes; Extend Tropical Cyclone range Crop yields, income & subsistence; Loss of employment; Loss of home, tools, livestock Landslides etc. GLOBs (Glacial Lake Outbursts) Crop yields, income & subsistence; Loss of employment, home, tools, livestock Sea Level rise: Floods; Saline intrusion Crop yields income & subsistence; Loss of employment; Diseases & pests Extent & range of vectors & infectious agents; Seasonal variability; Intensity; Human diseases: infectious, parasitic; Crop and post-harvest – pests; infectious viral and bacterial, fungal; Livestock diseases: infectious, parasitic; Forest diseases & pests; Possible impacts on new diseases; Different sources of food for survival
  4. 4. What’s wrong with the SLA approach? <ul><li>It uses the word sustainable… </li></ul><ul><li>There is no such thing as “Natural capital” etc </li></ul><ul><li>One person’s good social capital is another persons negative capital… </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing assets for some people may reduce assets of others </li></ul><ul><li>Donors can focus on some assets and ignore others that are less able to influence but are more important </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough stress or acknowledgement of power relations – power affects the availability of assets and the movement of assets between groups </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Allocation of production assets (used for livelihoods) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land; access to water; gender; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution of income </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare provision </li></ul><ul><li>Social protection – including for disasters </li></ul>Power determines access to assets and income
  6. 6. What does development mean? <ul><li>Trying to improve human welfare that is not being achieved through the workings of “normality” </li></ul><ul><li>It is working against the operation of market forces, many governments and private power </li></ul><ul><li>Development is trying to do something where existing structures of power: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t have the capacity (where aid may help?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t know how to do it (SLA approaches may help?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not interested (little respect for rights of poor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Against their interests (will lose out if there is change) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hierarchies of influence… 2006 US$ millions GNP of USA 13,000,000 Foreign Direct Investment 1,200,000 Official Development Assistance 104,421 EU Common Agricultural Policy farm subsidies 53,000 USA spending on pets 34,000 Oxfam International 640 Banking and credit crises.. ????? US costs of wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, “on terror”, per annum 80,000
  8. 8. What can a revised (S)LA approach be use for? <ul><li>Disaster risk reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disasters are fundamental factor in destroying assets AND transferring assets from poor to rich </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adaptation to climate change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation needs to happen for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trends in temperature, precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associated health risks to people, crops, livestock </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in existing and new locations, increased frequency and/ or intensity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow-onset and lasting changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SLR, glaciers and water supply, ENSO </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty, dealing with the unexpected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>All these require strengthened and diversified livelihoods </li></ul>
  9. 9. At Risk “Access model” See Chapter 3 in At Risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters Basically, a household political ecology model Before (left side) and After (right side) hazard impact Based on the interaction of the hazard environment with the vulnerability of people and livelihood 2004, Routledge
  10. 10. “ Access” model – household political ecology