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1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October, 2013, pp. 187-191 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJECET ©IAEME UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) Mr. Prithvish Mamtora1, Mr. Sahil Shah2, Mr. Vaibhav Shah3, Mr. Vatsal Vasani4 D. J. Sanghvi College Mumbai ABSTRACT Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are the logical successors to modern aircraft and advancements in automated technology. The current generation of UAV’s is focused on wartime capabilities and reconnaissance, leaving an existing market untapped by UAV technology: the commercial field. There are hundreds of applications for UAV technology in the civilian market, from emergency response applications and media outlets to communication technicians and horticulturalists. The vehicle can even act as a path guider in normal case and as a fire extinguisher in emergency. This project will help generate interests as well as innovations in the fields of unmanned vehicles, thereby working towards a practical and obtainable solution to save lives and mitigate the risk of property damage. Keywords: Delta mixing, ESC+BEC, Tx/Rx module. . INTRODUCTION An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), a.k.a a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. Its flight is controlled either autonomously by computers in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot on the ground or in another vehicle. UAV has many applications besides the military applications with which "drones" became most associated. Numerous civil aviation uses have been developed, including aerial surveying of crops, acrobatic aerial footage in filmmaking, search and rescue operations, inspecting power lines and pipelines, and counting wildlife, business advertisements, etc. A small scale UAV can be designed using EPP foam, 2.4 GHz Transmitter & Receiver (Tx/Rx), brushless motor, servos, Electronic Speed Controller (ESC). The UAV makes use of elevon(delta) mixing which reduces the hardware requirements and complexity in designing the model. The small scale UAV can be used for commercial aerial surveillance, remote sensing, scientific research, etc. 187
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME . REQUIRED HARDWARE List of hardware • 2.4 GHz Tx/Rx (Mode 2-Throttle on the left) with delta mixing. • 24x36 sheet of 30mm EPP Foam. • Two Micro Metal Gear 9g servos. • 2200kV brushless out-runner motor • 2200mA 3S1P 30C Lithium polymer (LiPo) battery. • 40A ESC with inbuilt battery eliminator circuit(BEC) • Propeller with diameter 6 inch and pitch 4 inch (6x4). • Balsa Wood . BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig 1 Block Diagram . COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION Brushless Out-runner Motor: It is a synchronous motor that is powered by a DC electric source via an integrated switching power supply, which produces an AC electric signal to drive the motor. Electronic Speed Controller with Battery Eliminator Circuit(ESC): It is an electronic circuit with the purpose to vary an electric motor's speed, its direction and possibly also to act 188
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME as a dynamic brake. The ESCs with built in BEC are engineered so that the current to power the radio system in the UAV is drawn from the Li-Po battery (that also powers the brushless motor). This saves weight as no separate battery is required to be installed to power the radio. Lithium Polymer battery: Lithium-ion polymer battery is a rechargeable (secondary cell) battery. It is usually composed of several identical secondary cells in parallel to increase the discharge current capability, and is often available in series configuration to increase the total available voltage. Servo: A servo is a specific type of motor and rotary encoder combination that forms a servomechanism. The encoder provides position and usually speed feedback, which by the use of a PID controller allow more precise control of position and thus faster achievement of a stable position. 2.4 GHz 4 Channel Tx/Rx: It performs the function of transmitting and receiving communication signals used to control any system. It has a range of 1 kilometer radius and comes with 4 channels which are used to control different components connected to the receiver (eg. servos, speed controller, etc.). . SYSTEM DESIGN Model design Wingspan: 28 Inches (71.12cm) Length: 29.4 Inches (74.68cm) Weight (including electronics components) : 880.23grams The UAV body is built using 30mm EPP foam and balsa wood. EPP form and balsa wood are the best materials used to build UAV chassis because they are extremely light weight and sturdy. The EPP foam can be cut using a hot guitar string and a regular cutter or blade can be used to cut balsa wood. The top view of the chassis is shown in figure 1. The side view of UAV tail section is shown in figure 2. Figure 1: Top view of UAV chassis 189
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME Adjusting the weight of the electronic components to meet the center of gravity criteria is of paramount importance. The approximate locations of electronic components are shown in figure 1. Figure 2: Side View of Tail Section Care must be taken to avoid more than 30 degree angle rotation of elevon on either side. The thrust plates are used for balancing and elevons are used to navigate the UAV. When both the elevons point upwards the UAV gains height whereas when both the elevons point downwards the UAV loses height. When left elevon point downwards and right elevon point upwards the UAV will take a left turn whereas when left elevon point upwards and right elevon point downwards the UAV will take a right turn. This technique used to navigate the UAV by using elevons alone is known as delta mixing (also known as elevon mixing). . CONCLUSION In this paper the procedure to built UAV has been perspicuously stated. The small scale UAV is cost effective and has many applications in various fields. . APPLICATIONS • • • • • • • • Remote sensing Commercial aerial surveillance Domestic policing and patrolling Oil, gas and mineral exploration and production Transport of goods Scientific research Search and rescue operation Forest fire detection . FUTURE SCOPE In the future, UAVs may be able to perform a variety of unique tasks apart from what they are capable of today. Engineers are currently working to produce remotely piloted UAVs that are capable of air to air combat, aerial refueling, combat search and rescue with facial recognition, and resupply to agents on the ground. 190
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 5, September – October (2013), © IAEME . REFERENCES . . . . . http://www.hobbyking.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle http://www.aerorama.net/en/aircraft http://www.gizmag.com/tag/uav/ Abhishek S H and Dr. C Anil Kumar, “A Review of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and their Morphing Concepts Evolution and Implications for the Present Day Technology”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 348 - 356, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. . Wanis A Hasan and Ahmad N Abdulfattah, “Downlink Signal Evaluation of Haps M-55 Aircraft above Malaysian Skies”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 336 - 345, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. . Deepalakshmi.R and Jothi Venkateswaran C, “A Survey on Mining Methods for Protein Sequence Analysis: An Aerial View”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 28 - 34, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. . Ramesh Kamath, Siddhesh Nadkarni, Kundan Srivastav and Dr. Deepak Vishnu Bhoir, “Data Acquisition System and Telemetry System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Sae Aero Design Series”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp. 90 - 100, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 191