Linkages between violent exposures innew media and violent behavior: Findingsfrom the Growing up with Media national surve...
BackgroundAn estimated 97% of youth use theInternet (Lenhart, Madden & Hitlin, 2005; USC AnnenbergSchool Center for the D...
Background: The positive side of theInternet About one in four adolescents have usedthe Internet to look for health infor...
Background: The negative side of theInternet Internet harassment has increased from6% to 9%, while unwanted sexualsolicit...
Problem StatementAs technology increases in sophistication, questions about it’spotential impact on child and adolescent b...
Growing up with Media Methodology Conducted between August 24 to September 14, 2006 1,591 households (one caregiver, one...
Harris Poll On Line HPOL is a double opt-in panel of millions of respondents. HPOL data are consistently comparable to d...
Growing up with Media Data Methods Sample selection was stratified based on youth age and sex. To control the sample and...
Growing up with Media DataAnalyses Response rate was 26% (rates can range from 5-50%) Propensity scoring was applied to ...
Youth characteristicsDemographic characteristics (n=1,591): 48% Female Mean age: 12.6 years (SE: 0.05) 71% White, 13% B...
Internet violence
Defining Internet violenceIn the last 12 months, have you gone to or seen the following types of websites?1. A website, in...
Youth exposure to violence onlinecont.In the last 12 months, have yougone to or seen the following typesof websites?No, I ...
Youth exposure to violence online(n=1,585)In the last 12 months, have you goneto or seen the following types ofwebsites?No...
Youth exposure to violence online(n=1,585)58%28%8%4%1% 0% 1%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%0 1 2 3 4 5 6% of youth reportingnumber...
Youth exposure to violence online(except news sites) (n=1,585)71%21%5%2% 0% 1%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%0 1 2 3 4 5% of yo...
Main outcome measure: Seriouslyviolent behaviorAny seriously violent behavior: 7.8% Ever shot/stabbed someone: 1.0% Used...
Odds of youth reporting at least one seriously violentbehavior in the previous year based upon type ofonline violent expos...
Odds of youth reporting at least one seriously violentbehavior in the previous year based upon type ofonline violent expos...
Defining exposure to media violenceWhen you:1. Play video, computer or Internet games2. Watch TV or movies3. Listen to mus...
Amount of media depicting physicalfighting, shooting, or killingdepictedWhen you: How many show physical fighting, shootin...
Odds of youth reporting at least one type of seriouslyviolent behavior in the previous year based uponquantity of violent ...
SummaryAmong all youth: 42% report exposure to violence on at leastone type of web site in the last year (29% ifnews site...
SummaryThe report of visitingdeath sites (OR = 7.8) andhate sites (OR = 5.0)are the two online exposures most stronglyasso...
SummaryNot knowing about some types of web sites(Satanic sites OR = 0.6)Death sites OR = 0.5)Appears to be protective agai...
SummaryYouth whose majority of media exposures (i.e.,many/most/all) are violentAre significantly more likely to also repor...
SummaryMore youth report “none / almost none” ofexposures on the Internet depict violenceThan any other media type examined
Exposure to x-rated material
Defining exposure to x-rated materialIn the last 12 months have you watched an X-ratedmovie at a friend’s house, your hous...
Defining exposure to violentpornographyIn the last 12 months, have you seen a movie thatshowed a person being physically h...
Frequency of intentional exposure topornographic material (n=1,578)Medium of x-ratedexposureAny exposure ViolentexposureMa...
Overlap in mediums (n=1578)80%11%5% 4%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%0 1 2 3% of youth reportingnumber of mediums
Main outcome measure: forced sexualbehaviorIn the past 12 months, how many times have youeverKissed, touched, or done anyt...
Odds of sexually aggressivebehavior given report of x-ratedexposure1 1 14.33.31.418.513.429.2110100Magazines Movies Intern...
SummaryAmong all youth: 20% of youth report intentional exposure to x-rated material Magazines are the most commonly rep...
SummaryIntentional exposure to violent x-rated materialappears to be strongly related to concurrentreports of sexually agg...
Prevention messages:Are parents getting it?
Research QuestionAre indicators of parental monitoring associatedwith reduced odds of violent mediaexposures?Main outcome ...
Youth-reported parental monitoringof media useYouth-reported aspects of media use Games(n=1,437)Internet(n=1,557)Where do ...
Association between Internet parentalmonitoring and exposure to violent web sites1.81.40.970.1110Parent has nevertalked wi...
Association between game parentalmonitoring and violent video game playing1.65.62.7110Parent has never talkedwith child ab...
SummaryAccording to youth, parents tend to monitortheir actions online more than on games.A lack of monitoring of game pla...
Limitations of the dataData are cross-sectional.In no way can we tease out what happenedfirst. Directionality is unknown.
Limitations of the dataRespondents were not observed during thedata collection process.It is possible that: Children were...
Limitations of the dataFindings are relevant to households where both thechild and the adult use the Internet. Generalpopu...
Discussion: Internet violenceThe majority of youth are not exposed toviolence online.The majority of youth who are exposed...
Discussion: Internet violenceDespite the wide availability of violentexposures online,The Internet does not appear to be a...
Discussion: Exposure to violenceacross mediumsYouth who report that many/most/all of themedia they consume depicts violenc...
Discussion: PornographyDespite the number of pornographic web sites avialableonline,The Internet does not appear to be a m...
Discussion: Parental preventionAccording to youth, most parents have tried toimplement some monitoring efforts forInternet...
ImplicationsThese data provide a foundation to build uponour understanding of youth exposures toviolence on the Internet, ...
AcknowledgementsAny well-conducted project is a team effort.Ours is no exception. We would like to thankour colleagues who...
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Linkages between violent exposures in new media and violent behavior: Findings from the Growing up with Media national survey

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  • Respondents are recruited through partner websites, emails with online partners, refer-a-friend, trade shows, client supplied lists of customers, TV advertisements, direct mail, telephone recruitment of targeted populations
  • As the children were recruited from the adults who initially agreed to take the study, the sample selection bias is found primarily in the characteristics of adults who chose to take this survey. Hence, only adults were propensity weighted and the propensity weights that were generated for the adults were applied to the child. The propensity score was derived from key questions in the survey that examined the attitudes and behaviors of the respondents as well as the demographic questions.
  • 28% report 31-1hour 24% report half hour or less 22% report 1-2 hours
  • Explain methods n-=1585
  • Note, these questions were randomized for each participant to adjust for response bias due to ordering
  • 28% report 31-1hour 24% report half hour or less 22% report 1-2 hours
  • Adjusted for ‘don’t know’ and someone being close enough to see the screen
  • Adjusted for ‘don’t know’ and someone being close enough to see the screen
  • Explain methods n-=1585
  • Adjusted for ‘don’t know’ and someone being close enough to see the screen
  • Adjusted for ‘don’t know’ and someone being close enough to see the screen
  • Explain methods n-=1585
  • Explain methods n-=1585
  • 1) In the last 12 months have you watched an X-rated movie at a friend’s house, your house, or in the theatre where the main topic was sex?; 2) In the last 12 months, have you looked at an X-rated magazine, like Playboy, on purpose where you knew that the main topic was sex?; and 3) In the last 12 months, have you gone to or seen an X-rated or “adult” website where the main topic is sex?
  • 28% report 31-1hour 24% report half hour or less 22% report 1-2 hours
  • Youth who responded positively to one of the questions were asked about exposure to violent pornography: 1) In the last 12 months, have you seen a movie that showed a person being physically hurt by another person while they were doing something sexual?; 2) Have you ever looked at a magazine that showed a person being physically hurt by another person while they were doing something sexual?; or 3) When you have gone to or seen an X-rated or adult website, have you ever seen a person being physically hurt by another person while they were doing something sexual?
  • 1) In the last 12 months have you watched an X-rated movie at a friend’s house, your house, or in the theatre where the main topic was sex?; 2) In the last 12 months, have you looked at an X-rated magazine, like Playboy, on purpose where you knew that the main topic was sex?; and 3) In the last 12 months, have you gone to or seen an X-rated or “adult” website where the main topic is sex?
  • 22% of youth report that Mature or Adult Only are one of the two most common ratings of the games they play
  • You don’t know the answer unless you ask – it’s a strength that we have this data and are able to analyze it’s influence
  • You don’t know the answer unless you ask – it’s a strength that we have this data and are able to analyze it’s influence
  • Note that to be at risk, you have to have the exposure – i.e., internet use
  • Linkages between violent exposures in new media and violent behavior: Findings from the Growing up with Media national survey

    1. 1. Linkages between violent exposures innew media and violent behavior: Findingsfrom the Growing up with Media national surveyMichele L Ybarra MPH PhDInternet Solutions for Kids, Inc.Philip J Leaf PhDJohns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health* Thank you for your interest in this presentation.  Please note that analyses included herein are preliminary. More recent, finalized analyses can be found in: Ybarra M, Diener-West M, Markow D, Leaf PJ, HamburgerM, Boxer, P. Linkages between Internet and other media violence and youth seriously violent behavior.Pediatrics. 2008;122(5):929-93, or by contacting CiPHR for further information.Centers for Disease Control, Reverse Site Visit, 2006Atlanta, GA
    2. 2. BackgroundAn estimated 97% of youth use theInternet (Lenhart, Madden & Hitlin, 2005; USC AnnenbergSchool Center for the Digital Future, 2005).The majority of adolescent Internet-health research has focused onvictimization (e.g., Finkelhor, Mitchell, Wolak, 2000; Wolak,Mitchell, Finkelhor, 2006; Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2006)and health seeking behavior (e.g., Grey,Klein, Noyce et al., 2005; Ybarra & Suman, 2006).
    3. 3. Background: The positive side of theInternet About one in four adolescents have usedthe Internet to look for health informationin the last year (Lenhart et al., 2001; Rideout et al., 2001; Ybarra& Suman, 2006). 41% of adolescents indicate havingchanged their behavior because ofinformation they found online (Kaiser FamilyFoundation, 2002), and 14% have soughthealthcare services as a result (Rideout, 2001).
    4. 4. Background: The negative side of theInternet Internet harassment has increased from6% to 9%, while unwanted sexualsolicitation decreased from 19% to 13%from 1999 to 2005 (Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2006). Just over one-third of youth targeted byInternet victimization report feelingvery/extremely upset or afraid because ofthe incident (Wolak, Mitchell, Finkelhor, 2006; Ybarra,Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2006)
    5. 5. Problem StatementAs technology increases in sophistication, questions about it’spotential impact on child and adolescent behavior offline mustbe examined: What is the frequency of exposure to violenceonline? Is this online violence related to violent behavior?How does this fit into the more general sphere of mediaviolence? With potentially increased access, what is thefrequency of exposure to pornographyonline? Is it associated with violent sexual behavior? Prevention messages: Are parents getting it?
    6. 6. Growing up with Media Methodology Conducted between August 24 to September 14, 2006 1,591 households (one caregiver, one child) weresurveyed online Eligibility criteria: Adult Be a member of the Harris Poll Online (HPOL) opt-in panel Be a resident in the USA (HPOL has members internationally) Be the most (or equally) knowledgeable of the youth’s media use in thehome English speaking Youth: Between the ages of 10-15 years Use the Internet at least once in the last 6 months English speaking
    7. 7. Harris Poll On Line HPOL is a double opt-in panel of millions of respondents. HPOL data are consistently comparable to data that hasbeen obtained from random telephone samples of generalpopulations when sampling and weighting is applied.
    8. 8. Growing up with Media Data Methods Sample selection was stratified based on youth age and sex. To control the sample and the increase response rate, thefollowing steps were taken: Password-protected access to the online survey 1 reminder invitation to non-responders Cash incentives ($10 for adults, $15 for youth) A balance between “novice” and “experienced” surveyparticipants was forced through additional stratification. (Ingeneral, panelists are invited to participate in surveys no more frequently thanonce every three weeks). On average, the adult survey took 5 minutes and the youthsurvey took 21 minutes
    9. 9. Growing up with Media DataAnalyses Response rate was 26% (rates can range from 5-50%) Propensity scoring was applied to adjust for the adult’s (i.e.,recruitment target) propensity to be online Data were weighted to match the US population of adults withchildren between the ages of 10 and 15 years For research questions addressed in the present presentation,cases were required to have valid data for 85% of variablesexamined. Regression estimates are adjusted for ‘dishonesty’ (6%) and thereport of someone in the room near enough to see the computerscreen (22%).
    10. 10. Youth characteristicsDemographic characteristics (n=1,591): 48% Female Mean age: 12.6 years (SE: 0.05) 71% White, 13% Black, 9% Mixed, 7% Other 19% Hispanic Median time spent online on a typical day: 31minutes – 1 hour
    11. 11. Internet violence
    12. 12. Defining Internet violenceIn the last 12 months, have you gone to or seen the following types of websites?1. A website, including news-related sites, that shows pictures of war,death, terrorism2. A website that shows cartoons, like stick people or animals, beingbeat up, hurt, or killed3. An X-rated or adult website where the main topic is sex4. A website that shows pictures of dead people or people dying. Somepeople call these snuff sites.5. A website that people would call a hate site. A “hate” site is onethat tells you to hate a group of people because of who they are,how they look, or what they believe.6. A website that shows satanic rituals, such as devil worship or SatanworshipResponse options: 1) No, I don’t know what this is; 2) No, I know what this is but I’venever gone; 3) Yes
    13. 13. Youth exposure to violence onlinecont.In the last 12 months, have yougone to or seen the following typesof websites?No, I dont know whatthis isNo, Ive heard of itbut have neverbeen to oneYes, I’ve been tooneA website, including news-related sites, that showspictures of war, death,terrorism31% (464) 45% (753) 24% (368)A website that showscartoons, like stick peopleor animals, being beat up,hurt, or killed42% (666) 37% (586) 21% (333)An X-rated or adult websitewhere the main topic is sex40% (655) 50% (793) 10% (137)
    14. 14. Youth exposure to violence online(n=1,585)In the last 12 months, have you goneto or seen the following types ofwebsites?No, I dont know whatthis isNo, Ive heard of itbut have never beento oneYes, I’ve beento oneA website that shows picturesof dead people or peopledying. Some people call thesesnuff sites.64% (1036) 31% (482) 5% (67)A website that people wouldcall a hate site57% (885) 41% (660) 3% (40)A website that shows satanicrituals, such as devil worshipor Satan worship58% (911) 40% (636) 2% (38)
    15. 15. Youth exposure to violence online(n=1,585)58%28%8%4%1% 0% 1%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%0 1 2 3 4 5 6% of youth reportingnumber of exposures
    16. 16. Youth exposure to violence online(except news sites) (n=1,585)71%21%5%2% 0% 1%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%0 1 2 3 4 5% of youth reportingnumber of exposures
    17. 17. Main outcome measure: Seriouslyviolent behaviorAny seriously violent behavior: 7.8% Ever shot/stabbed someone: 1.0% Used a weapon to steal something: 1.3% Hurt someone badly enough to requiremedical attention: 2.4% Forced sexual behavior: 2.5% Started a fire purposefully: 2.6% Hurt an animal purposefully: 3.3%
    18. 18. Odds of youth reporting at least one seriously violentbehavior in the previous year based upon type ofonline violent exposureType of media No, I dont knowwhat this isYes, I’ve been tooneOR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-valueA website, including news-related sites, that showspictures of war, death,terrorism0.6 0.13 1.3 0.35A website that shows cartoons,like stick people or animals,being beat up, hurt, or killed0.9 0.63 2.0 0.03An X-rated or adult websitewhere the main topic is sex0.6 0.06 2.7 0.005
    19. 19. Odds of youth reporting at least one seriously violentbehavior in the previous year based upon type ofonline violent exposureType of media No, I dont knowwhat this isYes, I’ve been tooneOR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-valueA website that shows picturesof dead people or people dying.Some people call these snuffsites.0.5 0.01 2.8 0.02A website that people would calla hate site.0.8 0.38 7.8 <.001A website that shows satanicrituals, such as devil worship orSatan worship0.6 0.04 5.0 0.002
    20. 20. Defining exposure to media violenceWhen you:1. Play video, computer or Internet games2. Watch TV or movies3. Listen to music4. Surf the web, how many of the websites you go to showcartoons, like stick people or animals5. Surf the web, how many of the websites you go to show realpeopleHow many show physical fighting, shooting, or killing?Response options: 1) None/almost none; 2) some; 3) many; 4) almostall/all
    21. 21. Amount of media depicting physicalfighting, shooting, or killingdepictedWhen you: How many show physical fighting, shooting, or killing?Almost /Noneof themSome of them Many of them Almost all/Allof themPlay video, computer orInternet games34.9% (613) 39.3% (584) 16.2% (263) 9.6% (125)Watch TV or movies 14.2% (253) 53.0% (848) 25.5% (361) 7.3% (123)Listen to music 42.5% (704) 41.6% (646) 11.6% (171) 4.4% (64)Surf the Web, howmany of the websitesyou go to showcartoons, like stickpeople or animals57.3% (936) 32.8% (505) 8.6% (118) 1.3% (26)Surf the Web, howmany of the websitesyou go to show realpeople85.2% (1366) 11.3% (175) 2.9% (38) 0.5% (6)
    22. 22. Odds of youth reporting at least one type of seriouslyviolent behavior in the previous year based uponquantity of violent exposures by given media typeMedia Type Some of them Many/Almost all/All ofthemOR p-value OR p-valuePlay video, computer or Internetgames1.7 0.10 3.9 <.001Watch TV or movies 1.9 0.27 4.9 0.004Listen to music 2.8 0.004 5.4 <.001Surf the Web, how many of thewebsites you go to show cartoons,like stick people or animals1.5 0.21 4.4 <.001Surf the Web, how many of thewebsites you go to show real people3.8 <.001 3.9 0.001
    23. 23. SummaryAmong all youth: 42% report exposure to violence on at leastone type of web site in the last year (29% ifnews sites are excluded) News-related sites (24%) and cartoonviolence sites (21%) are the two mostcommon exposures
    24. 24. SummaryThe report of visitingdeath sites (OR = 7.8) andhate sites (OR = 5.0)are the two online exposures most stronglyassociated with concurrent reports ofseriously violent behavior.
    25. 25. SummaryNot knowing about some types of web sites(Satanic sites OR = 0.6)Death sites OR = 0.5)Appears to be protective against concurrentreports of seriously violent behavior
    26. 26. SummaryYouth whose majority of media exposures (i.e.,many/most/all) are violentAre significantly more likely to also reportseriously violent behaviorIrrespective of media type
    27. 27. SummaryMore youth report “none / almost none” ofexposures on the Internet depict violenceThan any other media type examined
    28. 28. Exposure to x-rated material
    29. 29. Defining exposure to x-rated materialIn the last 12 months have you watched an X-ratedmovie at a friend’s house, your house, or in thetheatre where the main topic was sex?In the last 12 months, have you looked at an X-rated magazine, like Playboy, on purpose whereyou knew that the main topic was sex?In the last 12 months, have you gone to or seen anX-rated or “adult” website where the main topic issex?
    30. 30. Defining exposure to violentpornographyIn the last 12 months, have you seen a movie thatshowed a person being physically hurt by anotherperson while they were doing something sexual?Have you ever looked at a magazine that showed aperson being physically hurt by another person whilethey were doing something sexual?When you have gone to or seen an X-rated or adultwebsite, have you ever seen a person beingphysically hurt by another person while they weredoing something sexual?
    31. 31. Frequency of intentional exposure topornographic material (n=1,578)Medium of x-ratedexposureAny exposure ViolentexposureMagazines 13.6% (181) 2.4% (27)Movies 10.7% (150) 3.1% (52)Internet 10.3% (135) 1.5% (21)
    32. 32. Overlap in mediums (n=1578)80%11%5% 4%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%0 1 2 3% of youth reportingnumber of mediums
    33. 33. Main outcome measure: forced sexualbehaviorIn the past 12 months, how many times have youeverKissed, touched, or done anything sexual withanother person when that person did not wantyou to
    34. 34. Odds of sexually aggressivebehavior given report of x-ratedexposure1 1 14.33.31.418.513.429.2110100Magazines Movies InternetMediumOddsratioNo x-rated exposure (reference group)Non-violent exposureViolent exposure***********
    35. 35. SummaryAmong all youth: 20% of youth report intentional exposure to x-rated material Magazines are the most commonly reportedmedium of x-rated exposure
    36. 36. SummaryIntentional exposure to violent x-rated materialappears to be strongly related to concurrentreports of sexually aggressive behavior,irrespective of medium.The associations between non-violent x-ratedmaterial and sexually aggressive behaviorare less clear.
    37. 37. Prevention messages:Are parents getting it?
    38. 38. Research QuestionAre indicators of parental monitoring associatedwith reduced odds of violent mediaexposures?Main outcome measures:Internet  violent web sitesGames  M or AO rated-games are mostfrequently played
    39. 39. Youth-reported parental monitoringof media useYouth-reported aspects of media use Games(n=1,437)Internet(n=1,557)Where do you play most oftenOwn room 32% 16%Common area in the house 51% 59%All other responses 17% 25%Parental involvementHow often do your parents talk to you aboutwhat you’ve seen / done73% 83%RulesNo rules 15% 8%Have to ask permission 38% 47%Time limit 45% 46%Restrictions (ratings, no x-rated sites) 63% 77%Have to finish school work first 60% 58%
    40. 40. Association between Internet parentalmonitoring and exposure to violent web sites1.81.40.970.1110Parent has nevertalked with childabout what they doonlineNo household rulesabout the InternetUse the Internet mostoften in bedroomParental monitoringOddsofexposuretoviolentwebsite*
    41. 41. Association between game parentalmonitoring and violent video game playing1.65.62.7110Parent has never talkedwith child about gamecontentNo household rulesabout gamesPlay games most oftenin bedroomParental monitoringOddsofexposuretoviolentwebsite*******
    42. 42. SummaryAccording to youth, parents tend to monitortheir actions online more than on games.A lack of monitoring of game playing appears tobe related to playing Adult or Mature gamesmost often (which are rated as such becauseof their violent or sexual content).In comparison, this does not appear to be thecase for exposure to violence on the Internet.
    43. 43. Limitations of the dataData are cross-sectional.In no way can we tease out what happenedfirst. Directionality is unknown.
    44. 44. Limitations of the dataRespondents were not observed during thedata collection process.It is possible that: Children were monitored by their parents, or Parents completed the youth survey. 22% of youth reported that someone was in the room closeenough to see the screen when they completed the survey.
    45. 45. Limitations of the dataFindings are relevant to households where both thechild and the adult use the Internet. Generalpopulation findings may yield differentfrequencies.
    46. 46. Discussion: Internet violenceThe majority of youth are not exposed toviolence online.The majority of youth who are exposed, do notalso report seriously violent behavior.Nonetheless, findings suggest that for someyouth, violence online is associated withseriously violent behavior offline.
    47. 47. Discussion: Internet violenceDespite the wide availability of violentexposures online,The Internet does not appear to be a ‘riskmedium’ for most youth: Most youth report “none/almost none” of onlineexposures depict violence The Internet is a less commonly cited source of x-rated material than more traditional sources
    48. 48. Discussion: Exposure to violenceacross mediumsYouth who report that many/most/all of themedia they consume depicts violence aremore likely to concurrently report seriouslyviolent behavioracross ALL types of media examined.
    49. 49. Discussion: PornographyDespite the number of pornographic web sites avialableonline,The Internet does not appear to be a more commonmethod than traditional mediums (i.e., magazines,movies) as a way to access pornography amongadolescents.Irrespective of medium, intentional exposure of violentpornography appears to be related to sexualaggression.
    50. 50. Discussion: Parental preventionAccording to youth, most parents have tried toimplement some monitoring efforts forInternet and game playing activities, includinghousehold rules and discussions with childrenwhat they are seeing in these media.These efforts appear to be especially importantin reducing the likelihood of playing violentvideo games (Mature or Adult Only).
    51. 51. ImplicationsThese data provide a foundation to build uponour understanding of youth exposures toviolence on the Internet, including x-ratedviolence.The findings provide justification for continuedresearch to better understand who may bemore vulnerable to the impact of Internetviolence.
    52. 52. AcknowledgementsAny well-conducted project is a team effort.Ours is no exception. We would like to thankour colleagues who have contributed to theGrowing up with Media project. We are luckyto have such an amazing team, including:Marie Diener West PhDMerle Hamburger PhDDana Markow PhD

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