Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

This is your brain on DOPA


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

This is your brain on DOPA

  1. 1. American Library AssociationThis is your brain on DOPA:THE DATAMichele L. Ybarra MPH PhDInternet Solutions for Kids, Inc.American Library Association, June 26-July 22008, Anaheim, CA* Thank you for your interest in this presentation.  Pleasenote that analyses included herein are preliminary. Morerecent, finalized analyses may be available by contactingCiPHR for further information.
  2. 2. BackgroundMore than 9 in 10 US youth now have Internetaccess (USC Center for the Digital Future, 2006; Lenhart, Rainie, &Lewis, 2001)One in three teens 12-17 engage in some formof content creation in 2006 (Lenhart, Madden, Magill et al.,2007) Girls are more likely to post photos (54% v40%) Boys are more likely to post video (19% v10%)
  3. 3. SNS use is growing across time andincreases by age2% 4%13%19%29% 28%9%26%23%45%52%41%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%10 11 12 13 14 15 16GuwM 2006GuwM 2007
  4. 4. RoadmapToday we will talk about: Experiences: Internet harassment and bullying Unwanted sexual solicitation Exposures: Unintentional and intentional access topornography Access of other violent web site content
  5. 5. Brief Description of the data Growing up with Media 1,588 households Online Survey: Baseline survey in 2006, 14-monthfollow up in 2007 Youth between the ages of 10-15 years Youth Internet Safety Surveys 1 and 2 1,500 households Random digit dial telephone survey: First survey in2000, follow up survey in 2005 Youth between the ages of 10-17 years Conducted by Dr. David Finkelhor and colleagues at UNHCCRC
  6. 6. Online experiences of youth:Internet harassment&CyberBullying
  7. 7. Internet harassmentWhat Youth Said… Boy, 14: “I have my own … website and I havemy own page on it and someone postedsomething bad about me on it.” Boy, 15: “I was playing a first person shootergame and unintentionally offended this personwho became very serious and began to threatenme by saying if this was real life he wouldphysically harm me. [It happened because he]was unable to accept this was just a game.”Quotes taken from the Youth Internet Safety Survey – 2 report (Wolak, Finkelhor,Mitchell, 2006)
  8. 8. Internet harassment: DefinitionsDepends on the survey.. YISS1 & YISS2 Rude or mean comments (YISS1 only) Felt worried or threatened because someone wasbothering or harassing them online Someone has used the internet to threaten or embarrassthem by posting or sending information for others to see Growing up with Media Rude or mean comments Threatening or aggressive comments Spread rumors about youth, whether they were true or not
  9. 9. Internet harassment:Prevalence rates over time From YISS1 to YISS2, the12-month prevalence rateof Internet harassment increased from 6% to 9%(Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2006). In the Growing up with Media Survey, 34% reportedharassment at baseline, 34% at follow-up Frequent harassment: 8% reported being harassedmonthly at baseline, 8% at follow-up Continuity of harassed youth over time 20% reported harassment at baseline and follow-up 13% reported harassment at baseline only 14% reported harassment at follow-up only .
  10. 10. Internet harassment: Who is theharasser?Based upon data from the YISS2 (Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak,Finkelhor, 2006). 8%: Preadolescent (10-12 years old) 51%: Adolescent (13-17 years old) 21%: Young adult (18-25 years old) 2% Adult (26-40 years): 2% 18% Don’t know: 18%The majority (59%) of harassment comesfrom other minors
  11. 11. Impact of Internet harassmentAbout one in three youth targeted byInternet harassment report feelingvery/extremely upset (or afraid) becauseof the incident: 30% in YISS-1 38% in YISS-2 25% in GuwM (wave 2)
  12. 12. How do rates compare online andoffline? (GuwM)69%87%94%89% 87%27%11% 10% 12%5% 2% 2% 1%6%1%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%School Internet Cell phones Community Other placesMonthly +Once / a few timesNever
  13. 13. Online experiences of youth:Unwanted sexual solicitation
  14. 14. Defining unwanted sexual solicitationon the Internet Someone tried to get me to talk about sex onlinewhen I did not want to. Someone online asked me for sexual informationabout myself when I did not want to tell the person,e.g., really personal questions, like what my bodylooks like or sexual things I have done. Someone asked me to do something sexual when Iwas online that I did not want to do.
  15. 15. Prevalence rates of unwanted sexualsolicitation across time and ages2%8%14% 14%23%25% 25%21%0%5%9%10%15%18%19%15%6% 6%12%13%23% 24%5%13%10%18%22%7%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17YISS-1YISS-2GuwM W1GuwM W2
  16. 16. Impact of unwanted sexual solicitationAcross studies, about one in three solicitedyouth report feeling very/extremely upset(or afraid) because of the incident: YISS1: 26% YISS2: 31% GuwM: 39% (at Wave 2)
  17. 17. How do rates compare online andoffline? (GuwM)83% 87%14% 10%2% 3%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%School InternetMonthly +Once / a few timesNever
  18. 18. Online exposures of youth:Unintentional exposure to x-ratedmaterial
  19. 19. Demographic profile of youthreporting unwanted exposure to pornAmong 1,501 10-17 year olds surveyed in 2005YISS-2:34% reported an unwanted exposure (40%reported ANY exposure) 54% were boys Most (76%) were older youth (14-17)Wolak, Finkelhor and Mitchell, 2006
  20. 20. Demographic profile of youthreporting unwanted exposure to pornSimilarly, in the UK… 57% of 9-19 year olds who use the Internetweekly have been exposed to pornography. As age increases, the likelihood of exposurealso increases: 21% of 9-11 year olds, 58% 12-15 year olds, and 76% of 16-17 year oldsLivingstone & Bober, 2005
  21. 21. Where did the exposure happen? YISS2: Wolak, Finkelhor and Mitchell, 2006 83% happened while surfing the web 40% occurred when doing online searches 17% clicked on links within sites 12% were from misspelled web addresses 18% came in the form of an email or IM In the UK:Livingstone & Bober, 2005 Surfing the web: 38% from a pop-up 36% accidentally founds themselves on a website 25% received pornographic junk mail
  22. 22. What does it mean to be “unwanted”21% in YISS2 said they could tell it was x-ratedbefore entering (Wolak, Finkelhor, Mitchell, 2006) Perhaps they didn’t understand the term “x-rated” untilthey *saw* it Perhaps they saw a different type (e.g., moreextreme) of pornography then they were expecting
  23. 23. Other important event characteristics There is significant overlap of youth reportingunwanted and wanted exposure YISS-2 respondents reporting unwantedexposure are 2.8 times more likely to reportwanted exposure than those not reportingunwanted exposure to sexual material online. 2% report going back to the web site(Wolak, Finkelhor, Mitchell, 2006)
  24. 24. Online exposures of youth:Intentional exposure to x-ratedmaterial
  25. 25. Frequency of intentional exposure(GuwM)10%11%13% 13%10%0%2%4%6%8%10%12%14%16%18%20%2006 (n=1588 10-15 yo) 2007 (n=1206 11-16 yo)InternetMagazinesMovies
  26. 26. Intentional exposure to x-ratedmaterial across age and time0% 0%2%6%10% 10%12%14%1% 2%3%10%12%17%22%19%1%7%6%8%22%13%1%6%10%18%13%12%0%5%10%15%20%25%10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17YISS-1 (2000)YISS-2 (2005)GuwM W1 (2006)GuwM W2 (2007)
  27. 27. Demographic profile of youth lookingat internet porn (GuwM)Among 1,206 11-16 year old youth in Oct-Dec, 2007: 80% male (OR = 4.2, p<.001) 14.4 years old (OR = 1.3, p<.001)How did they hear about the site? (top 5): From a friend: 53% Search engine: 30% Another web site: 29% Typed in an address to see what would come up: 22% Pop-up ad: 22%
  28. 28. Online exposures of youth:Exposure to violent web sites
  29. 29. Frequency of exposure to violent websites (GuwM)2% 4%51%42%47%54%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%Hate sites Death sitesYesNoI dont know what youre talking about
  30. 30. Frequency of exposure to violent websites (GuwM)22%18%49%46%29%36%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%News sites Violent cartoon sitesYesNoI dont know what youre talking about
  31. 31. Final thoughts The majority of youth who use theInternet have positive experiences andreport that none of these types ofexposures occur. The data do not support the assertion thatyouth are more likely to have negativeexperiences (i.e., sexually solicited,harassed) or exposures (i.e., access x-rated material) online than offline.
  32. 32. Implications for professionals workingwith youth We need to do more to provide support andintervention for youth who are targeted by peeraggression, both online and offline. We need to focus on the child, not the onlineapplication. Most youth do not operate in a ‘vacuum’. Whatare we doing to treat children more globally andprovide services that address all of their needs?
  33. 33. AcknowledgementsThe Growing up with Media survey was supported by CooperativeAgreement number U49/CE000206 from the Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC). The contents of this presentationare solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarilyrepresent the official views of the CDC.I’d also like to acknowledge and thank Dr. David Finkelhor andcolleagues at the University of New Hampshire’s Crimes againstChildren Research Center for their ground breaking work andcontributions to the field with the YISS and YISS-2.