Bullying & cyber bullying


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Difference between traditional bullying and cyber-bullying

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Bullying & cyber bullying

  2. 2. content • What is bullying • Kinds of bullying • Cyber bullying • Why Cyber Bully is serious? • Statistics and Facts on Cyber Bullying • Effects of Cyber Bullying • Where does cyber bullying take place? • What's so different about cyber bullying? • Cyber bullying Detection • Commercial software for monitoring chat • References
  3. 3. What is Bullying?  Bullying is when someone or a group of people with more power repeatedly and intentionally causes hurt or harm to another person or group of people who feel helpless to respond. Bullying can continue over time, is often hidden from adults and will probably continue if no action is taken.  Bullying is…...  Calling someone hurtful and derogatory names  Spreading lies and bad rumors about someone  Being mean and teasing someone  Hitting, punching, shoving, spitting and physically hurting someone  Social exclusion or isolation ... not including someone is a group  Getting certain kids or teens to "gang up" on others  Having money or other things taken or damaged  Being threatened or being forced to do things
  4. 4. Bullying…… Cont…  Bullying also can happen on-line or electronically. Cyberbullying is when kids or teens bully each other using the Internet, mobile phones or other cyber technology. This can include:  Sending mean text, e-mail, or instant messages  Posting nasty picture or messages about others in blogs or on Web sites  Using someone else's user name to spread rumors or lies about someone  Stealing someone's password and spreading rumors about someone else making it seem like that person is the Cyberbully. [1] Bullying isn't…..  single episodes of social rejection or dislike  single episode acts of nastiness or spite  random acts of aggression or intimidation  mutual arguments, disagreements or fights.  These actions can cause great distress. However, they're not examples of bullying unless someone is deliberately and repeatedly doing them to you. [2]
  5. 5. Kinds of Bullying  Bullying comes In various forms:  Physical Bullying is the most obvious form of intimidation and can consist of kicking, hitting, biting, pinching, hair pulling, and making threats. A bully may threaten to punch you if you don't give up your money, your lunch, etc.  Verbal Bullying often accompanies physical behavior. This can include name calling, spreading rumors, and persistent teasing.  Emotional Intimidation is closely related to these two types of bullying. A bully may deliberately exclude you from a group activity such as a party or school outing.  Racist Bullying can take many forms: making racial slurs, spray painting graffiti, mocking the victim's cultural customs, and making offensive gestures.  Sexual Bullying is unwanted physical contact or abusive comments.  Cyberbullying is one or a group of kids or teens using electronic means via computers and mobile phones (emails, Web sites, chat rooms, instant messaging and texting) to torment, threaten, harass, humiliate, embarrass or target another kid or teen
  6. 6. Definition of Cyberbullying Also known as: ‘Electronic Bullying’ & ‘Online Social Cruelty  According to the EU Commission, “Cyber bullying is repeated verbal or psychological harassment carried out by an individual or group against others. It can take many forms: mockery, insults, threats, rumors, gossip, "happy slapping", disagreeable comments or slander.  Interactive online services (e-mail, chat rooms, instant messaging) and mobile phones have given bullies new opportunities and ways in which they can abuse their victims.“ [3]  In the United States, The National Crime Prevention Council defines cyber-bullying as “the process of using the Internet, cell phones or other devices to send or post text or images intended to hurt or embarrass another person”.[4]  Cyber bully or the use of technology to harm others has been referred to as the ‘Dark Side’ of the technology. [5]
  7. 7. Differences BULLYING  DIRECT  Occurs on school property  Poor relationships with teachers  Fear retribution Physical: Hitting, Punching & Shoving Verbal: Teasing, Name calling & Gossip Nonverbal: Use of gestures & Exclusion [8] CYBERBULLYING  ANONYMOUS  Occurs off school property  Good relationships with teachers  Fear loss of technology privileges  Further under the radar than bullying  Emotional reactions cannot be determined [7]
  8. 8. Why Cyber Bully is serious?  Firstly, the perpetrator intends to hurt the target intentionally, whether emotionally or physically.  Second, there is an imbalance of power between the perpetrator and the victim. This is easily identifiable for traditional bullying but is harder to define when it comes to the online world.  Third, there is always an element of repetition or continued threat of further aggression.  What can some of the consequences be?  For the victim, studies point to many serious consequences:  Negative emotional responses such as fear, anger, sadness, frustration, powerlessness,  Lower self-esteem and confidence, depression;  Behavioral responses such as isolating oneself, lack of concentration, lower school results, missing school, being pressured into delinquency, revenge and retaliation against the cyber bully or someone else,  Extreme responses such as self-harm, attempts of suicide or suicide
  9. 9. Statistics and Facts on Cyber Bullying  Nearly 43% of kids have been bullied online. 1 in 4 has had it happen more than once.  70% of students report seeing frequent bullying online.  Over 80% of teens use a cell phone regularly, making it the most common medium for cyber bullying.  68% of teens agree that cyber bullying is a serious problem.  81% of young people think bullying online is easier to get away with than bullying in person.  90% of teens who have seen social-media bullying say they have ignored it. 84% have seen others tell cyber bullies to stop.  Only 1 in 10 victims will inform a parent or trusted adult of their abuse.  Girls are about twice as likely as boys to be victims and perpetrators of cyber bullying.  About 58% of kids admit someone has said mean or hurtful things to them online. More than 4 out 10 say it has happened more than once.  About 75% have visited a website bashing another student.  Bullying victims are 2 to 9 times more likely to consider committing suicide. [19]
  10. 10. Effects of Cyber Bullying • Lose self-esteem, self-confidence, and sense of security. • Depression, anxiety, nervousness, and eating disorders. • Affects a student’s performance and attendance at school. • Experience mental and health problems. • Damages a student’s reputation and marginalizes them in certain groups. • Leads to suicidal thoughts and suicide. • Victim retaliation against the perpetrator. • Causes a life long affect to the victim (s). [10]
  11. 11. Where does cyber bullying take place?  Technology and the internet change at a very fast pace. A decade ago, social networks were virtually unheard of, and most cyber bullying happened in chat rooms or even via email.  Nowadays, more and more bullying happens via social networks and video sharing platforms. Instant messaging and texting remain "popular" means of cyber bullying while other trends like "intimidating phone calls or hoax phone calls" have become much less prevalent. [13]  Cyberbullying also happens in the online gaming environment and in currently popular interactive sites such as Formspring and ChatRoulette.
  12. 12. What's so different about cyberbullying?  Cyber bullying can happen 24/7 at any time, any day and especially any place (at the victim's home for instance, removing any feeling of safety and security even in his own house).  The potential audience for humiliating or hurtful images, texts, videos… is huge and the dissemination is virtually instantaneous.  Deleting the hurtful material can be difficult if not impossible.  The cyber bully has the feeling that he can remain anonymous and it can be very hard to clearly identify him/her without reasonable doubt. Sometimes, the cyber bully doesn't even know the victim and vice versa!  Cyber bullying can be harsher due to the fact that the bully cannot see the immediate reaction of the victim and experience empathy, guilt or be convinced that he/she has taken it too far. The victim can also suffer greatly by no knowing exactly how many people including classmates have seen a hurtful material and what their reaction was.
  13. 13. Cyberbullying Detection  Recently, in 2009 the Content Analysis for the Web 2.0 (CAW 2.0) workshop was formed  The CAW 2.0 organizers devised a shared task to deal with online harassment, and also developed a dataset to be used for research in this area.   Only one submission was received for the misbehavior detection task. A brief summary of that paper follows.  Yin, et. Al [11] define harassment as communication in which a user intentionally annoys another user in a web community.  In [Yin et al. (2009)] detection of harassment is presented as a classification problem with two classes: positive class for posts which contain harassment and negative class for posts which do not contain harassment.  The authors combine a variety of methods to develop the attributes for input to their classifier. They use standard term weighting techniques, such as TFIDF to extract index terms and give appropriate weight to each term.
  14. 14. Cyberbullying Detection Contd….  They also develop a rule-based system for capturing sentiment features. For example,  A post that contains foul language and the word ‘you’ (which can appear in many forms in online communication) is likely to be an insult directed at someone, and therefore could be perceived as a bullying post.  After extracting relevant features, the authors developed a SVM classifier for detecting bullying behavior in three of the six datasets provided by the CAW 2.0 conference organizers.  Their experiment results show that including the contextual and sentiment features improves the classification over the local weighting (TFIDF) baseline for all three datasets. The maximum recall was achieved recall .595.  Precision was best when the dataset contained more harassment .417. Overall the F-measure ranged from .298 to .442, so there is much room for improvement.   A random chance baseline would be less than 1%, however, so the experimental results show that detection of cyberbullying is possible.
  15. 15. Commercial software for monitoring chat  Many commercial products profess to provide parents with the tools to protect their children from Internet predators and cyberbullies.  Some of them are…..  eBlasterTM records everything that occurs on a monitored computer and forwards the information to a designated recipient, but does not provide a mechanism for filtering or analyzing all the data it collects [13].  Net NannyTM can also record everything, and offers multiple levels of protection for different users [15].  IamBigBrother captures everything on the computer including chats, instant messages, email, and websites [14].  IamBigBrother can operate in stealth mode that cannot be detected by users. Users / children also cannot avoid IamBigBrother by clearing cache or history.  Kidswatch Internet Security allows parents to control their childrens’ access to inappropriate web content and sends email notifications to parents when their children try to visit blocked or restricted sites.  Kidwatch providies information about known sex offenders by providing the locations of sex offenders in the user’s neighborhood.
  16. 16. Commercial software for monitoring chat Contd…  Similar to other control programs, the Safe Eyes Parental Control program limits access to restricted sites that fall into 35 predetermined categories of website content [16]. The program also prevents children from accidentally finding inappropriate sites.  CyberPatrol provides filtering and monitoring features that can use the company’s presets or can be customized by parents [17]. Several features that distinguish this program are the ability to customize settings for child, young teen, mature teen, or adult and the ability to block objectionable words and phrases commonly used by cyberbullies and predators. Parents receive weekly and daily reports on web pages visited and length of visits.  Bsecure [18] that blocks offensive Websites from users’ computers and reporting options similar to other programs, but this program also offers an Application Control that allows parents to control music sharing, file sharing and instant messaging programs.  McAfee and Norton are primary known as anti-virus and security software products. Both now offer parental control built in as well.  Unfortunately neither product provides specific protection against predation or cyberbullying.
  17. 17. References 1. http://www.stompoutbullying.org/index.php/information-and-resources/about-bullying-and- cyberbullying /what-bullying/# 2. http://www.ncab.org.au/whatisbullying/ 3. http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/sip/projects/centres/practices/info_campaigni 4. http://definitions.uslegal.com/c/cyber-bullying/ 5. Campbell, M.A. (2005). Cyber bullying: An old problem in a new guise? Australian Journal 6. of Guidance and Counselling, 15(1), 68–76. 7. Ibid; Sameer Hinduja, Ph.D., Justin W. Patchin, Ph.D.,"Identification, Prevention and Response",http://www.cyberbullying.us/Cyberbullying_Identification_Prevention_Response_Fact_S heet.pdf 8. www.stopbullyingnow.hrsa.gov 9. McKenna & Bargh, 2004; Ybarra & Mitchell, 2004, 10. Teach Today. (2012). What are the effects of cyber bullying?. Retrieved from http://www.teachtoday.eu/en/Teacher-advice/cyber bullying.aspx 11. Bsecure n.d. http://www.bsafehome.com/Products/Family.aspx 12. CAW2.0 n.d. http://caw2.barcelonamedia.org/. 13. eBlasterTM 2008. http://www.eblaster.com/ 14. IamBigBrother n.d. http://www.iambigbrother.com/. 15. Net NannyTM 2008. http://www.netnanny.com/. 16. nternetSafety n.d. http://www.internetsafety.com 17. CyberPatrol n.d. http://www.cyberpatrol.com/family.asp. 18. Bsecure n.d. http://www.bsafehome.com/Products/Family.aspx 19. Text mining application and theory, chapter no. 9
  18. 18. The End