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Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option
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Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strong potential option

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The tourism industry is an important contributor to Haiti’s foreign exchange earnings and has always been on the agenda of the government’s plan to develop the country. The political unrest has …

The tourism industry is an important contributor to Haiti’s foreign exchange earnings and has always been on the agenda of the government’s plan to develop the country. The political unrest has however enabled the DMO to implement all the different strategies suggested. Entrepreneurship in the tourism sector is one of the latest suggestions to develop the tourism sector.
Not many academic papers have been written about Haiti as a destination (Séraphin 2010 and 2011; Dore 2010; Thernil 2004; Theodat 2004; Dupont 2003). ‘Bonjour blanc, a journey through Haiti’ (Thomson, 2004), is as far as we are concerned one of the very few novels or travel writings about this destination. This article contributes to the body of meta-literature by focusing on guest houses in the countryside as a way forward for the locals to fully benefit from the tourism industry.
Starting with a review of academic papers on entrepreneurship, this article adopts a progressive approach successively presenting the place of the tourism industry within the service sector in Haiti and then the opportunities and limit for the creation of guest houses in the countryside.
Methodologically, this article builds on academic critical literature on entrepreneurship and countryside tourism (primary sources). We are then going to carry out some field research to identify the opportunities available for MSTEs in the hospitality sector (guest houses) in the countryside.

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  • 1. Active Countryside TourismInternational Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH) 23-25. 01.2013, Leeds, United Kingdom Leeds Metropolitan University, Civic Quarter, Rose Bowl Session 5: ‘Stakeholders and tourism development’Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery andsustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. Theguest houses as a strong potential optionDr Hugues Séraphin PhD PGCE M.ALecturer, Event Management and Marketing (The University of Winchester)Associate researcher CREDDI-LEAD EA 2438 GUYANE (Université des Antilles Guyane)The University of Winchester, Faculty of Business, Law and SportWest Downs Campus, Winchester, SO22 4NR (England)hugues.seraphin@winchester.ac.ukMobile: 0044 7878425783 1
  • 2. Active Countryside Tourism International Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH) 23-25. 01.2013, Leeds, United Kingdom Leeds Metropolitan University, Civic Quarter, Rose Bowl Session 5: ‘Stakeholders and tourism development’Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery and sustainabledevelopment of the countryside in Haiti. The guest houses as a strongpotential optionDr Hugues Séraphin PhD PGCE M.ALecturer, Event Management and Marketing (The University of Winchester)Associate researcher CREDDI-LEAD EA 2438 GUYANE (Université des Antilles Guyane)The University of Winchester, Faculty of Business, Law and SportWest Downs Campus, Winchester, SO22 4NR (England)hugues.seraphin@winchester.ac.ukMobile: 0044 7878425783Abstract The tourism industry is an important contributor to Haiti’s foreign exchange earningsand has always been on the agenda of the government’s plan to develop the country. Thepolitical unrest has however enabled the DMO to implement all the different strategiessuggested. Entrepreneurship in the tourism sector is one of the latest suggestions to developthe tourism sector. Not many academic papers have been written about Haiti as a destination (Séraphin2010 and 2011; Dore 2010; Thernil 2004; Theodat 2004; Dupont 2003). ‘Bonjour blanc, ajourney through Haiti’ (Thomson, 2004), is as far as we are concerned one of the very fewnovels or travel writings about this destination. This article contributes to the body of meta-literature by focusing on guest houses in the countryside as a way forward for the locals tofully benefit from the tourism industry. Starting with a review of academic papers on entrepreneurship, this article adopts aprogressive approach successively presenting the place of the tourism industry within theservice sector in Haiti and then the opportunities and limit for the creation of guest houses inthe countryside. Methodologically, this article builds on academic critical literature onentrepreneurship and countryside tourism (primary sources). We are then going to carry outsome field research to identify the opportunities available for MSTEs in the hospitality sector(guest houses) in the countryside.KeywordsCountryside tourism, entrepreneurs, MSTEs, opportunities, Haiti 2
  • 3. Active Countryside TourismInternational Centre for Research in Events, Tourism and Hospitality (ICRETH) 23-25. 01.2013, Leeds, United Kingdom Leeds Metropolitan University, Civic Quarter, Rose Bowl Session 5: ‘Stakeholders and tourism development’Entrepreneurship in tourism as a driver for recovery andsustainable development of the countryside in Haiti. Theguest houses as a strong potential option 3
  • 4. 1. INTRODUCTIONThe tourism industry is one of the world’s largest industries (Cooper and Hall, 2008: 252)and also the fastest growing of the market (WTTC). Worldwide, tourism is ranked secondhighest revenue-generating industry next to the oil industry (Rathore, 2012).Rural tourism that can be dated back to the mid-19th century at a time when people wanted toget relaxed through outdoor activities (Ju, 2011) can bring various benefits such as foreignexchange, employment, higher government revenues and the transformation of agricultureinto a modern service industry (Rathore, 2012). Rural tourism can therefore be an opening fordeveloping countries (Grandoit, 2005). In this study we are going to consider morespecifically the guest houses in the countryside as tourists are very keen to buy ‘authenticity’(Séraphin, 2011). ‘Tourists want more than bed-and-breakfast. They want something youcan’t pay for – getting to know people...I am offering myself and my home’ Stringer (1981).The Caribbean, a region that is comprised mostly of developing countries, has benefitedtremendously from the tourism industry (Charlot, XXXX). Haiti used to be the most populartourist destination in the Caribbean between 1940e – 1960e and as such attracted aninternational jet set. Mick Jagger, Charles Addams, Jackie Kennedy, etc. were among thosewho popularised the country. Nowadays, Haiti is mainly known as one of the poorest anddangerous country on earth. It is also now a country with a very low ‘touristicity’ (Theodat,2004). When Ian Thomson went to Haiti in 1990, to write Bonjour blanc, a journey throughHaiti (Thomson, 2004), Jean-Bertrand Aristide was about to become the country’s firstdemocratically elected president since Jean-Francois Duvalier in 1957. Haiti was also at thisperiod the less visited country of the Caribbean mainly due to the high level of insecurity(Séraphin, 2012b).With an estimated unemployment rate between 70 and 80 percent, the recovery strategies ofthe government is to focus on sectors that can provide employment opportunities for Haitianswith basic job skills. In its Action Plan for National Recovery and Development of Haiti, theHaitian government has identified tourism as a critical economic activity that can contributeto recovery (International Institute of Tourism Studies, 2010). The tourism sector is at thebasis of many projects of the government. The current Minister of Tourism, StephanieBalmir-Villedrouin has already obtained support from the General Secretary of the WTO, MrTaleb Rifai1; from some airlines like Air Caraïbes; from some T.O like Nomade; from sometour guides like Lonely Planet, and many other organisations either public or private2. As aresult of the supports, the Minister of Tourism is fully committed to the long-term tourismdevelopment of Haiti.Since The Port-au-Prince Declaration (2011) put forward the creation of small and microenterprises (SMEs) as one of the seven key pillars for growth in the tourism industry in Haiti,the current tourism administration is ready to experience new business models. Even if11 Balmir-Villedrouin, S. (2012). Newsletter, Ministère du Tourisme Haïti (5e édition)2 Page Facebook de Stéphanie Balmir-Villedrouin qui est également la page officielle du Ministère du Tourismed’Haïti. 4
  • 5. Séraphin (2012a) considers entrepreneurship in the tourism sector as the way forward forHaiti, he also highlights some of the challenges like the fact that the poor don’t have access tothe credit and savings services provided by banks.2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDYThe Haitian government is currently committed towards developing tourism in Haiti usingentrepreneurship as a tool. For Manyara and Jones (2005), micro and small scale enterprisescan increase the participation of the poor in the tourism industry. Rogerson (2003) based onhis research in South Africa backs up Manyara and Jones (2005) as he argues that it is onlythrough small enterprises that rural people can participate in tourism. Literature also showsthat entrepreneurship but has a multiplier effect on local economies (Schumpeter, 1934).In a one hand, rural tourism has turned into a suitable way to enhance economic advantageand employment (Egbali et al., 2011). In the other hand, tourists want to know the peoplethey are visiting (Stringer, 1981). Tourism (rural tourism) and entrepreneurship (guesthouses) seem to be a suitable recipe for the development and sustainability of tourism inHaiti. Nature-centred tourism, such as ecotourism, should be developed alongside of orinstead of mass tourism in Haiti (Thermil, 2004). That’s another reason to write aboutcountryside tourism in Haiti and on the potential of guest houses.The purposes of the study are as follow:(a) Recognising the potentials of tourism, entrepreneurship and rural tourism in Haiti(b) Reaching the means of increasing the number of locals involved in rural tourism3. LITERATURE REVIEWEntrepreneurship plays an important role in economic growth, innovation and in povertyalleviation (Landes, 1998). Despite the fact the development of entrepreneurship in tourismcould be a way to fully involved and benefit the local population and probably enable thetourism industry to account for a higher percentage of the GDP in those developing countries,it is the most understudied economic phenomenon today (Lingelbach, 2005).Michel (2000) claims tourism can fully benefit a destination, only if the locals are fullyinvolved in the planning and development of the industry. Based on literature,entrepreneurship in tourism seems to be a serious contender to the involvement of the localsin the tourism sector and in some cases to help them to improve their standard of living. Infact, according to Manyara and Jones (2005), micro and small scale enterprises can increasethe participation of the poor in the tourism industry. Rogerson (2003) based on his research inSouth Africa backs up Manyara and Jones (2005) as he argues that it is only through smallenterprises that rural people can participate in tourism. Moreover, when formal tourismenterprises are owned by locals, there is a high likelihood of purchase of local supplies, 5
  • 6. meaning other sectors of the local economy are going to benefit from this activity Shah(2000). For tourism to be beneficial in terms of income generations, economic growth,poverty reduction, and improving rural livelihoods, it has to be linked to local economiessuch as agriculture and MSEs (Wanhill, 2000).Entrepreneurship in rural tourism seems to be a possible option for Haiti in its attempt todevelop its tourism industry, reduce the high rate of unemployment and improve the standardof living of the locals. In Haiti there are many small and micro businesses, but most of themare unofficial meaning they do not abide to any law (Lautier, 2004). This illegality is thenorm in Haiti. This is what De Soto (1994) designated as the ‘extralegal norm’.Din (1992) also noted that the receiving community may not possess the capacity toappreciate the opportunities. Kristen and Rogerson (2002) noted the same situation in theirresearch on tourism SMEs in South Africa where there is a limited involvement of local blackentrepreneurs due to their limited resources and difficulties to secure credit from financialinstitutions and also because of limited and inadequate training and education. This situationis not peculiar to developing countries as the contemporary tourism industry is dominated byMSEs and particularly micro-businesses (Buhalis and Cooper, 1998; Cooper and Hall, 2008).4. OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE FOR LOCALS TO SET UP THEIR OWNBUSINESS: TWO CASE STUDIESa) The MEMA project (Public sector/NGO)The MEMA project which stands for ‘Mon Entreprise Mon Avenir’ (in English ‘My businessmy future’) is an Haitian business accelerator funded by the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund aimingat developing entrepreneurship in Haiti. The MEMA project aims to help those entrepreneursby providing them the required training, financial (10000 USD for each shortlisted applicant)and legal assistance to turn their venture into financially profitable businesses. The MEMAproject also aims to create institutions to support the new entrepreneurs via the creation ofnetworks of businessmen and women; consultants; business angels, etc. The projectsubmitted can be in the following sectors: agro-industry; culture and hospitality; service forcorporate; sustainable energy and construction; factories. Three criteria are used to short listthe projects: Sustainability of the project (the project must show some evidence of potentialdevelopment in terms of job creation and generation of income); Innovation (the project mustbring something new to the country or make some products or services available to a largeraudience); inclusive (the project must involve all the categories of the population with lowincome either as suppliers, customers or retailers)3. b) The Digicel Entrepreneur of the Year Programme and the Award Ceremony: A privatesector initiative3 http://memahaiti.org/qparticiper.php 6
  • 7. The aim of the Digicel Entrepreneur of the Year Program is to build new economicfoundations for Haiti by identifying, rewarding and cultivating the new business leaders ofthe future. The awards are a first step towards giving local business leaders, men and women,a meaningful stake in a thoroughly regenerated, newly modernised, enterprise-driven Haiti.Each year, 96 finalists are chosen from across the country’s four regions to participate inregional finals. A winner in each category is announced and then the overall title awarded toone. In 2012, the program nominations have been invited from across the following sevencategories: Education, Tourism and Culture; Environment; Food and Agriculture; Industry;Services; Emerging Entrepreneurs; Social Award: Woman in Business Community Award.Nominations are evaluated according to strict criteria, which include the company’s strategicdirection, its financial performance, its record of innovation, and, importantly, its communityimpact. All the Entrepreneur of the Year judges have achieved success in their own right andpossess the skills and integrity that are necessary to recognise and select outstandingentrepreneurial individuals who have epitomised the entrepreneurial spirit. The month priorto award’s night the 24 national finalists are given the opportunity to engage in an all-expensepaid three-day Executive Education Program. The three-day CEO Retreat includes training inleadership, innovation and strategy in an effort to help them to better grow their enterpriseinto a large, international organisation, which will ultimately elevate Haiti. This also gives theopportunity for the finalist to network with peers.c) Findings and discussionThe MEMA project and the Digicel Entrepreneur of the Year Programme are two initiativesthat show the emphasis on the development of entrepreneurship in Haiti as a vector ofpotential development for the country. Both projects are also claiming to be inclusive.However, applicants for both projects are supposed to build up a comprehensive portfolio tobe submitted. If we consider the fact that 50% of the population in Haiti is illiterate and 65%of this same population lives below the threshold of poverty (Roc, 2008), it is highly likelythat the applicants for the two projects will be from the middle class called in Haiti‘Bourgeoisie’ or even from the ‘elite’ as the majority of the population does not have theskills and knowledge to produce the required document to apply for the projects. As webelieve the original idea of both projects were to have all the categories of the population andparticularly the less fortunate to participate, it is therefore important for the government andprivate sector to rethink the ‘assessment method’ as a limited part of the population for themoment can produce and provide the required document. Last but not least, if initiating suchproject can be viewed as being good in terms of self actualisation of some social categories ofthe population, it is also important for the government and the financial market in Haiti toconsider poor people running micro and small-scale enterprises as potential clients. Theliberalisation of the financial market can help to maximise the positive impacts ofentrepreneurship development programmes like MEMA or Digicel programme particularly ifthe short listed candidates are poor. 7
  • 8. Financial sector modernisation in some developing countries has been pushed in recent yearsthrough so-called Microfinance Institutions (MFIs).They deliver credit to micro and smallenterprises and contributes to poverty reduction by providing poor people access to financialservices (Van der Sterren, 2008). A well functioning financial sector contributes positively tothe level of economic growth and have pro-poor effects only when poor have access to creditand savings services provided by banks (Beck et al., 2004). The fact that in Haiti poor peopleare not considered as clients in a way limit the potential positive impact of the variousinitiatives. Entrepreneurs in emerging markets rely heavily on informal sources of finance tostart their business (Bygrave, 2003). Limited personal and family savings and an absence offinancial innovation severely limit the growth prospects of promising start-ups in developingcountries (Lingelbach, 2005). Tourism is a service industry and benefits strongly fromliberalised and open economies (Van der Sterren, 2008).5. POTENTIALS AND LIMITS OF RURAL TOURISM AND GUEST HOUSES INHAITIa) ObjectiveRural tourism is a form of tourism that can bring cash rapidly and directly to rural people inHaiti (Thermil, 2004). It is also a valuable strategy because of its low risks and costscompared to other tourism projects (Egbali et al., 2010). In looking to develop tourism in away that is more compatible with the rural context we have decided to focus on the guesthouses as they are most of the time converted family homes (Jayawardena, XXXX).Our objective is to show that running guest houses in rural areas of Haiti can be a solution toomany current problems in Haiti like the reduction of shanty areas around Port-au-Prince andencourage those who left the capital to the countryside after the earthquake to stay, thusreducing the pressure on the capital and its surroundings. As Lewis (1998) and Pelligrino(2000) explained, locals only migrate to cities in their quest to improve their quality of life.Also, economic opportunities from tourism development encourage natives to return to theirhomes and non-natives to seize this opportunity to establish themselves in local areas(Paviagua, 2002).Last but not least, because the business of running countryside guest houses rely heavily ofthe natural environment, developing this type of businesses should encourage the locals totake great care of their environment and reforest the countryside.b) Research methodology and designIn Haiti’s countryside some community based tourism (CBT) has developed as activeparticipants in the process of development of rural tourism in their areas. In this study wehave considered one CBT: the Association of the Peasants of Vallue which is first andforemost an Haitian NGO involved in rural development in Vallue since 1989. Thisassociation has conducted several projects with the local community, for example, schoolprograms, soil conservation, reforestation and food processing. This Association has 8
  • 9. introduced an ecotourism development program (Thermil, 2004). Efforts have been made bythis CBT to develop alternative forms of tourism such as eco-tourism, agro-tourism whereguest houses play a pivotal role. This form of tourism provides a unique experience fortourists who may be desirous of experiencing rural life and meeting and interacting with thelocal people (KPMG, 1996; Stringer, 1981).In terms of method we are going to use a qualitative approach. The Association of thePeasants of Vallue will be sued as a case study. We are starting with the assumption that thishospitality service offered by this CBT has a rather positive impact overall on the area ofVallue. Also, in order to identify the challenge of running guest houses in Haiti, we are goingto analyse the feedback of visitors who went to Haiti and stayed in guest houses. Our sourceof information is the well established website TripAdvisor. Eleven (11) name ofaccommodation have the terminology ‘guest house’ in their name. We only considered thoseone to make sure that no other type of accommodation were falsely taken into account. Eachguest house has been graded from 1 to 4 (1: excellent / 2: Very good / 3: Average / 4: Poor /5: Terrible) using the feedback of the visitors. The results of the study will also enable us toidentify the key issues with the guest houses in Haiti.Séraphin (2012) while carrying similar research using the travel writing ‘Bonjour blanc, ajourney through Haiti’ (Thomson, 2004), has identified key issues in the hospitality sector.The key issue was the poor standard of the accommodations. A guest house was described byThomson as follow:Guest House ‘chez Margot provided a dustier, noisier, more native brand of accommodation. TheMargot’ bathroom was littered with dead cockroaches and for some reason an old valise that I found behind my bed contained a stuffed mongoose. Food was good, although the water was dirty and not to be consumed without sterilization tabletsTheodat (2004) highlighted the fact that Haitians are still amateurs in the tourism sector.c) BackgroundAPV (Association des Paysans de Vallue) started with the creation of a small guest house in1989. This guess house was so popular with tourists that they enlarged it and turned it into acountryside hotel called: ‘Hotel Villa Ban-Yen’. This example shows that rural tourism inHaiti has some potential. On the website4 of ‘Hotel Villa Ban-Yen’ it is possible to read: Tourism in Vallue gives you the opportunity to spend good moment in nature contemplation,in consuming organic food, in sharing with the farmers their culture and acknowledges…Hotel Villa Ban-Yen is the ideal place on the mountain to breathe fresh and pure air, and toget the best feeling of alternative tourism as a sustainable way for community development.4 www.vallue.org 9
  • 10. All modern facilities are also available for seminary, conference, honeymoon and rest inspacious and well decorated rooms, with magnificent views on the landscape. For your past-time, we offer you excursion, picnic on the mountain with troubadour, ethno-botanicguidance, good music, movie, dance, traditional society games. Come to see by yourself andadd your own feeling to this presentation. The Hotel Villa Ban-Yen is specialized in Haitian dishes, using particularly natural food ofthe area in partnership with local farmers as providers. You can enjoy typical dishes of localtraditional cooking, what we call the «distinction Valloise».d) Analysis and results  Positive economic impacts:Consuming organic food  Modernisation of agriculture and other rural activitiesHaitian dishes, using particularly natural food of the  Demand for goods and services increasearea in partnership with local farmers as providers  Food, drink and necessary products will be produced by the local farmers and purchase by the touristsAll modern facilities are also available for seminary,  Create employment (especially for the ruralconference, honeymoon youth)  Income level will risewe offer you excursion, picnic on the mountain with  Generate foreign exchangetroubadour, ethno-botanic guidance, good music,  Local and small business will be benefitedmovie, dance, traditional society gamesHaitian dishes, using particularly natural food of thearea in partnership with local farmers as providers  Positive socio-cultural impacts:sharing with the farmers their culture and  Cultural understandingacknowledges  Exchange of cultural beneficial for both locals and touristswe offer you excursion, picnic on the mountain with  Increase in participation in rural tradition andtroubadour, ethno-botanic guidance, good music, cultural practicesmovie, dance, traditional society games  Traditional products will become even more popularHaitian dishes, using particularly natural food of thearea in partnership with local farmers as providers  Positive environmental impacts:Hotel Villa Ban-Yen is the ideal place on the mountain  Help in create and maintain the natural park  Learn the importance of preservation ofto breathe fresh and pure air natural resources  Learn to preserve the natural habitats, bio- diversity and historical monuments 10
  • 11. This case study shows that countryside tourism and running guest houses can have some hugebenefits for the locals (their natural environment, culture and standard of living) but also forthe visitors who will have a ‘real experience’.Concerning the analysis of TripAdvisor, the reviewers have grades the guest houses used inthe sample as follow: NAME OG THE GUEST HOUSE GRADEEstinfil guesthouse 1Eucalyptus guest house 1Wall international guest house 2Le Palmier guest house 2The Garden Lodge guest house Not reviewedHeartline guest house Not reviewedGala guest house apartment Not reviewedLabadie guest house 2Ayiti guest house Not reviewedBa guest house Not reviewedPCM guest house Not reviewedOnly 54% of the guest houses in Haiti on TripAdvisor have been reviewed (and graded). Outof those 54%, some the guest houses have been graded as good (3) or excellent (2). Even ifwe know that those results are only descriptive (and not representative) of the situation theyenable us to come to the conclusion that guest houses in Haiti are rather good compared thehotels Ian Thomson (2004) stayed in. In fact, 6 of the 8 hotels he stayed in were graded asbeing ‘terrible’ (Séraphin, 2012b).Our study has some severe limitations has it relies on an extremely limited sample. Thelimitations of this research suggest the need for further studies.6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSMichel (2000) claims tourism can fully benefit a destination, only if the locals are fullyinvolved in the planning and development of the industry. Based on literature,entrepreneurship in tourism seems to be a serious contender to the involvement of the localsin the tourism sector and in many cases to help them to improve their standard of living.Because guest houses involve a low cost investment due to the fact they are converted home,they appear as an ideal solution for poor people to step in the tourism industry. The guest 11
  • 12. house option has also the advantage of tying each Haitian family to the tourism sector and tothe broader economy. Thus ensuring that the population recognizes how important tourismcan be to the country’s economic development (Edmunds, 2012). The development of thetourism sector and the development of Haiti as a whole might come from the mass. As weknow, it won’t come from the ‘elite’ that was once compared by the former Prime Minister,Michele Pierre-Louis to an ‘elephant sitting on Haiti’ (Gauthier, Moita, 2010).Since the beginning of the 20e century, we have witnessed a shift of Haiti toward the servicesector at the expense of the primary sector. However, this change in the economy and societydid not come with an improvement of the standard of living of the population (Paul, et al,2010). Developing guest houses may help the country to develop its agriculture which onlyaccounted for 23% of the GDP in 2009 when it used to represent 95% in 1800’s (Paul, et al,2010).Haiti has a master card to play, namely its authenticity. It is one of the latest untouchedterritories of the Caribbean. Moreover, the tourists by staying in guest houses are guaranteedto get ‘authenticity’ as opposed to staged performance described by Thomson (2004) inresorts where everyone plays a role.The key issue of Haiti’s development (therefore for its tourism industry) relies on the fact thatHaiti has been lead so far by ‘professional politicians’ and not ‘Presidents’ with a genuineinterest for the development of the country (Barreau, 2013). Leadership is therefore the keyissue of the country. 12
  • 13. BIBLIOGRAPHYBarreau, J. (2013). Haïti : Se prendre en main et briser le cercle des échecs. AlterPresse.http://www.alterpresse.orgBeck, T., Demirguc-Kunt, A., Levine, R. (2004). Finance, inequality and poverty: A cross-country evidence.World bank policy research working paper (3338)Buhalis, D. & Cooper, C. (1998). Competition or co-operation? Small and medium size tourism enterprises atthe destination. In Laws, Eric. (Ed.): Embracing and managing change in tourism (324-346). London:RoutledgeBygrave, W.D. (2003). Financing entrepreneurship and their businesses. Working Paper presented at the firstannual global entrepreneurship symposium, United Nations, AprilCooper, C., & Hall, M. (2008.) Contemporary tourism: An international approach. Elsevier: OxfordDin, K.H. (1992). The involvement stage in the evolution of a tourist destination. Tourism Recreation Research,17 (1), 10-20Edmunds, A. (2012). Haiti tourism: Pipe dream or realistic project? Caribbean News NowEgbali, N., Bakhshandea, N. and Khalil, S. (2011). Effects of positive and negative rural tourism (Case study:Rural Semnan Province). Journal of Geography and Regional Planning Vol. 4 (2): 63-76Gauthier, A., Moita, M. (2010). ‘Vulnerability and causes of fragility in Haiti’. Fride (11)Grandoit, J. (2005). Tourism as a development tool in the Caribbean and the environment by-products: Thestresses on small island resources and viable remedies. Journal of Development and Social Transformation, (2):89-97International Institute of Tourism Studies. (2010). Tourism Development in Haiti. An Element of EconomicRecovery. A Donors Meeting to Discuss the Viability of Tourism Development as a Tool for Haitian JobCreation. George Washington University, School of Business. Tuesday, September 7th, 2010Ju, P. (2011). Research on the tourist expectation in rural tourism. International Journal on Economics andFinance Research (4): 138-143Kirsten, M. & Rogerson, C. (2002). Tourism, business linkages and small enterprise development in SouthAfrica. Development South Africa, 19 (1): 29-59Landes, D. (1998). The wealth and poverty of nations, New York: W.W. NortonLewis, J.B. (1998). The development of rural tourism. Parks and recreation, 33 (9), p.9Lingelbach, D., De La Vina, L., & Asel, P. (2005). Whats Distinctive About Growth-Oriented Entrepreneurshipin Developing Countries?. University of San Francisco.Manyara, G., & Jones, E. (2005). Indigenous tourism SME sector in Kenya. In Jones, E. and C. Haven-Tang(Ed) Tourism SMEs, Service quality and destination competitiveness. CABI Publishers. 60-72Michel, F. (2000). Des hôtes et des autres. Tourisme et altérité. Revue Espaces (171): 4-21Paul, B., Dameus, A., Garrabe, M. (2010). Le processus de tertiarisation de l’économie haïtienne. RevueCaribéennes [en ligne] http://etudescaribeennes.revues.org 13
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