Sustainable tourism


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Trabajo sobre el turismo sostenible en España y Europa. Inglés.

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Sustainable tourism

  2. 2. ORIGIN AND DEFINITION <ul><li>To principles of the nineties not the sustainability in the tourism be planted. </li></ul><ul><li>The International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism (AIEST) celebrated in 1991 be planted the complexity of the study of the sustainability of the tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Tourism was described: as a tourism that maintains an equilibrium among the ecological, economic, and social interests. </li></ul><ul><li>The tourism should integrate the recreational and economic activities with the objective to seek the conservation of the cultural and natural values. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>From the Summit of the Land of Rio de Janeiro in 1992 is when the profusion of information and of contributions since all it environments (political, scientific and business) in relation to the tourism and the sustainability they have their greater boom. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Subsequently, the World Widlife Fun (WWF), the Tourism Concern and the European Union, they include al tourism as one of the key sectors toward the one that should be directed all the measures in material of environment and of sustainable development. </li></ul>
  5. 5. DEFINITION <ul><li>&quot;The Sustainable Tourism attends to the needs of the present tourists and of the receptive regions and the same time protects and promotes the opportunities for the future. It is conceived like a way toward the management of all the resources so that can be satisfied the social, economic and aesthetics needs, respecting, the same time the cultural integrity, the essential ecological processes, the biological diversity and the systems that maintain the life.&quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. At the following year the OMT (1994) considers fundamental for the establishment of the Agenda 21 in the tourist centres the following requirements: <ul><li>Conservation and management of the energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Management of the resource water. </li></ul><ul><li>Control of the dangerous substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Transportations. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban development Planning and management of the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Commitment of the politicians and of the citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Design of programs for the sustainability. </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution for the sustainable tourist development. </li></ul>
  7. 7. World Letter of the Sustainable Tourism <ul><li>It supposes the final meaning of the ties of the sustainability, the conservation and the development of the resources, and the central role of the tourism for the development of many localities to level of the world geography and very particularly of the countries less developed with a various wealth of flora, fauna, landscapes and cultural elements. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Subsequently it fits to emphasize the Conference HABITAT II (Istanbul) and the Plan of Action of the Mediterranean. (annex). </li></ul><ul><li>To Emphasize also the Program of United Nations for him Environment (PNUMA) and in contribution with the UNESCO and the OMT. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sustentable or Sustanaible? <ul><li>Definition of sustentable: &quot;They said of a process: that can be maintained for itself, as does it, for example, an economic development without exterior aid neither shrinkage of the existing resources“ </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of sustainable: &quot;That can be supported or to defend with reasons&quot;; being defined to support in its second meaning as &quot;to conserve a thing in its to be or been &quot;. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Present situation of the tourism in Spain <ul><li>Nowadays an international consensus exists at the moment of to recognize that the tourism has become one of the main generating motors of employment and global economic incomes. </li></ul><ul><li>As the data shows it that does not exist locality, region or State of the world, any that be its level of development, that put in doubt the need to prompt the tourist sector like base of its Economic politics. </li></ul><ul><li>The qualities of the development of the tourist industry are each more valued time. </li></ul><ul><li>The tourist activity is one of the economic activities with greater capacity to promote a sustainable and stable development, being converted each time more in strategic sector for all the economies. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The tourism contributes decisively al distribution of the world wealth, being converted one of the motors of the economic globalisation and supposing, in not few occasions, the only alternative al development of regions and countries. </li></ul><ul><li>And the tourist flows are responsible for the broadcast of cultural and social attitudes, without whose exchange with difficulty would be able to be understood the mutual enrichment of the towns. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The situation of the tourist sector has given a spectacular turn in the period 1998-2002. </li></ul><ul><li>It has passed of a situation of crisis to a situation in which Spain occupies a position of clearly international leadership. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Between 1995 and 2000 a spectacular increment in the number of foreign tourists is produced, that enlarges in more than thirteen million people, reaching the 48 million in the 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>This increase supposes a growth with respect to 1995 of the 34,6%, with an average rate of yearly growth in the period considered of the 7,7%. </li></ul><ul><li>The incomes by-products of the international tourism have passed of 19.000 million euro -in 1995- at more than 33.600 million euro -in the year 2000-. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The tourist sector has been consolidated: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As first sector of the Spanish economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like first economy exporting sector </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>And as sector where Spain exercises more clearly the international leadership: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the second world destiny of so much international tourism in terms of entrances (where only is surpassed by France) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As in terms of incomes (where only United States surpasses to Spain). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sustainable tourism in Spain <ul><li>The Department of Spanish Environment devised a document under the epigraph of &quot;Strategies of Sustainable Development&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Treats to the sustainable Tourism as the productive sector of greater relative weight in the socio-economic system. </li></ul><ul><li>This integration should be produced, not only in the new tourist destinies that go arising, but in an industry already consolidated, with millions of visitors. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>To Establish in this sustainable management guidelines industry and to correct the dysfunctions and the shortages of obsolete infrastructures are priorities for the sustainable development of the tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>The environmental factor is the most critical one for the Spanish tourist development, the key item of the sustainability of all the sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Its absence in the long-term planning has caused in previous decades situations of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>excess of density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disproportionate growth of a homogeneous offering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shortage of infrastructures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urbanization decontrolled of some zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive pressure on the coast, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The enterprises of the sector have been shown traditionally reluctant to the integration of environmental variables by understanding that, with it, they were put in prohibition their competitive possibilities of being. Nevertheless, the evidence shows that the long-term competitiveness leaves reinforced after the sustainable management principles incorporation. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The management integrated of the coastal tourist zones. </li></ul><ul><li>The rationalization of the tourist offering. </li></ul>The key themes looking al sustainable development of the tourism in Spain are:
  21. 21. <ul><li>According to the PICTE (integral plan of quality of Spanish tourism 2000-2006), in the European Union, the tourist policy holds a difficult position. </li></ul><ul><li>As there is not a communitarian tourist policy, the actions that the community undertakes in this field depend on the generic competition that article 3 of the constituent treaty of the European community attributes to him with object to reach its aims, between which they are the promotion of the economic development, the sustainable growth, a high level of use, the economic and social cohesion and solidarity between the States members. </li></ul><ul><li>In the European Union does not exist a concrete policy on this field, the tourist sector represents a great international scale, Europe are concentrated approximately a 40 % of the internationals arrivals of tourists. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe, in the matter of tourism, occupies a privileged position that it locates at the top to world wide scale. In this European context, Spain has become one of the main receiving countries of tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the last world-wide events (terrorist attack, epidemics, armed conflicts), the tourist sector like others sectors, will be affected, reason why its possible that the forecasts are not reached. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Present Situation of the Tourism in the European Union: <ul><li>In last two decades, the tourist activity in the group of countries of the European Union has been increase of significant way. Whereas the increase in the numbers of hotels seats and the numbers of stays has grown progressively, the increase of population has done it of much more moderate form. </li></ul><ul><li>The general health of the tourism in the European union does not seems to have suffered after the crisis caused by the attacks of New York in September of 2001 . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Basic Infrastructure: <ul><li>Between 1999 and 2000, the numbers of hotels seats increased significantly in almost all the countries of the union, with exception of the abrupt reduction of France. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, Spain was the third country in importance with a number of seats, it surpassed by Germany and Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Campings, apartments and similar, exist important structural differences, depending on each country. The number of campings seats in France is much bigger than the one of other receiving countries of tourism, as it is in the case of Italy or Spain. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Occupation: <ul><li>The levels of hotel occupation describe a similar curve in all the countries of the European Union, whose highest are located in the months of summer, specially July and August. </li></ul><ul><li>Only Austria, that it has an important affluence of winter tourists, has two tips in its occupation of hotel seats, being highest the one of February than the one of the summer months. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The highest occupation is in Greece, this country receives a high number of visits but that it does not count on infrastructure sufficient able to face the possible demand of tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>France and Spain like main receiving countries, with annual averages near 60% are more significant from occupation. Also, they are the countries that present large tips of occupation, beginning in February or March and reaching to November. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sustainable tourism in the European Union <ul><li>When speaking of tourism, the main factor that influences in environmental comes by the density. This way, the first indicator that will be to evaluate will be formed by the amount of the tourist by square kilometre who concentrate to a region or country, and the supply of tourist infrastructures which it has. </li></ul><ul><li>As it shows the report of Schmidt (2002), has been a relation between the increase of tourism and the higher consumption of electricity, although this cannot be extrapolated surely since certain comparative they do not offer significant results. The general tendency is a slight increase of the consumption. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>The second factor of analysis, the water consumption, presents a similar problem. The results are similar to the electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Other data of interest, like the pollution of the air by gases (nitrogen carbon, monoxide and dioxide…) are still more difficult to analyze, because they are emitted by sources very varied and that they can not keep a strict relation to the tourism. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Central administration <ul><li>Ministry of Economy. Secretary of State of Commerce and Tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Tourist Studies. General secretarial of Tourism. Secretarial of State of Commerce and Tourism. Ministry of Economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of tourism of Spain TURESPAÑA. General secretarial of state of tourism. Secretarial of state of commerce and tourism. Ministry of economy. </li></ul><ul><li>ICTE. Institute for the Spanish Tourist Quality. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Main autonomic administration <ul><li>Andalusia: Council of tourism and deports . Meeting of Andalusia. </li></ul><ul><li>Castilla y Leon: Council of culture and tourism . Meeting of Castilla and Leon. </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid (community of): Main directorate of tourism. Council of economy and technological innovation . Independent community of Madrid. </li></ul>
  30. 30. THE END BY Irene Chamoso Galán Noelia García Tavera