Notes (Geography Year 11A)INDUSTRY , ENERGY AND TOURISM SUB-TOPIC:METHODS USED TO CONTROL THE IMPACT OF TOURISM.
IntroductionFor decades tourism industry growth has been a major contributor to increased economic activity throughout the U.S and the world. It is the dominant economic activity in some communities.Yet, the impacts of tourism to community are not widely understood.
Impact of tourismThe impacts of tourism (positive and negative impacts) can be categorized into:1. Economic2. Environmental3. Social and Cultural
How to reduce the negative impact of tourism?Despite, the importance of tourism from its positive impact is always on the economic aspect.On the other hand, there is also greater concerns on the negative impact of tourisms.Negative impacts can be reduced or avoided by effective use and implementation of, for example the tool of Environmental Assessment.
How to reduce the negative impact of tourism?Several effective ways or measures in order to reduce the impact of tourism are :1. Diversification of product range.2. Reduce the tourist numbers in some areas.3. Eco-tourism.4. Green tourism.5. Implementation of strict law.6. The need for management and stewardship.
1.Diversification It is important to diversify their countries product range by opening up new adventures. Examples of new adventures are rafting, sailing and canoeing. This is to achieve a better distribution of tourist activities throughout the country. In addition, to reduce some of the environmental issues created at tourism hotspots.
2. Reduce tourist numbers in some areas To reduce tourist numbers in some areas by putting limitations to the number of tourists allowed to visit a specific area per year. Moreover, the government should also double the entry fees. This can maintain the income from these area. Despite that, the limitation in the number of visitors per year also means to reduce the environmental impacts on the natural eco-system.
3. Eco-tourism Putting an increased focus on eco-tourism so that they can help to preserve the wildlife and the environment. This also hoped in reducing social conflict between authorities and other groups such as tribal people and farmers. Example : Eco-tourism in Kenya and Sabah.
4. Green Tourism Green tourism is a term widely used to convey what we mean by responsible, ethical or sustainable tourism. It is not only places an emphasis upon protecting the environment, but also involves the local people in making decisions that affect their land and living. It can improve the preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions.
4. Green Tourism It can bring chance to protect local heritage or to revitalize native cultures, for instance by regenerating traditional arts and crafts. Apart from that, the visitors can enjoy unspoiled nature and landscapes, environmental quality of goods or services. However, green tourism is different from eco- tourism, whereas, eco-tourism is part of green- tourism.
5. Implementation of strict law in conservation areasThe marine environments and its natural resources should be managed more efficiently in order to minimize the environmental effects on coral reefs, mangroves and all other threatened habitats.
6. The need for management and stewardshipThe pressures from the growth of tourist numbers have increased the need for management everywhere.In most cases effective management only begins after tourism has begun and some damage has already occurred.For example : Tourism in Antarctica
Case study : (1) Tourism in Kenya Kenya is an African country that has been affected by tourism in both positive and negative way. One of the most important positive factors is the effect on the countries economy. It generate incomes to all Kenyans. This income inspired the government to put additional effort into preserving its wildlife.
Case study : (1) Tourism in Kenya The negative effects are that the economic influence of tourism can be unstable. The environment and wildlife can be damaged through tourism. Tourism can create social conflict between different groups of people. Thus, the Kenyan government has created strategies for the future that they hope will reduce the negative impacts of tourism on their country.
Case study:(2) Tourism in AntarcticaHowever, there is one exception – Antarctica. It offers tourists magnificent scenery, icebergs and nesting penguins by the millions. In the summer of 1995 tourist numbers passed 10 000 for the first time. Thus, the cruise operators comply with the guidelines from the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO).
6. The need for management and stewardshipVisitors must not:Disturb wildlife in any way.Go within 5metres of penguins.Walk on the lichens.Leave litter or waste.