Essay and Short Answer Questions for Intro to Tourism Chapter 1,2,4,5
<ul><li>Define tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. </li></ul>
<ul><li>2. Successful tourism requires positive attitudes and contributions from several groups. Name these groups and explain how each group views tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>The tourist. Seeks psychic and physical experiences. The type of satisfactions sought will depend on the destinations and activities chosen. </li></ul><ul><li>The businesses serving tourists. They see tourism as an opportunity to make a profit by providing the goods and services demanded by tourists. </li></ul><ul><li>The government of the host community. Politicians view tourism as an opportunity for economic development, for jobs and income for their citizens, and tax collections. </li></ul><ul><li>The host community. They see tourism as a means for employment, to help pay taxes, and creation of facilities and services that also benefit them. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Why is the United Nations World Tourism Organization interested in standard definitions? </li></ul><ul><li>UNWTO is a United Nations organization. Thus it is concerned with how this industry impacts the world economy and world peace. It must have standardized statistics so that each year can be compared with previous ones to see how the industry is trending and progressing, and so that the performance of different countries can be analyzed in a meaningful way. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Why must a national tourism organization classify tourists and other visitors? </li></ul><ul><li>Many people traveling in a country are not tourists, such as commuters, transportation crews, temporary workers, migrants, and students studying at a school of some kind. The national tourism organization spends money on promotion. Thus, they need to know how this marketing effort is paying off and must identify bona fide tourists in order to make such an evaluation. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Why do Goeldner and Ritchie state that the systems approach is probably the most needed approach to study this subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Because tourism is an interdisciplinary approach that integrates the other approaches into a unified whole. It is organized to accomplish a set of goals. It is comprehensive and deals with both micro and macro issues. Also, it operates within and relates to a country’s other systems such as legal, political, economic and social. </li></ul>
<ul><li>How can the cost/problems of tourism be reduced and minimized? </li></ul><ul><li>By good planning, intelligent sustained development, and by making tourism part of an area’s overall development plan. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Explain the position of tourism in the United States economy? </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is ranked as the third largest industry behind food and automobile sales. In employment this industry is second after health services with tourism employment totaling over 7.5 million persons. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Explain the similarities between pleasure travel during Roman Empire times and now. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans visited famous temples, the monuments of Egypt, the Olympic Games, seaside resorts and medical baths. They used guidebooks and left graffiti. Today’s travelers enjoy very similar activities but in modern settings with far superior information, counseling, guidebooks, transportation facilities and accommodations. </li></ul>
<ul><li>2.Why was pleasure travel practically eliminated during the Dark Ages? </li></ul><ul><li>When the Roman Empire collapsed in the 4th and 5th centuries, it spelled disaster for pleasure travel in Europe. Such travel does require safety, prosperity, leisure, and desire to see new places and cultures, peace, and desire for recreational activities. All of these necessary factors were practically eliminated in the wake of the Roman Empire disintegration. Travel became dangerous and not a bit pleasurable for those who had to travel. Also inns were terrible. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Christian churches and monasteries (hospices) played an important part in early tourism. Provide at least three (3) details of this. </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries and churches provided shelter, food, even doctors as well as sometimes loans to travelers. Facilities were quite adequate. The well off were expected to leave a generous donation upon departure. Poor people were not expected to pay because a part of the religious belief was to help those who needed it. Ultimately these functions became burdensome to the churches, and they referred travelers to inns and taverns in increasing numbers. The best known hospice was that of the Great Saint Bernard in the French Alps – with their big rescue dogs. </li></ul>
1. What is the United Nations World Tourism Organization? Who are the members? What does the organization do? UNWTO is the only organization representing all national and official interests. Private commercial interests are allied members. UNWTO recommends positive measures for UN member countries which are desirous of expanding and improving their tourism. They also attempt to harmonize tourism policies of the various countries and to facilitate the movement of people between countries. Also UNWTO is a specialized agency of the UN helping to resolve any tourism problems.
2.Why should a hotel or restaurant be a member of a state or regional tourism organization? Provide three (3) compelling reasons. 1.The hotel or restaurant would receive a share of the increased tourist business due to the promotional efforts of the organization. 2.Other tourist and non-tourist businesses in the community would also benefit from the work of the organization. 3.A regional association works to attract visitors to this particular destination. It helps to meet competition and receive a larger share of the tourist business. 4.It involves the management staff in tourism affairs and thus increases interest in attracting visitors and making the community more stimulating and attractive.
<ul><li>1. In what ways has the English Channel rail tunnel stimulated European tourism? </li></ul><ul><li>This highly publicized and amazing technical achievement has generated widespread interest in travel. It has especially stimulated travel from Britain to the countries of continental Europe, especially France, and to Britain from these areas. Also, the time savings made possible by the “Chunnel” has increased demand. The novelty of traveling by high-speed train under the Channel will further stimulate interest in using this unique route. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Match the identities of the following organizations: </li></ul><ul><li>FAA improves airports and hires air controllers. </li></ul><ul><li>ABA a group aiding the motor coach industry. </li></ul><ul><li>ATA an association of U.S. air carriers. </li></ul><ul><li>AAA world’s largest tourism membership group. </li></ul><ul><li>CLIA an association of cruise lines. </li></ul>
<ul><li>3. List at least five (5) services you would expect from your state AAA affiliated automobile club. </li></ul><ul><li>1. world-wide travel services similar to a travel agency. </li></ul><ul><li>2. emergency road service. </li></ul><ul><li>3. auto insurance. </li></ul><ul><li>4. tour books (travel guidebooks). </li></ul><ul><li>5. group tours. </li></ul><ul><li>6. traveler’s checks. </li></ul>
4.State the meaning of “open skies” agreements. What effects are they expected to produce? “ Open skies” agreements are accords made between two countries that abolish all legal and diplomatic barriers hindering airlines passenger travel. Such agreements will increase the efficiency of international airline operations, increase competition, and greatly improve interconnectedness. Enacting many such agreements would considerably stimulate global tourism.