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Stocks of materials that exist in thenatural environment that are bothscarce and economically useful inproduction or consumption, either intheir raw state or after a minimalamount of processing
Three Key Concerns1. Renewable resources are utilized beyond their regenerative capacity2. Nonrenewable resources are depleted with insufficient savings in man- made, human, or social capital3. The ―sink‖ capacity of the environment is overburdened by pollution, which in turn damages human health and ecosystem functions.
Occur naturally, but can be affected positively and negatively by human behavior If a forest is carefully replanted and allowed to grow, it can exist in balance. If the forest is cut down faster than it can grow back, then it will be used up quickly.
1. Serve as home to many of the organisms that live on the land2. Major contributors to recycling and cleaning the world supply of oxygen3. Provide wood, which is useful both as a construction material and as a fuel source.
Forests in ASEAN Context
FIG. 1.3 AREA REFORESTED: 1976-2009 (AREA IN HECTARES) 160000 140000 120000 Government Private 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 YearSource: forestry.denr.gov.ph
Decline of Mindanao Forest Decline of Mindanao Forest LEGEND FOREST RESIDUAL GROWTH FOREST COASTLINE COASTLINE MOSSY FOREST COASTLINEREFERENCESESSC AND THE BOOKMARK INC., 1999PHILIPPINES 1970 1960 1920 1900 2002 1987 (Landsat) (SPOT)
1. Mining over Forestry The Mining Act of 1995 (RA No. 7942, 1995)-timberland and forest lands are open to mineral agreements2. Insecurity of government permits andlicenses3. Logging Ban4. Inadequate management of protectedareas
Consumed faster than they can be produced resulting to its shortage Major contributor to air pollution
• Very rich potential for copper, gold, nickel, chromite and other metallic minerals through the commercial operation of numerous mines• Also abundant in non-metallic and industrial minerals such as marble, limestone, clays, feldspar, roc k aggregates, dolomite, guano, and other quarry resources
1. Environmental and social costs• Collateral damage of non-mineral resources such as freshwater and timber• Social divisiveness2. Institutional Capability• Ensure sustainability of the country’s fragile environment and natural resources• Establish standard parameters that will consider all relevant values (including non- market values)
3. ―The Fair Share‖• Revenues of large-scale mining are not declared properly• For 2000-2009, the contribution of mining excise taxes (large-scale, small scale, non- metallic) to total BIR excise tax collections is minimal, only about 0.7%
Decision-Making:Strategies, Policies and Plans
Optimize the use of limited land and water for the growing population Equity and sustainable development Produce specific products suitable to the land, water resources, and climate of specific areas in the country integration of environmental concerns through policies and programs
Environment Code, EO No. 446• phase out of leaded gasoline(2001)National Biodiversity Strategy and ActionPlan (NBSAP)• confront the problems and issues relating to the conservation of biodiversity
• to strengthen environmental protection, promote responsible mining and provide a more equitable revenue-sharing scheme amid the projected boom in the sector• bans mining in prime agricultural and fishing areas as well as in 78 designated eco- tourism sites• NO NEW mining permits would be approved until Congress passes a bill backing a mining tax increase to 5 percent royalty on mining companies gross earnings, compared with the current tax of 2
The Mindanao 2020 Framework Improved Quality of Life of Every Mindanaon Peaceful and Sustainably Developed MindanaoEconomy and Human Development Peace andEnvironment & Social Cohesion Security Enabling Conditions Governance and Institutions
―There’s a need for shared responsibility and accountability to protect and rehabilitateMindanao’s heavily degraded environment. Weneed to do something now before it’s too late‖ MinDA Chair, Secretary Luwalhati Antonino
Farming or husbandry
Cultivation ofanimals, plants, fungi, and otherlife forms for food, fiber, bio-fueland other products used tosustain life.
7,000 1565 1898BC 1960 1995 2008
1. Tractors – farming tasks on increasedspeed and larger scale2. Intensive agriculture – associatedwith decreased soil quality3. Move to Organic farming
Members of ASEANBrunei, Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, La os, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapo re, Thailand and VietnamAgriculture-based industries are included in the 11 priority sectors agreed on under ASEAN economic integration (Austria, 2004)
Impact of trade liberalization• Decrease in imported goods prices due to relaxation and reduction in tariff• Increase in consumer demand due to low prices and services• Increase in domestic competitiveness in international markets due to tariff reductions across national borders Most ASEAN Countries depend on agricultural sector.
ASEAN GUIDELINES ON RISK ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE-RELATED GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs) assessment of risks of agriculture- related GMOs to human health and the environment; and scientific basis for decisions relating to the release of agriculture-related GMOs in ASEAN Member Countries.
During 1565-1898 in the Philippines:Regalian Doctrine – Encomienda and Hacienda 1898-1945: US and Japan Time- Beginning of establishments of plantations- Exportations of rubber, pineapple and abaca
Green Revolution (late 1960s)• development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains• expansion of irrigation infrastructure• modernization of management techniques• distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers
• Global development in the system of agriculture• Led by (IRRI) International Rice Research Institute,(CIMMYT) International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, CGIAR Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers
1995 - Philippine entered (WTO) World Trade OrganizationAgricultural Framework of of the Philippines on export production- Cavendish banana- Pineapple- Oil palmPhilippines is open to imports such garlic and onionsAgriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) of 1997
MALAGOS WATERSHED 235 Has.Groundwater GroundwaterRecharge Zone Extraction Zone TALOMO WATERSHED 20,695.92 Has. LIPADAS WATERSHED 17,764.94 Has. Legend: green – banana orange - pineapple
Organic Diversified IntegratedFarming SystemFrom…Monocroping to Diversified OrganicFarmingCash Economy to Food ProductionArtificial to natural
Productive land is Lack of Support decreasing due to services conversion (usage (infrastructure, tech & crop) nology, capital, mar Depletion of ket, etc.) resource base Conflicting (soil, water, human) agriculture policies Increasing cost of and directions production
On a general level: Improve and maintain the natural landscape and agro-ecosystem Avoid over-exploitation and pollution of natural resources Minimize consumption of non-renewable energy and resources Produce sufficient quantities of nutritious wholesome and high quality food METSA FOUNDATION
On a general level: Provide adequate returns, within a safe, secure and healthy working environment Acknowledge indigenous knowledge and traditional farming systems
On a practical level: Maintain and increase the long-term fertility of the soil Enhance biological cycles within the farm, especially nutrient cycles Provide nitrogen supply by intensive use of nitrogen fixing plants Biological plant protection based on prevention instead of curing METSA FOUNDATION
On a practical level: Diversity of crop varieties and animal species, appropriate to the local conditions Animal husbandry appropriate to the needs of the animals Ban on synthetic chemical fertilizers, plant protection, hormones and growth regulators
On a practical level: Prohibition of Genetic Engineering and its products Ban on synthetic or harmful methods, processing aids and ingredients in food processing
Certification Body: ◦ EU Certifiers: IMO(SL), Natural Land (Germany), Ecocert (France) ◦ Local: Organic Certification Council of the Philippines (OCCP)
• Road transport is vital for economic development• Road construction and improvement programs• ADB (Asian Development Bank) provided 29 loans totaling more than 1.4 billion dollars (5.6Bpesos)
Other Financing Partners Export-Import Bank of Japan OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development Overseas Development Administration of United Kingdom(finance institutions)
• Approved in 1996 and closed in 2007• Improvement, replacement and repair of bridges, design and construction supervision for key roads• Focused attention to less developed and hard-to-reached areas
Logging Mining operations Human population Infrastructure developmentNewCAPP
Established in 1988 for equitable land ownership and empowered agrarian reform beneficiaries Outlined by then President Corazon C. Aquino and signed on June 10, 1988
• At least 900,000 hectares slated for acquisition and distribution• Priority will be on acquiring and distributing 961,974 hectares of private agricultural land from 107,639 landholdings Philippine Daily Inquirer
―Energy is the ability to do work.― – www.energyquest.ca.gov
1. FOSSIL FUELS 1.1 Coal - a hard, black coloured rock-like substance. It is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and varying amounts of sulphur. 1.2 Oil or Petroleum - was also formed more than 300 million years ago. Some scientists say that tiny diatoms are the source of oil. Diatoms are sea creatures the size of a pin head. They do one thing just like plants; they can convert sunlight directly into stored energy. SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
1. FOSSIL FUELS 1.3 Natural gas - usually found near petroleum underground. It is pumped from below ground and travels in pipelines to storage areas.2. RENEWABLE ENERGY 2.1 Hydropower- moving water, which has kinetic energy, can be used to make electricity. SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY 2.2 Ocean energy- We can use the oceans waves, we can use the oceans high and low tides, or we can use temperature differences in the water. SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY 2.3 SOLAR ENERGY - We use the suns energy every day in many different ways. 2.4 WIND ENERGY- The kinetic energy of the wind can be changed into other forms of energy, either mechanical energy or electrical energy. Wind mill in Ilocos Norte SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY 2.4 BIOMASS ENERGY- Your trash contains some types of biomass that can be reused. The Payatas dumpsite SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
3. NUCLEAR ENERGY the energy that is trapped inside each atom. One of the laws of the universe is that matter and energy cant be created nor destroyed. But they can beThe formula by Albert Einstein: changed in form.E [energy] equals m [mass]times c2 [c stands for thevelocity or the speed of light. c2means c times c, or the speed oflight raised to the second power— or c-squared.] SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
It determines the quality of our daily lives It is probably the biggest business in the world economy, with a turnover of at least US$1.7 to 2 trillion a year Energy services are required at each step of the energy chain SOURCE: www.un.org
SOURCE: DOE presentation, Mindanao Energy Investment Forum, June 20, 2012, Davao City
Mindanao Power Sector Profile : Capacityand Generation Mix 2011 Agus Complex (727 MW) 35.96 % share to Total Installed Capacity
Oil based 17.61% Geothermal 9.52%Gross Generation 8,834 GWh
Name of the Project Fuel Type Project Proponent Location Rated Capacity Project Status Target Commissioning (MW)2 X 150 MW Coal-Fired Coal Therma South Inc. (Aboitiz Brgy. Binugao, Toril, 300 Secured right to land; on-goingTherma South Energy Power Corporation) Davao City and Brgy. negotiation for financing; various 1st Quarter 2014Project Inawayan, Sta. Cruz, permits obtained; secured SEC, Davao Del Sur BIR, BOC, BOI, ECC permits; LGU/Sangguniang Panlalawigan Davao City Reclassification already granted and issued on 12 Dec. 2011Steag Expansion Project Coal Phividec, Misamis Oriental 200 On-going feasibility study; on -going December 2014 Steag State Power Corp. discussions with NPC/PSALM regarding the common facilitiesTagoloan Hydropower Hydro Mindanao Hydro Power Corp. Bukidnon 20 Completed feasibility study December 201612 MW Tamugan Hydro Hedcor Baguio District, Davao City 12 Permits/government requirements July 2018Hydropower Project already obtained: COE from DOE, GIS by NGCP, registered as Pioneering project from BOI5 MW Camiguin Island Wind Energy Development Camiguin 5 Issued service contract; on going September 2015Wind Power Corporation negotiations with lot ownersBukidnon Biomass Biomass Green Power Bukidnon Maramag, Bukidnon 35 Selection process is on-going September 2013Power Project Philippines, Inc. among local banks; letter of intent executed on March 24, 2009 with Poyry Energy, Inc. as EPC contractor
1. Mindanao production capacity is 1,280 MWwhile the peak demand is 1,300 MW. Thus, a gapof 20MW but a reserve margin of 150MW must bemet as well; This means Mindanao needs 170MWmore2. We need RELIABLE power, REASONABLEpower, and LONG-TERM power3. In 2003, NPC’s debt already reached P1.24trillion, 24% of the total consolidated public sectordebt; even bigger than the GAA for that year; Thisexplains why the Congress passed the EPIRA SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
4. Hydropower needs water; its availability andtimeliness of supply cannot be consideredconstant; situation is: demand is constant, butthe supply isn’t5. If Mindanao can no longer rely much on hydro-power to provide the base load, it needs morediverse mix of energy sources6. We have to get more plants here ($2-M per MW –average cost to construct a coal or natural gas powerplant; double for hydro) SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
7. P170-M is needed to produce a MW of hydropower; How can you entice anyone to invest ifthe generating cost is more than the sellingcost?8. There are only two choices: pay a little morefor energy, or live with the rotating brownouts9. Circulating stories saying that Mindanaoans haveto pay P14/kWh more if it will install a more diversegeneration mix IS SIMPLY NOT TRUE SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
10. P2.6-B is being allocated for the large scalerehab of Agus 6; Government is also spendingfor the rehab of Agus 211. NEDA has approved the Integrated NaturalResources and Environmental ManagementProgram, which allocates P7.24-B for 4 riverbasins, 2 of which are in Mindanao12. This isn’t just about energy; this is aboutattracting investments and creating jobs, and thisis about securing the future of the region SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
13. Studying the formation of the Mindanao PowerMonitoring Committee to be chaired byMinDA, with reps from DOE, NPC, NGCP, andothers from civil society, electric coops, andbusiness sectorUPDATE: TheMPMC has alreadybeen created byvirtue of EO No.81, s. 2012 SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
―The dream is that, by the time I step down in 2016, this energy situation will be one less worry in the minds of Mindanaoans and investors alike – that by then, I can truthfully say that I left you in good hands‖ Pres. Benigno S. Aquino III Mindanao Power Summit April 13, 2012 Davao City
Narito ang mga paraan para makatipid sa kuryente:1. I-low speed lamang ang electric fan dahil masmaliit ang konsumo nito kaysa sa hi-speed na elisi.2. Kung bibili ng aircon, alamin muna ang sukat ngkuwartong paglalagyan nito. Dapat angkop anghorse power nito sa sukat ng kuwarto dahil masmalaking konsumo sa kuryente ang mataas nahorsepower.3. Sa paggamit ng aircon, gumamit ng timer.Paandarin ito ng ilang oras lamang. Kung walangtimer ang aircon, orasan ito manually at kungmalamig na ang kuwarto, i-off na ito.
4. Hinaan lang ang freezer. Kung may yelo na angfreezer, i-defrost ito. Ang freezer na puno ng yelo ayisa sa mga dahilan ng mataas na konsumo ngkuryente.5. Tiyaking laging malinis ang bulb, fluorescent, okahit anong appliance. Ang maalikabok na applianceay nakadadagdag sa konsumo sa kuryente.6. I-unplug ang mga appliances na hindi namanginagamit.7. Huwag i-overcharge ang cell phone, laptop, obatteries.
8. I-off ang waterdispenser sa gabi.9. Sa pagbili ngref, piliin ang maypinakamataas naEnergy EfficiencyRatio (EER). SOURCE: DTI radio bits
―We did not inherit the environment from ourancestors…. We are justborrowing it from future generations.‖