For the purposes of this report, we define the natural resources as stated. This is in conformity with the World Trade Report 2010.
Explain first the concept of renewable resources, Nonrenewable, and sink capacity. Mention that the poorest frequently pay the human price for this development.
Between 2005 and 2010 the area of forest in Southeast Asia declined at 0.5 percent per annum, compared to 0.3 during the previous five years and 1.0 percent between 1990 and 2000. Between 1990 and 2010 the forests of Southeast Asia contracted in size by an area greater thanthat of Viet Nam (FAO 2010). With forest conversion the primary driver of biodiversity loss, estimates are that between 13 and 42 percent of species will be lost in the subregion by 2100, at least half of which could represent global extinctions (Sodhiet al. 2004)
The increase is attributed to resource rehabilitation efforts. The increase can also be a result of the change in what is reported as forest. While earlierwhat was considered as forest was a minimum of one hectare, now it is 0.5 ha; before plantations were not included in the reported forest cover, now they are included, also included are forests in private lands
In view of this, the work plan of the contractor in developing the mining claim should include plans for rehabilitation, regeneration, and re-vegetation of mineralized areas. Despite efforts to rehabilitate mined out second growth forests or forest plantations it is doubtful if such efforts could bring back theoriginal state of the affected forest resources
Fossil fuels will be taken up under the sub-topic ENERGY
When fossil fuels are burned. they release many dangerous gases such as nitrogen dioxide, methane, and carbon dioxide.
Philippine Natural Resources as stated in The World Factbook /www.cia.gov, updated as on July 2o12.Five of the 8 reported Phils. Natural resources are products of MINING
Hyperlink to mineral resources.xlsx
Mining does not only involve extraction of minerals, but often also necessitates collateral damage of of non-mineral resources, such as freshwater, timber, as well as cause social divisiveness and the need to provide PNP and AFP protection. All translates to public costsGovernment capacity for resource management needs to be reinforced, as acknowledged by Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016.
The KPA approach is premised on the need to optimize the use of limited land and water to provide for the food requirements of the growing population and foster "export winners" within the context of equitable and sustainable development. It encourages farmers and fisher folk to produce specific products suitable to the land, water resources, and climate of specific areas in the country. The integration of environmental concerns is being implemented through policies and programs harnessing appropriate, cost efficient and environment-friendly strategies and technologies to satisfactorily meet both long-term economic and ecological needsThe integration of environmental concerns is being implemented through policies and programs harnessing appropriate, cost efficient and environment-friendly strategies and technologies to satisfactorily meet both long-term economic and ecological needs The integration of environmental concerns is being implemented through policies and programs harnessing appropriate, cost efficient and environment-friendly strategies and technologies to satisfactorily meet both long-term economic and ecological needs
Mindanao’s environment is now facing serious challenges over decades of wanton logging, unregulated mining activities, illegal fishing practices, and unsustainable manufacturing activities by extractive industries. Damage brought on Mindanao’s rich natural environment range from moderate to severe, some of which are irreparable. Sustainable development warrants sustainable environment as well.
1. rapid rise of mechanization in the late 19th century and the 20th century, particularly in the form of the tractor, farming tasks could be done with a speed and on a scale previously impossible. These advances have led to efficiencies enabling certain modern farms in the United States, Argentina, Israel, the United Kingdom Germany, and a few other nations to output volumes of high-quality produce per land unit at what may be the practical limit.2. Concerns have been raised over the sustainability of intensive agriculture. Intensive agriculture has become associated with decreased soil quality in India and Asia, and there has been increased concern over the effects of fertilizers and pesticides on the environment particularly as population increases and food demand expands. 3. In the past century agriculture has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the substitution of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides for labor, water pollution, and farm subsidies. In recent years there has been a backlash against the external environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the organic movement.
development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers
The Government of the Philippines has recognized the importance of road transport for Economic development and has, since 1970s, implemented road construction and improvement programs.ADB (Asian Development Bank) provided 29 loans totaling more than 1.4 billion dollars (5.6Bpesos)
The project, which was approved in 1996 and closed in 2007 included road improvement, replacement and repair of bridges, design and construction supervision as well as other form of support for key road around the Philippines, particularly in less developed and hard-to-reach areas.
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program of 1988, also known as CARP, is a Philippine state policy that ensures and promotes welfare of landless farmers and farm workers, as well as elevation of social justice and equity among rural areas. CARP was established by the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988 (CARL) which aimed for a nation with equitable land ownership and empowered agrarian reform beneficiaries while, at least, improving social lives.The law was outlined by former President Corazon C. Aquino through Presidential Proclamation 131 and Executive Order 229 on June 22, 1987. The law was finally enacted by the 8th Congress of the Philippines and signed by Aquino on June 10, 1988.
At least 900,000 hectares of private landholdings are slated for acquisition and distribution in the last two years of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP), the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) said in a report. The report by DAR Secretary Virgilio de los Reyes said that the DAR would focus on acquiring and distributing 961,974 hectares of land from 107,639 landholdings, most of these are private agricultural land.
Stocks of materials that exist in thenatural environment that are bothscarce and economically useful inproduction or consumption, either intheir raw state or after a minimalamount of processing
Three Key Concerns1. Renewable resources are utilized beyond their regenerative capacity2. Nonrenewable resources are depleted with insufficient savings in man- made, human, or social capital3. The ―sink‖ capacity of the environment is overburdened by pollution, which in turn damages human health and ecosystem functions.
Occur naturally, but can be affected positively and negatively by human behavior If a forest is carefully replanted and allowed to grow, it can exist in balance. If the forest is cut down faster than it can grow back, then it will be used up quickly.
1. Serve as home to many of the organisms that live on the land2. Major contributors to recycling and cleaning the world supply of oxygen3. Provide wood, which is useful both as a construction material and as a fuel source.
FIG. 1.3 AREA REFORESTED: 1976-2009 (AREA IN HECTARES) 160000 140000 120000 Government Private 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 YearSource: forestry.denr.gov.ph
Decline of Mindanao Forest Decline of Mindanao Forest LEGEND FOREST RESIDUAL GROWTH FOREST COASTLINE COASTLINE MOSSY FOREST COASTLINEREFERENCESESSC AND THE BOOKMARK INC., 1999PHILIPPINES 1970 1960 1920 1900 2002 1987 (Landsat) (SPOT)
1. Mining over Forestry The Mining Act of 1995 (RA No. 7942, 1995)-timberland and forest lands are open to mineral agreements2. Insecurity of government permits andlicenses3. Logging Ban4. Inadequate management of protectedareas
Consumed faster than they can be produced resulting to its shortage Major contributor to air pollution
• Very rich potential for copper, gold, nickel, chromite and other metallic minerals through the commercial operation of numerous mines• Also abundant in non-metallic and industrial minerals such as marble, limestone, clays, feldspar, roc k aggregates, dolomite, guano, and other quarry resources
1. Environmental and social costs• Collateral damage of non-mineral resources such as freshwater and timber• Social divisiveness2. Institutional Capability• Ensure sustainability of the country’s fragile environment and natural resources• Establish standard parameters that will consider all relevant values (including non- market values)
3. ―The Fair Share‖• Revenues of large-scale mining are not declared properly• For 2000-2009, the contribution of mining excise taxes (large-scale, small scale, non- metallic) to total BIR excise tax collections is minimal, only about 0.7%
Decision-Making:Strategies, Policies and Plans
Optimize the use of limited land and water for the growing population Equity and sustainable development Produce specific products suitable to the land, water resources, and climate of specific areas in the country integration of environmental concerns through policies and programs
Environment Code, EO No. 446• phase out of leaded gasoline(2001)National Biodiversity Strategy and ActionPlan (NBSAP)• confront the problems and issues relating to the conservation of biodiversity
• to strengthen environmental protection, promote responsible mining and provide a more equitable revenue-sharing scheme amid the projected boom in the sector• bans mining in prime agricultural and fishing areas as well as in 78 designated eco- tourism sites• NO NEW mining permits would be approved until Congress passes a bill backing a mining tax increase to 5 percent royalty on mining companies gross earnings, compared with the current tax of 2
The Mindanao 2020 Framework Improved Quality of Life of Every Mindanaon Peaceful and Sustainably Developed MindanaoEconomy and Human Development Peace andEnvironment & Social Cohesion Security Enabling Conditions Governance and Institutions
―There’s a need for shared responsibility and accountability to protect and rehabilitateMindanao’s heavily degraded environment. Weneed to do something now before it’s too late‖ MinDA Chair, Secretary Luwalhati Antonino
1. Tractors – farming tasks on increasedspeed and larger scale2. Intensive agriculture – associatedwith decreased soil quality3. Move to Organic farming
Members of ASEANBrunei, Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, La os, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapo re, Thailand and VietnamAgriculture-based industries are included in the 11 priority sectors agreed on under ASEAN economic integration (Austria, 2004)
Impact of trade liberalization• Decrease in imported goods prices due to relaxation and reduction in tariff• Increase in consumer demand due to low prices and services• Increase in domestic competitiveness in international markets due to tariff reductions across national borders Most ASEAN Countries depend on agricultural sector.
ASEAN GUIDELINES ON RISK ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE-RELATED GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs) assessment of risks of agriculture- related GMOs to human health and the environment; and scientific basis for decisions relating to the release of agriculture-related GMOs in ASEAN Member Countries.
During 1565-1898 in the Philippines:Regalian Doctrine – Encomienda and Hacienda 1898-1945: US and Japan Time- Beginning of establishments of plantations- Exportations of rubber, pineapple and abaca
Green Revolution (late 1960s)• development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains• expansion of irrigation infrastructure• modernization of management techniques• distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers
• Global development in the system of agriculture• Led by (IRRI) International Rice Research Institute,(CIMMYT) International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, CGIAR Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers
1995 - Philippine entered (WTO) World Trade OrganizationAgricultural Framework of of the Philippines on export production- Cavendish banana- Pineapple- Oil palmPhilippines is open to imports such garlic and onionsAgriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) of 1997
MALAGOS WATERSHED 235 Has.Groundwater GroundwaterRecharge Zone Extraction Zone TALOMO WATERSHED 20,695.92 Has. LIPADAS WATERSHED 17,764.94 Has. Legend: green – banana orange - pineapple
Organic Diversified IntegratedFarming SystemFrom…Monocroping to Diversified OrganicFarmingCash Economy to Food ProductionArtificial to natural
Productive land is Lack of Support decreasing due to services conversion (usage (infrastructure, tech & crop) nology, capital, mar Depletion of ket, etc.) resource base Conflicting (soil, water, human) agriculture policies Increasing cost of and directions production
On a general level: Improve and maintain the natural landscape and agro-ecosystem Avoid over-exploitation and pollution of natural resources Minimize consumption of non-renewable energy and resources Produce sufficient quantities of nutritious wholesome and high quality food METSA FOUNDATION
On a general level: Provide adequate returns, within a safe, secure and healthy working environment Acknowledge indigenous knowledge and traditional farming systems
On a practical level: Maintain and increase the long-term fertility of the soil Enhance biological cycles within the farm, especially nutrient cycles Provide nitrogen supply by intensive use of nitrogen fixing plants Biological plant protection based on prevention instead of curing METSA FOUNDATION
On a practical level: Diversity of crop varieties and animal species, appropriate to the local conditions Animal husbandry appropriate to the needs of the animals Ban on synthetic chemical fertilizers, plant protection, hormones and growth regulators
On a practical level: Prohibition of Genetic Engineering and its products Ban on synthetic or harmful methods, processing aids and ingredients in food processing
Certification Body: ◦ EU Certifiers: IMO(SL), Natural Land (Germany), Ecocert (France) ◦ Local: Organic Certification Council of the Philippines (OCCP)
• Road transport is vital for economic development• Road construction and improvement programs• ADB (Asian Development Bank) provided 29 loans totaling more than 1.4 billion dollars (5.6Bpesos)
Other Financing Partners Export-Import Bank of Japan OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development Overseas Development Administration of United Kingdom(finance institutions)
• Approved in 1996 and closed in 2007• Improvement, replacement and repair of bridges, design and construction supervision for key roads• Focused attention to less developed and hard-to-reached areas
Logging Mining operations Human population Infrastructure developmentNewCAPP
Established in 1988 for equitable land ownership and empowered agrarian reform beneficiaries Outlined by then President Corazon C. Aquino and signed on June 10, 1988
• At least 900,000 hectares slated for acquisition and distribution• Priority will be on acquiring and distributing 961,974 hectares of private agricultural land from 107,639 landholdings Philippine Daily Inquirer
―Energy is the ability to do work.― – www.energyquest.ca.gov
1. FOSSIL FUELS 1.1 Coal - a hard, black coloured rock-like substance. It is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and varying amounts of sulphur. 1.2 Oil or Petroleum - was also formed more than 300 million years ago. Some scientists say that tiny diatoms are the source of oil. Diatoms are sea creatures the size of a pin head. They do one thing just like plants; they can convert sunlight directly into stored energy. SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
1. FOSSIL FUELS 1.3 Natural gas - usually found near petroleum underground. It is pumped from below ground and travels in pipelines to storage areas.2. RENEWABLE ENERGY 2.1 Hydropower- moving water, which has kinetic energy, can be used to make electricity. SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY 2.2 Ocean energy- We can use the oceans waves, we can use the oceans high and low tides, or we can use temperature differences in the water. SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY 2.3 SOLAR ENERGY - We use the suns energy every day in many different ways. 2.4 WIND ENERGY- The kinetic energy of the wind can be changed into other forms of energy, either mechanical energy or electrical energy. Wind mill in Ilocos Norte SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
2. RENEWABLE ENERGY 2.4 BIOMASS ENERGY- Your trash contains some types of biomass that can be reused. The Payatas dumpsite SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
3. NUCLEAR ENERGY the energy that is trapped inside each atom. One of the laws of the universe is that matter and energy cant be created nor destroyed. But they can beThe formula by Albert Einstein: changed in form.E [energy] equals m [mass]times c2 [c stands for thevelocity or the speed of light. c2means c times c, or the speed oflight raised to the second power— or c-squared.] SOURCE: www.energyquest.ca.gov
It determines the quality of our daily lives It is probably the biggest business in the world economy, with a turnover of at least US$1.7 to 2 trillion a year Energy services are required at each step of the energy chain SOURCE: www.un.org
Name of the Project Fuel Type Project Proponent Location Rated Capacity Project Status Target Commissioning (MW)2 X 150 MW Coal-Fired Coal Therma South Inc. (Aboitiz Brgy. Binugao, Toril, 300 Secured right to land; on-goingTherma South Energy Power Corporation) Davao City and Brgy. negotiation for financing; various 1st Quarter 2014Project Inawayan, Sta. Cruz, permits obtained; secured SEC, Davao Del Sur BIR, BOC, BOI, ECC permits; LGU/Sangguniang Panlalawigan Davao City Reclassification already granted and issued on 12 Dec. 2011Steag Expansion Project Coal Phividec, Misamis Oriental 200 On-going feasibility study; on -going December 2014 Steag State Power Corp. discussions with NPC/PSALM regarding the common facilitiesTagoloan Hydropower Hydro Mindanao Hydro Power Corp. Bukidnon 20 Completed feasibility study December 201612 MW Tamugan Hydro Hedcor Baguio District, Davao City 12 Permits/government requirements July 2018Hydropower Project already obtained: COE from DOE, GIS by NGCP, registered as Pioneering project from BOI5 MW Camiguin Island Wind Energy Development Camiguin 5 Issued service contract; on going September 2015Wind Power Corporation negotiations with lot ownersBukidnon Biomass Biomass Green Power Bukidnon Maramag, Bukidnon 35 Selection process is on-going September 2013Power Project Philippines, Inc. among local banks; letter of intent executed on March 24, 2009 with Poyry Energy, Inc. as EPC contractor
1. Mindanao production capacity is 1,280 MWwhile the peak demand is 1,300 MW. Thus, a gapof 20MW but a reserve margin of 150MW must bemet as well; This means Mindanao needs 170MWmore2. We need RELIABLE power, REASONABLEpower, and LONG-TERM power3. In 2003, NPC’s debt already reached P1.24trillion, 24% of the total consolidated public sectordebt; even bigger than the GAA for that year; Thisexplains why the Congress passed the EPIRA SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
4. Hydropower needs water; its availability andtimeliness of supply cannot be consideredconstant; situation is: demand is constant, butthe supply isn’t5. If Mindanao can no longer rely much on hydro-power to provide the base load, it needs morediverse mix of energy sources6. We have to get more plants here ($2-M per MW –average cost to construct a coal or natural gas powerplant; double for hydro) SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
7. P170-M is needed to produce a MW of hydropower; How can you entice anyone to invest ifthe generating cost is more than the sellingcost?8. There are only two choices: pay a little morefor energy, or live with the rotating brownouts9. Circulating stories saying that Mindanaoans haveto pay P14/kWh more if it will install a more diversegeneration mix IS SIMPLY NOT TRUE SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
10. P2.6-B is being allocated for the large scalerehab of Agus 6; Government is also spendingfor the rehab of Agus 211. NEDA has approved the Integrated NaturalResources and Environmental ManagementProgram, which allocates P7.24-B for 4 riverbasins, 2 of which are in Mindanao12. This isn’t just about energy; this is aboutattracting investments and creating jobs, and thisis about securing the future of the region SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
13. Studying the formation of the Mindanao PowerMonitoring Committee to be chaired byMinDA, with reps from DOE, NPC, NGCP, andothers from civil society, electric coops, andbusiness sectorUPDATE: TheMPMC has alreadybeen created byvirtue of EO No.81, s. 2012 SOURCE: P-Noy’s speech, Mindanao Power Summit, April 13, 2012, Davao City
―The dream is that, by the time I step down in 2016, this energy situation will be one less worry in the minds of Mindanaoans and investors alike – that by then, I can truthfully say that I left you in good hands‖ Pres. Benigno S. Aquino III Mindanao Power Summit April 13, 2012 Davao City
Narito ang mga paraan para makatipid sa kuryente:1. I-low speed lamang ang electric fan dahil masmaliit ang konsumo nito kaysa sa hi-speed na elisi.2. Kung bibili ng aircon, alamin muna ang sukat ngkuwartong paglalagyan nito. Dapat angkop anghorse power nito sa sukat ng kuwarto dahil masmalaking konsumo sa kuryente ang mataas nahorsepower.3. Sa paggamit ng aircon, gumamit ng timer.Paandarin ito ng ilang oras lamang. Kung walangtimer ang aircon, orasan ito manually at kungmalamig na ang kuwarto, i-off na ito.
4. Hinaan lang ang freezer. Kung may yelo na angfreezer, i-defrost ito. Ang freezer na puno ng yelo ayisa sa mga dahilan ng mataas na konsumo ngkuryente.5. Tiyaking laging malinis ang bulb, fluorescent, okahit anong appliance. Ang maalikabok na applianceay nakadadagdag sa konsumo sa kuryente.6. I-unplug ang mga appliances na hindi namanginagamit.7. Huwag i-overcharge ang cell phone, laptop, obatteries.
8. I-off ang waterdispenser sa gabi.9. Sa pagbili ngref, piliin ang maypinakamataas naEnergy EfficiencyRatio (EER). SOURCE: DTI radio bits
―We did not inherit the environment from ourancestors…. We are justborrowing it from future generations.‖
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