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Soil programme in South Africa: the importance of data and information system

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Ramakgwale Klaas Mampholo (Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries - South Africa)

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Soil programme in South Africa: the importance of data and information system

  1. 1. SOIL PROGRAMME IN SOUTH AFRICA; IMPORTANCE OF DATA AND INFORMATION SYSTEM “4 PER 1000” AFRICA SYMPOSIUM ON SOILS FOR FOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE BY RAMAKGWALE MAMPHOLO LAND USE AND SOIL MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FISHERIES 24 OCTOBER 2018
  2. 2. LEGISLATIONS & POLICY Constitution Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act, 43 of 1983 Sub-division of Agricultural Land Act, 70 of 1970 Preservation and Development of Agricultural Land Bill (PDALB) Conservation Agriculture Policy Active member of Global soil Partnership and other UN Conventions to highlight importance of soil to all human endevours
  3. 3. CONSTITUTION  Soil Conservation Function: Schedule 4 - Functional areas of concurrent national and provincial legislative competence  Soil Conservation is implemented as structured programmed 2 of Treasury guideline on organizational and strategic plan  Therefore, has dedicated capacity of LandCare Programme, soil conservation technicians and land use planning  It also follows bottom up approach with well established local based soil conservation / LandCare committees which recognises that custodianship of soil is with the people who use the land  All this fundamental aspects are embedded in the white paper of agriculture and LandCare principles 3
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF SOIL FROM POLICY AND LEGISLATIVE VIEW Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act : Objectives To provide for the conservation of the natural agricultural resources of the Republic by the maintenance of the production potential of land, by the combating and prevention of erosion Soil priority of the act through various control measures: e.g. (a) the cultivation of virgin soil; (b) the utilization and protection of land which is cultivated; (c) the irrigation of land; (d) the prevention or control of waterlogging or salination of land; 4
  5. 5. WHY SOIL PROGRAMME? Sustainability Environment Production potential: Capability Suitability Resilience Technology Use of the Resources (management) State of the resources Economic Contribution to GDP Social Improved livelihoods Employment Land SOIL INFORMATION
  6. 6. LANDCARE FOCUS AREAS VELDCARE JUNIORCARE SOILCARE WATERCARE CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE
  7. 7. SOIL PROGRAMME IN THE CONTEXT OF UNCCD (LAND DEGRDATION NEUTRALITY TARGETS) Specific targets to avoid, minimize and reverse land degradation  Improve productivity and SOC stocks in 6 000 000 hectares of cropland by 2030  Rehabilitate and sustainably manage 3 253 736 ha “forest”2 by 2030  Rehabilitate and sustainably manage 358 100 ha of fynbos by 2030  Rehabilitate and sustainably manage 1 499 400 ha of grassland 2030  Rehabilitate and sustainably manage 1 149 600 ha of Succulent Karoo by 2030  Rehabilitate 61 900 ha of wetlands by 2030,  Clear 1 063 897 ha of alien invasive species by 2030  Clear 633 702 ha of bush encroached land by 2030, and  Rehabilitate 350 000 ha of artificial areas by 2030. 7
  8. 8. Updated in 2017 as part of Global Soil Partnership celebration of world soil day Over 11257 profile samples used Sample from 0-30 cm of topsoil More Carbon stock in the Eastern part of RSA 8 REVISED SOIL CARBON MAP OF SOUTH AFRICA
  9. 9. ARABLE LAND AVAILABILITY LAND CAPABILITY 2016 9 Land capability class 2016 Area - ha Very low capability: 1 1 014 421.11 2 3 567 903.24 3 6 138 643.35 4 13 058 795.57 5 29 553 848.15 6 24 315 742.48 7 17 859 853.83 8 14 851 423.04 9 8 082 749.85 10 2 888 575.50 11 521 919.90 12 72 781.01 13 16 991.21 14 9 902.47 Very High capability: 15 4 013.33
  10. 10. CA IN RESTORATION, MITIGATION AND FOOD SECURITY NEXUS Free State August 2014 Carbon loss avoidance, increase in carbon sequestration and improved yield & food security Johannesburg 16 October 2014
  11. 11. Stage 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Typeoffarmingsystem Conv. tillage Min. or reduced tillage Conv. no tillage (NT) (Direct seeding equipment using tines). Production system lacks adequate soil cover and sound crop rotations. High use of external inputs Conv. zero tillage (ZT) (Direct seeding equipment using discs). Production system lacks adequate soil cover and sound crop rotations. High use of external inputs CAHEI (NT or ZT using high quantities of external artificial inputs (i.e. fertilizer, herbicides, pesticides). Production system has adequate soil cover and sound crop rotations. CALEI (NT or ZT using low quantities of external artificial inputs (i.e. fertilizer, herbicides, pesticides). Production system has above 80% soil cover and sound crop Organic CA (ZT using no external artificial inputs (i.e. fertilizer, herbicides, pesticides). Production system has adequate soil cover and sound crop rotations. Sustainability gradient CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE POLICY
  12. 12. Crop Yield Increase (Kg/Ha/Mg C) 30-50 million tons/yr in developing countries CROP YIELD INCREASE WITH INCREASE IN SOC BY 1 MgC/ha Lal (2005) Maize 100 - 300 Soybeans 20 - 50 Wheat 20 - 70 Rice 10 - 50 Sorghum 80 - 140 Millet 30 - 70 Beans 30 - 60
  13. 13. High LowMedium Medium Temperature Moisture Wet Dry Cool Hot CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN SOIL(1.3-3.1PG/YR)
  14. 14. CURRENT STATUS OF SOIL DATA IN SOUTH AFRICA • First surveys done in 1899 • National Landtype data base (1:250 000) • Fixed site monitoring points - 2000 • Soil point data (DAFF & PDAs) • PWV Soil survey / Western Cape Metropolitan survey (1:50 000) • Irrigation Schemes (1:10 000) • Digital Soil Mapping for 3 catchments • Application (mining; developments; environmental assessments; fertilizer companies) • Farm Planning & Other individual surveys (MANY!!) 14
  15. 15. Soil-related Databases at ARC-ISCW • Land Type database (ArcGIS) • Soil Profile database (MS Access) • Western Cape & Gauteng soil database (ArcGIS) • SoilDoc database (MS Access) – maps & reports • Historical Map Archive – scanned images • Rehabilitated coal mine soils (soil stockpiles)
  16. 16. ELEMENTS OF DRAFT STRATEGY FOR SOIL INFORMATION 18
  17. 17. STANDARDS – GOVERNMENT 19
  18. 18. STANDARDS – GOVERNMENT 20
  19. 19. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES - DAFF 21
  20. 20. CONCLUDING REMARKS 1. Finilise Comprehensive Soil information Strategy for South Africa 2. Improve on soil base data coordination and contributing custodians 3. Improve on allocation of dedicated funding & other resources 4. Improve on accessibility of soil data / information for all users in particular smallholder farmers 5. Harmonise national soil survey standards and operating procedures 6. Promote soil research, tertiary education and pursue focused soil chair 7. Strengthen Monitoring and Evaluation 22

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