Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders (updated on March 1st 2011)

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Comparative Study on Intercultural Sensitivity 
of Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees.

An applied research collaboration supported by the Human Capital Leadership Institute (Singapore) with the objective to derive a model for Asian leaders, which will lead to systematic global leadership development programs with Asian characteristics.

Built on our previous researches on Chinese and Indonesian intercultural sensitivity, we continue in this study by elaborating the cross-cultural experiences of the Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees and their respective local co-workers in China and Indonesia. Intercultural sensitivity has been widely accepted as one of the most significant element of global competencies and one of the strongest predictor for global leaders and managers accomplishments.

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  • Dr. Tjitra,

    As a professional trainer and facilitator of leadership development and communication skills, I am most impressed and intrigued by your research. I look forward to learning more about your work and, perhaps, meeting you in the coming year, as I will be working extensively in Shenyang.

    Best wishes,

    Mitch Feigenberg
    mitchellfeigenberg [at} yahoo.com
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  • @Edward: thanks for your interest. We are doing applied research with purpose to understand the specific Asian culture context in developing leaders for international jobs. We focus in this current studies on the Intercultural Sensitivity of Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees who are working and living in Indonesia and China. More info, feel free to contact me at hora_t(a)mac.com
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  • I would like to know what this is all about....how do we participate?Thanks
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Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders (updated on March 1st 2011)

  1. 1. Hangzhou, March 1st 2011 Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra & Dr. Hana Panggabean Building  the  Global  Competence   for  Asian  Leaders Comparative Study on Intercultural Sensitivity of Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees Project Info vers. 2.0
  2. 2. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Research  Objectives 2 A culture-specific model for intercultural sensitivity will be developed for each of the targeted culture based on indigenous resources. Built on these indigenous models, materials for leadership development program will be created. 1. Elaborating the challenges and problem solving strategies of Chinese, Singaporean and Indonesian business leaders in international co-operations. 2. Identifying key learning experiences to develop and sustain ICS for Chinese, Singaporean and Indonesian business leaders. 3. Developing culture-specific ICS models for Chinese, Singaporean, and Indonesian business leaders, covering innate characteristics and competencies. 4. Creating learning materials for leadership developmental programs, e.g., case studies, critical incidents, culture assimilator. 5. Instigating recommendations of organizational systems to support culturally effective leaders.
  3. 3. Agenda 1 Global Competence for Asian Leaders 4 Leadership development across borders 4 Intercultural competence and sensitivity 8 Country focus: China, Indonesia and Singapore 9 2 Proposed Research Methods 14 3 Expected Results and Deliverables 18 4 Project Info and Research Team 19
  4. 4. Global  Competence   for  Asian  Leaders
  5. 5. What does “GLOBAL Competence” for the Asian Leaders mean?
  6. 6. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Global  Leader  ≠  World-­Class  Leader 6 Superior / Boss Internal PartnersExternal Partners Team members / Employees Power Influences Impact Who are the stakeholders of the organization? What are the impacts of their decision?
  7. 7. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Developing  Leaders’  Global  Competence 14 “The  Jack  Welch  of  the  future  cannot  be  me.  I  spent  my  en9re  career  in   the  United  States.  The  next  head  of  General  Electric  will  be  somebody   who  spent  9me  in  Bombay,  in  Hong  Kong,  in  Buenos  Aires.  We  have  to   send  our  best  and  brightest  overseas  and  make  sure  they  have  the   training  that  will  allow  them  to  be  the  global  leaders  who  will  make   GE  flourish  in  the  future.” –by  Jack  Welch,  CEO  of  GE Developing  leadership  cross-­‐cultural  competence  was  among  the  top  5  organiza8on-­‐wide  prac8ces   affec8ng  the  effec8veness  of  mul8na8onal  corpora8ons.  (Stroh  and  Caligiuri,  1998) Mobley  &  Dorfman’s  (2003)  define  global  leadership  as  “influencing  across  na@onal  and  cultural  boundaries”.   Hampden-­‐Turner  and  Trompenaars  (2000)  have  found  that  global  leadership  competencies  develop  over   a  long  period  of  -me.  If  research  can  iden@fy  the  most  important  leadership  behavior,  prac@@oners  could   shorten  the  process  of  developing  the  most  important  competencies  (Bueno,2004;  McCall  &  Hollenbeck,   2002).
  8. 8. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Theoretical  Framework 3 An  Interdisciplinary  Approach  to  Have  a  Wide  Understanding  of  Intercultural  Sensi@vity   in  Asian  Leadership  Context Intercultural  Sensi@vity in  Asian  Leadership  Context Leadership   across  Cultures Intercultural  Competence and  Sensi@vity Culture  specific and  Indigenous  Studies Compara@ve Cross-­‐cultural  Studies Culture  specific and  Indigenous  Studies Compara@ve Cross-­‐cultural  Studies Leadership  Development Theories  and  Prac@ces Studies  and  Theories on  Leadership Research  Methods: • In-­‐depth  Interviews • Grounded  Theory • Ques@onnaire  Survey Secondary  Literatures: • Organiza@onal  Behavior • Social  Psychology • General  Management Learning  Materials for  Leadership  Development Developing  Asian  Leaders across  Borders Developing  Asian  specific Intercultural  Sensi@vity China Indonesia Singapore Western  Mul@na@onal Large  Asian  Corpora@on Asian  private  SME Asian  State-­‐Owned  Companies
  9. 9. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders What  is  Intercultural  Competence  and  Sensitivity? 9 “To be effective in another culture, people must be interested in other cultures, be sensitive enough to notice cultural differences, and then also be willing to modify their behavior as an indication of respect for the people of other cultures ” (Bhawuk and Brislin, 1992) Intercultural Competence Technical knowledge & skill Motivation Stress tolerance Respect for differences Harmony preservationSelf Control Awareness of communication symbols Language skill Verbal & non verbal expressionAttribution process of information Cultural empathy Intercultural Sensitivity Intercultural Communication Competence
  10. 10. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders China:  The  fastest  growing  economy  in  the  world 10 ● Ancient China was one of the earliest centers of human civilization. ● China has 56 ethnics while Han-Chinese take up around 92%. ● China’s traditional values were derived from various versions of Confucianism and conservatism, which has influenced Chinese thoughts and behaviors for thousands of years. ● Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Chinese art, literature, and performing arts like Beijing opera, remain greatly valued in China today.
  11. 11. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Chinese  Intercultural  Sensitivity  * 11 CIS Behavioral Cognitive Affective Personal Goal Task Objective “Mian Zi” (Face) Pull Push Philosophy / Education Chinese Culture Value Confucianism Harmony Differences Harmonization Relationship Optimization Change Accommodation Cultures Comprehension Ethno Identification Sunzi Strategics (“Sun Zi Bing Fa”) Favor (“Renqing”) Pragmatism (“Shihui”) Network (“Guanxi”) * Based on research Chinese Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity in tourism Industry, Funded by Zhejiang University, China.
  12. 12. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Indonesia:  Ultimate  in  Diversity 12 ● Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural identities developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese and European sources significantly. ● The main ethnic group is the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant. ● A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities. Society is largely harmonious, although social ,religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence. ● The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper and gold, which attracts more and more foreign investment in recent years.
  13. 13. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Indonesia  Intercultural  Competence  and  Sensitivity  * 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Group-harmony-oriented motivation to perform ICS Group-atmosphere assessment Acceptance of cultural differences Tenggang Rasa (Heightened Sensitivity) Display of emotional controls Respect Sensitivity toward non verbal behavior Active sensitivity * Based on research Characteristics of Intercultural Sensitivity in Indonesian-German Work Groups, Dr. Hana Panggabean, Indonesia
  14. 14. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Indonesia  Intercultural  Competence  and  Sensitivity  * 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Group Harmony Multiculturality Active Sensitivity Initial Cautiousness Conflict Avoidance Implicit Communication Musyawarah Untuk Mufakat * Based on research Characteristics of Intercultural Sensitivity in Indonesian-German Work Groups, Dr. Hana Panggabean, Indonesia
  15. 15. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Singapore:  the  most  globalised  country  in  the  world 15 ● Due to its diverse population and immigrant background, Singaporean culture has often been described as a mix of cultures – British, Malay, Chinese, Indian and Peranakan. ● Foreigners make up 42% of the population in Singapore and play an important role in influencing Singaporean culture. ● Singaporean government has been striving to promote Singapore as a center for arts and culture since 1990s, with the aim of transforming the country into a cosmopolitan “gateway between the East and West”.
  16. 16. Proposed  Research  Methods
  17. 17. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders The  Two  Phases  of  the  Project 17 Exploration and Theory Building (Oct 1, 2010 - Mar 31, 2011) Generalization and Material Development (Apr 1, 2011 - Sep 30, 2011) Objectives • The first phase is built on the previous research on Indigenous Intercultural Sensitivity of Chinese and Indonesian professional, which has been closed successfully by Dr. Panggabean and Dr. Tjitra in 2008. • This phase will focus on elaborating the intercultural experiences of the Chinese and Singaporean international assignees in Indonesian, as well as Indonesian and Singaporean assignees in China. • Following the findings from the first phase, the second phase is focusing on the generalization and fine tune of the developed model in another Asian countries (e.g. Singapore, India, Vietnam etc.). • More, in this phase learning materials for leadership development across cultures will be developed. Research Methods • Two research methods are going to be applied: Qualitative In-Depth Interviews and Quantitative Online Survey. • Data collection will be conducted mainly in China and Indonesia. • Two research methods are going to be applied: Qualitative In-Depth Interviews and Quantitative Online Survey. • Data collection will be conducted mainly in Singapore (and probably India plus Vietnam) • This study focuses on developing global competency model, which can be applied for a systematic leadership development program for Asian Leaders. • The whole project is divided into two phases: 1) Exploration and Theory Building 2) Generalization and Material Development
  18. 18. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Qualitative  Data  Collection  in  Indonesia  and  China:   82  In-­Depth  Interviews  (as  of  Jan.  25  2011) 18 A series of 90-min In-Depth Interviews were conducted in China and Indonesia from Nov. 2010 until Jan. 2011 with Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean business leaders and managers. In-­‐Depth  Interviews in  Indonesia In-­‐Depth  Interviews in  Indonesia 14 Chinese  Expatriates 1 Singaporean  Expatriates 12 Indonesian  Co-­‐workers 12 Indonesian  Co-­‐workers In-­‐Depth  Interviews in  China In-­‐Depth  Interviews in  China 16 Indonesian  Expatriates 12 Singaporean  Expatriates 6 Chinese  Co-­‐workers 9 Chinese  Co-­‐workers In China, the respondents are Indonesian and Singaporean expatriates who have been working and living in China for at least one year or more and having leadership experiences; as well as their local Chinese co-workers and counter-parts. Respectively in Indonesia, the respondents are the Chinese and Singaporean expatriates who are working and living in Indonesia as well as their local Indonesian co- workers and counter-parts.
  19. 19. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Data  Analysis  Approach:  Grounded  Theory 19 What & Why - Grounded Theory is A disciplined set of practices to ... • Explore a new domain or topic • Keep an open mind while conducting a rigorous analysis • Work in an area without a defining theory • Applicable to qualitative or quantitative data Strengths - • Theory is strongly tied to data (“grounded”) • Theory is continually tested through constant comparison • Data-collection is guided by theoretical sampling • Highlights the agency and responsibility of the researchers The Origins of Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967)
  20. 20. Interview 1 Interview 2 Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Grounded  Theory  -­  Framework  of  Study 20 Preparation: minimizing pre-conception Theoretical Sampling In-Depth Interview Analysis: comparison & sensitizing concepts Memoing: theorization & integration Theoretical Outline Sorting: conceptual sorting of memos Report & Writing Research Objectives and Questions Agreement Disagreement Exception Explanation Better Understanding
  21. 21. Expected  Results  and  Deliverables
  22. 22. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Expected  Results  and  Deliverables 22 At the end of this 12 months project, following deliverables are expected: 1. Comprehensive and systematic findings on the current situations and practices of Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees in Asia. 2. Theoretical framework and working model of the intercultural competence and sensitivity of Asian Leaders, incl. culture specific particularity of Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean. 3. Systematic study on the challenges and synergy potentials of pan- Asian Teamwork focusing on Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean. 4. Learning strategy and materials to systematically develop the intercultural competence and sensitivity of Asian Leaders, in particular the one with Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean origins.
  23. 23. Global  Competence  for  Asian  Leaders Research Partners: An applied research collaboration supported by the Human Capital Leadership Institute (Singapore) with the objective to derive a model for Asian leaders, which will lead to systematic global leadership development programs with Asian characteristics. Built on our previous researches on Chinese and Indonesian intercultural sensitivity, we continue in this study by elaborating the cross-cultural experiences of the Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees and their respective local co-workers in China and Indonesia. Intercultural sensitivity has been widely accepted as one of the most significant element of global competencies and one of the strongest predictor for global leaders and managers accomplishments. The principal investigators of the project are Dr. Hora Tjitra, Dr. Hana Panggabean, and the research team of the the Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), Zhejiang University of Technology (Hangzhou, China) and the Atma Jaya Indonesia Catholic University (Jakarta, Indonesia). Funding Partner: Zhejiang University China www.zju.edu.cn Zhejiang University of Technology China www.zjut.edu.cn Atma Jaya Catholic University Indonesia www.atmajaya.ac.id Human Capital Leadership Institute Singapore www.smu.edu.sg Hora Tjitra Hana Panggabean Juliana Murniati Quan HEJiewei ZHENG Chaohui ZHANGTeng SHENTU Jia ZHOU Xiaojuan WANG Dan ZHAOXixie ZHANG Sebastian Partogi Yuanbo LIU Tayyibah Mushtaq
  24. 24. Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders Research  Team  Collaboration  &  Activities 24
  25. 25. Thank  You Contact us via … Mail: htjitra@zju.edu.cn Follow: twitter@htjitra Website: http://sinau.me/hcli

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