Beyond the Feed Tag: Horse Feed Ingredient, Quality, Formulation and Safety Issues (Raub/Purina)


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Learn what the feed tag does not tell you and how ingredient selection, quality testing, formulation methods and safety programs can impact what you feed your horse.

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  • Just want to emphasize that what we do makes a real difference in the life of a horse and their owner…and that could mean any given bag that was the first bag of feed this particular horse was given
  • Because we know that horses need consistent care, including a consistent diet, the idea of a fixed formula sounds like it would be good for the horse. Feeding them exactly the same ration sounds like the good thing to do from a management standpoint. The problem with this idea is that horses don’t have ingredient requirements, they have nutrient requirements. The only purpose of the ingredients is to provide the required nutrition in a palatable, safe vehicle. Let’s see what can happen to nutrition when you use a fixed formula…here we have a nice formula for a 14% protein horse feed. At least that is what we’re formulating it for based on average protein content of the ingredients….
  • But, even within excellent quality ingredients, there is nutrient content variation. For example, not all good quality oats have the same amount of protein, not all beet pulp has the same amount of calcium, etc. So, when you use a fixed formula and don’t know the nutrient content of the supply of ingredients you are using for every batch of feed, there can be a tremendous range in the amount of nutrition delivered by the exact same formula. At Purina Mills, with our knowledge and testing of ingredients, we are able to use a constant nutrition formula system. This means that we test ingredients at the plants before they are accepted. If they test outside of our quality standards, we reject them and they are sold somewhere else. If they meet our quality standards we accept them and we know the nutrient content of the major nutrients. We manufacture each product using a very narrow range of adjustments that can be made to the formula to make each batch of feed provide exactly the same nutrition. We may make a minor adjustment in amount of soybean meal to make up for a slightly lower protein content of the oats, or we may make a very minor adjustment in the amount of oats to compliment a higher protein content of the beet pulp, etc. These are very small adjustments in amounts that go unnoticed by the horse, but that insure the same amount of nutrition is delivered in every bag. This is very different from least cost formulation which may make big changes in ingredients just to keep the feed cheaper. We do not do that in any way. We have very strict formulation standards that our veterinarians and Ph.D. nutritionists approve and every manufacturing facility must adhere to those standards. This system is put in place to ensure that the very most consistent nutrition is provided to your horse on a continuing basis and his system does not have to deal with the nutritional variation that can come with a fixed formula.
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  • Ingredients will vary in NSC content and laboratory analysis is variable between labs and even within same samples sent to the same or different labs so identifying a specific number for %NSC isn’t possible. The best option is to choose a range that is important for your horse’s individual issues and level of sensitivity.
  • When it comes to nutrition," Young said, "sometimes more is better, sometimes more is worse, and sometimes more is just more. There are certain amounts of all nutrients that the body requires for optimum function and performance. If the diet is deficient in a nutrient, health and performance will suffer. If the nutrient is added to the diet, performance will continue to improve until the nutrient requirement is met. However, there comes a point at which the continued addition of that nutrient will actually begin to hinder health and performance, and in some cases, over supplementation can become toxic to the horse." Vitamin A Selenium Potassium (electrolytes)
  • Beyond the Feed Tag: Horse Feed Ingredient, Quality, Formulation and Safety Issues (Raub/Purina)

    1. 1. Beyond The Feed Tag Randel Raub, PhD Purina Mills, St. Louis, MO. My Horse University and eXtension’s HorseQuest welcome you to this live Webcast.
    2. 2. Meet our presenter: Christine Skelly, Ph.D. Michigan State University Question facilitator: Randel Raub, PhD Purina Mills, St. Louis, MO.
    3. 3. Name of feed Class of horse Guaranteed analysis Ingredients <ul><li>Feeding directions (on other side) </li></ul><ul><li>Date code on the “tape” (Julian date coding or actual date) </li></ul>
    4. 5. What does the tag tell you? <ul><li>Potentially toxic ingredient safe guards? </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredient quality? </li></ul><ul><li>Source of ingredients? </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Testing to insure nutritional accuracy and consistency? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there real research and testing involved in the development of the product? </li></ul><ul><li>Who formulates the feed and how is it formulated? </li></ul><ul><li>Professional support and education? </li></ul>
    5. 6. Does what is not on the tag make a difference?? Would it make a difference to this horse??
    6. 7. How do you know what you are getting?? <ul><li>Professionally trained, </li></ul><ul><li>affectionate and house </li></ul><ul><li>broke dog free to good </li></ul><ul><li>home </li></ul>
    7. 8. How Important Is Trust ??
    8. 9. Ionophore and other drug contamination <ul><li>Ionophore / drug free manufacturing system </li></ul><ul><li>Ionophore / drug safe manufacturing system </li></ul><ul><li>Sure hope this doesn't kill your horse manufacturing system </li></ul>
    9. 10. Approved Suppliers <ul><li>All ingredients (except grains) must be purchased from pre-approved suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Approval process includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier Evaluation Survey completed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample submitted for evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visit to Supplier </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. What about commodities (grains)? <ul><li>Wheat midds, alfalfa and beet pulp are from approved suppliers with specific standards </li></ul><ul><li>Oats are within the approved standards for General Mills and Quaker Oats (bright white, #2, 40lb/bushel) </li></ul><ul><li>Corn: #2 yellow </li></ul>
    11. 12. Visual Inspection of Ingredients <ul><li>Check for correct label: </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect truck/rail car for leaks, seals </li></ul><ul><li>Look for contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect ingredient for conformity to standard: </li></ul>
    12. 13. Physical Inspection of Ingredients <ul><li>Bushel weight </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Insect infestation </li></ul><ul><li>Odor </li></ul><ul><li>Condition </li></ul>
    13. 14. Finished Product Quality Assurance <ul><li>Manufacturing inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pellet diameter, length and durability (choke related to case hardening and pellet diameter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid application variance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Packaging/Loading inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fines, liquid variance, visual, metal detectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warehouse inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum of 2 inspections/month </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. Analytical Testing <ul><li>In plant mycotoxin testing using quick test technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every load of corn at each horse plant: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other suspect ingredients </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Summary Totals (August 2004) <ul><li>Total Loads Tested 6680 </li></ul><ul><li>Total POSITIVE Aflatoxin 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Total POSITIVE Fumonisin 34 </li></ul><ul><li>% Rejections Aflatoxin 0.3 </li></ul><ul><li>% Rejections Fumonisin 0.5 </li></ul>
    16. 17. Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Summary (Sept. - July, 2003) <ul><li>16 Lifestyle Plants </li></ul><ul><li>332 Truck Loads Rejected </li></ul><ul><li>8300 Tons of Corn Rejected </li></ul><ul><li>Could have made approximately 50,000 tons of horse feed = 2,000,000 Bags of Feed = 16 million Feedings @ 6 lbs/Feeding </li></ul>
    17. 20. AFLATOXIN IN NEW CROP CORN TX: 20-100 ppb; LA > 20 ppb; MS > 45 ppb; IL > 40 ppb; MO > 20 ppb: GA up to 100 ppb; TN > 40 ppb; KY up to 45 ppb; VA up to 80 ppb; OK > 20 ppb; KS > 20 ppb. FUMONISIN IN NEW CROP CORN TX: up to 20 ppm; OK >10 ppm; GA > 5 ppm; NC up to 10 ppm; AZ 6 ppm
    18. 21. Formulation <ul><li>PhD equine nutritionist determined and controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Animal defined…nutrient targeted…ingredient dependant </li></ul>
    19. 22. <ul><li>Formulate with fixed amounts of ingredients or with variable amounts of ingredients within upper and lower limits? </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate a 14% crude protein feed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8% Alfalfa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16% Corn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>49% Oats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% Beet Pulp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% Soybean Meal </li></ul></ul>Formulation…It’s not the ingredients, it’s the nutrients!
    20. 23. <ul><li>Fixed formula: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein 12.4-21.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium .21-.64% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus .27-.42% </li></ul></ul>It’s not the ingredients, it’s the nutrients! <ul><li>Constant Nutrition Formula: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein 14 - 15% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium .45 - .55% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus .30 - .40% </li></ul></ul>Dairy One Library – Normal range for protein, Ca and P
    21. 24. Protein Content in Oats Aug - July 3,474 Observations
    22. 25. Constant Nutrition Formulation In plant NIR (near infrared) technology is needed to formulate for nutritional accuracy and consistency
    23. 26. Average Sugar and Starch Content* *Sugar and starch analyses will vary somewhat. A specific number is not reliable but ranges will be consistent. High Moderate Low Very Low
    24. 28. Nutrient Intake Related to Performance
    25. 29. Organic Trace Mineral Comparison <ul><li>Metal specific amino acid complex (Zn–Methionine) </li></ul><ul><li>Metal amino acid complex (Zn-aa) </li></ul><ul><li>Metal amino acid chelate (Zn-aa-aa) </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Proteinate (Zn-small proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Polysacc. Complex (Zn dispersed among a sugar complex) </li></ul><ul><li>Metal propionate (prop.-Zn-prop.) </li></ul>
    26. 30. Mineral sources organic / inorganic
    27. 31. Regulatory Classifications <ul><li>Only approved ingredients can be used in feeds (glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate??) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$15 bag $26 bag </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drug… to treat or prevent a specific health related condition … it is a drug and must meet strict FDA regulations, in addition to label guarantees </li></ul><ul><li>Nutriceutical supplement…sold under the premise of being a dietary supplement for the expressed intent of prevention or treatment of disease (currently these are not regulated) </li></ul>
    28. 32. It is in your feed?? <ul><li>How much…enough for efficacy or enough for “tag dressing”?? </li></ul><ul><li>Sound research showing an essential or measurable benefit to all horses?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeast, Pro-biotics, Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NRC: Insufficient data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Over supplementation is the rule rather than the exception! </li></ul>
    29. 33. 469 oral supplements in one catalog!!!!!!!!! <ul><li>Fly control 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Joint 120 </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-inflammatory 29 </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin resistance / laminitis 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Hoof 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Weight 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Hair Coat 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Colic 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin / Mineral 32 </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolytes 26 </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-biotic 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Blood 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Ulcer 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Performance 31 </li></ul><ul><li>Mare and Foal 27 </li></ul><ul><li>Pain 19 </li></ul><ul><li>Calm 27 </li></ul>
    30. 34. State of the art R&D and Innovation
    31. 35. Professional Support <ul><li>1-800 technical support </li></ul><ul><li>Equine specialists on site consulting </li></ul><ul><li>PhD access </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinary Services Support </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical testing </li></ul>
    32. 36. <ul><li>Are all feeds and feed manufactures the same…is it worth the time to know and understand the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the right questions and get answers in writing </li></ul>
    33. 37. Give us your feedback! <ul><li>You will receive a survey by email in 1-2 days. Please take a few minutes to give us your feedback on this webcast. It will help us to better serve you! </li></ul>
    34. 38. Upcoming Webcasts <ul><li>How Green is Your Farm </li></ul><ul><li>by Dr. Ann Swinker | Penn State University </li></ul><ul><li>Tuesday, December 14 | 7:00 PM </li></ul>
    35. 39. Thank you for attending this live web presentation! For more information about My Horse University please visit us at: | | 517-353-3123