Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Top 10 pet food safety & quality concerns in 2012


Published on

Pet owners and their veterinarians need to work together and be better informed now more than ever in light of recent Diamond (and co-brands) salmonella recalls to keep our pets healthy & safe. We need better pet food, treat & supplement labeling so we can all make better decisions for our beloved pets.

Published in: Lifestyle, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Top 10 pet food safety & quality concerns in 2012

  1. 1. Ken Lambrecht DVM Medical Director Westside Family Pet Clinic r Presented June 2nd, 2012 At the Howlin’ HooplaFundraiser for the Dane County Humane Society
  2. 2. Our buddies deserve the truth! Bug Lance
  3. 3. Pet Food is an emotional issue!
  4. 4. The top 5 concerns of pet owners1) What are the best ingredients for my dog or cat? (corn vs chicken vs beef, byproducts, salt, sugar etc)2) How do I read a pet food label?3) Can I trust the manufacturer?4) Will my dog/cat like it?5) Will it be healthy for my dog/cat?
  5. 5. 5 top concerns of veterinarians 1) Feeding study performed & verified by an American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) statement on label 2) Good manufacturer quality controls & integrity 3) Appropriate life stage 4) Appropriate protein and calorie levels 5) Preventive ingredients
  6. 6. Why as pet owners are weconcerned? Menu foods melamine recalls of 2007 Diamond foods salmonella recalls of 2012 Distrust of “big box” companies Over processing of human food Organic, locally sourced food movement
  7. 7. Team work!
  8. 8. Have a veterinarian do a full nutritionalassessment before you make your final choice
  9. 9. Our role as veterinarians1. We are the trusted advisors/scientists2. We want to avoid interactions/side effects3. Be preventive if possible4. Pet owners want us to make a recommendation5. Above all we need to be educators!
  10. 10. What do dogs need? They are omnivorous (like humans) Are NOT apex predators like wolf (more like foxes = scavengers) Scavengers eat small prey, plant material, berries, carrion, intestinal contents, etc Variation in dog breeds (over 300!) Has eaten what man has given him/her since domestication
  11. 11. What do cats need? They are true or obligate carnivores Natural diet: mice, birds, lizards, crickets etc ,which are 55-58% protein Evolutionarily have not changed in over 9000 years! Have always eaten what they can kill!
  12. 12. A pet food label is:  FDA & AAFCO regulated  Is a legal document  Difficult to read!!!!!Our pet food label checklist
  13. 13. Pet Food Label Ingredient ListA. Ingredients must be listed in order by weightB. Meat protein source should be in first threeC. Salt divides Major from Minor ingredientsD. Many unusual terms with specific definitionsE. Need better labeling!
  14. 14. What are best ingredients?1. Are grains bad?2. What is best protein source?3. Are “byproducts” safe?4. What about holistic, organic or human grade claims5. Are pet foods over processed?
  15. 15. 1) Are grains (corn, wheat & soy)evil? “The great grain debate” opponents proponents CORN a filler and a poor corn meal is good protein source of protein source digestible poorly digestible doesn’t cause causes allergies more allergies than any other protein SOY cheap source of fine if used w/ inferior protein complementary grains WHEAT allergenic not allergenic
  16. 16. Most common ingredients to causeallergies or adverse reactions Dogs (n= 198) Cats (n=89) 1. Beef (36%) 1. Beef (20%) 2. Dairy (28%) 2. Dairy (14.6%) 3. Wheat (15%) 4. Egg (10%) 3. Fish (13%) 5. Chicken (9.6%) 4. Lamb (6.7%) 6. Lamb (6.6%) 5. Poultry (4.5%) 7. Soy (6%) 6. Barley/wheat (4.5%) Verlinden A, Hesta M, Millet S et al Food Allergy in Cats & Dogs a review Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;259-273
  17. 17. Allergies in pets are fairly common &difficult to identify causative protein Only about 5% of pets are allergic to food proteins With multiple protein ingredients in food & treats almost impossible to tell which one (blood tests correlate poorly) Many more pets are allergic to environmental proteins 20-30% (house dust, pollens, and even grain storage mites)
  18. 18. Why do corn (and other grains) getsuch negative reviews online? High fructose corn syrup? Aflatoxins? Grain storage mites? Others?
  19. 19. 2) What is best protein source andhow much protein does my pet need? Crude protein (listed on bag) Digestible protein (from feeding study) Shouldn’t all pet foods be required to tell us how digestible the protein is?
  20. 20. How much protein isneeded in a healthy pet?2 omnivores (dogs & humans)1 carnivore (cat) Humans typically need 14% protein Dogs typically need 18 to 25% protein Cats need 40 to 50% protein Zoran, Debra L., and C.A. Tony Buffington. “Effects of Nutrition Choices and Lifestyle Changes on the Well-being of Cats, a Carnivore That Has Moved Indoors.” JAVMA 239.5 (2011): 596-606
  21. 21. Protein digestibility Poultry by product meal 65 to 70% Chicken meal 63 to 67% Fish meal 60 to 65% Corn gluten meal 60 to 64% Meat & bone meal 50 to 55% Soybean meal 46 to 50%
  22. 22. 3) Are byproducts safe and necessary?  Simply defined… a byproduct is anything left over in the manufacture of a food product.  These products IF HANDLED PROPERLY are perfectly good sources of protein, fat & carbohydrates.  What would we do with all the leftovers from animal & plant processing if we didn’t produce? “Feed Your Pet Right” Marion Nestle & Malden Nesheim
  23. 23. 4) What about natural, holistic,organic, & human grade claims? There are currently no legal definitions for “holistic” or “human grade” label claims
  24. 24. 5) Are pet foods over processed? The real issue is complex vs simple carbs Refined & processed carbohydrates (simple carbs & sugars) should be avoided in pet foods just like in people How do we tell that from a pet label? Currently we can’t anymore than in human food labels!
  25. 25. 5 top concerns of veterinarians1) American Association of Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) statement2) Manufacturer quality controls & integrity3) Appropriate life stage4) Appropriate protein & calorie levels5) Preventive ingredients
  26. 26. Our role as veterinarians1. We are the trusted advisors/scientists2. We want to avoid interactions/side effects3. Be preventive whenever possible4. Pet owners want us to make a recommendation5. Above all we need to educate!
  27. 27. 1) AAFCO Statement “Feeding study performed” BEST “Meets established levels” GOOD “To be used under supervision of a veterinarian” RX FOODS No statement = BEWARE
  28. 28. AAFCO feeding study At least 8 dogs 6 months Blood work, physical exams Only way to tell protein digestibility/quality digestibility=metabolizable (usable) energy from protein
  29. 29. 2) Manufacturer details Phone number Ability to track & recall Does internal controls & quality checks Follows all FDA rules Has Board Certified Veterinary Nutritionist (DACVN) on staff Optional: Does research & shares freely with veterinary profession
  30. 30. Branding vs Manufacturing MANY foods are not made by who we think Mom & Pop vs “Big Box” pet foods Co-branding is fine if done with good partners Are manufacturer details listed clearly enough for consumers to know where the food was actually made?
  31. 31. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act(FFDCA) requires that all animal foods, likehuman foods, be safe to eat, producedunder sanitary conditions, contain noharmful substances, and be truthfullylabeled.In addition, canned pet foods must beprocessed in conformance with the lowacid canned food regulations to ensure thepet food is free of viable microorganisms
  32. 32. These companies had food recalls relatedto the Diamond Foods Recall of 2012  Wellness  Chicken Soup for Pet Lovers Soul  Taste of the Wild  Kirkland Dog Food  Kirkland Cat Food  Solid Gold  Canidae  Dick Van Patten’s Natural Balance  Diamond
  33. 33. Recalls in 2011 Petrus Dog Food Recall Dec 2011 Arrow Brand DFR Dec 2011 Cargill Dec 2011 Iams Puppy Food Dec 2011 FDA Dog Treat Warning Nov 2011 Merrick Dog Treat Recall Aug 2011 Bravo Pig ears Salmonella June 2011
  34. 34. More Recalls in 2010 & 2011 Prime Time & KC Beef hide Pig Ears May 2011 Diggers Natural Treats Salmonella May 2011 Pig Ears due to possible Salmonella Merrick Pet Treats Salmonella Jan 2011 Kroger Dog Food Aflatoxin Dec 2010 Blue Buffalo Dog Food Vit D Oct 2010 Hartz Dog Treats Sept 2010 Merrick Dog Treats Aug 2010
  35. 35. Recalls for pet foods & treatsare usually due to: Salmonella (or other bacteria) from animal fat or product Aflatoxins (a plant fungus) from grain Toxins (melamine in 2007) Ingredient deficiencies or excesses (2010 Blue Buffalo Vit D excess, 2012 Purina Rx OM Thiamine deficiency)
  36. 36. A closer look at the Diamondsalmonella recall… 8 separate recalls over 2 months (new foods added weekly for over 4 weeks) Now affects 2 plants (Gaston SC & Meta, Mo) Triggered 2 FDA investigations Has sickened pets worldwide and at least 16 people
  37. 37. 4 FDA Violations to date1. No microbiological analysis conducted or no assurance that incoming animal fat will not introduce pathogens2. No facilities for hand washing or sanitizing in area where there is direct contact with exposed finished food3. Paddles in conveyor leading to screens going to packaging were observed to have gouges & cuts which exhibited feed residues4. Firm uses cardboard, duct tape & other non- cleanable surfaces on equipment.
  38. 38. 4 FDA Violation #1 1) All reasonable precautions not taken to ensure contamination from any source Violation: No microbiological analysis conducted or no assurance that incoming animal fat will not introduce pathogens . Also current sampling procedure for animal digest not adequate. Employee observed touching filter with bare hands
  39. 39. FDA Violation #2 2) Failure to provide hand washing & sanitizing facilities at each location in plant where needed Specifically no facilities for hand washing sanitizing in area where there is direct contact with exposed finished food
  40. 40. FDA Violation #3 3) Failure to maintain equipment, containers & utensils in a manner that protects against contamination. Specifically paddles in conveyor leading to screens going to packaging were observed to have gouges & cuts which exhibited feed residues which could harbor microbes (like salmonella)
  41. 41. FDA Violation #4 Failure to maintain equipment so as to facilitate cleaning of equipment Specifically firm uses cardboard, duct tape & other non-cleanable surfaces on equipment. These materials were observed to have residues adhering.
  42. 42. These foods were all produced atDiamond’s plants  Wellness  Chicken Soup for Pet Lovers Soul  Taste of the Wild  Kirkland Dog Food  Kirkland Cat Food  Solid Gold  Canidae  Dick Van Patten’s Natural Balance  Diamond’s own brands  More details at link below Summary article of 2012 Diamond Salmonella recall as of 6/2/2012
  43. 43. Can we trust the manufacturer ofthe food we have chosen to feed?We need to ask the tough questions always for thesafety & benefit of our buddies!
  44. 44. 3) Life stage statement Growth/lactation for puppies & lactating bitches Maintenance for all others Light Formula food to be less than 320 Cal/cup Senior and all others have no AAFCO definition!
  45. 45. 4) Correct amt to feed and howmuch protein Always need to know Calories/cup Protein (plant or animal) levels are important especially for cats 40-50% Only crude protein levels listed (need to know digestibility-only comes from feeding trial like AAFCO)
  46. 46. 5) Preventive ingredientsA. Fish oilsB. Joint Supplements (Glucosamine, Chondroitin, Perna Green lipped mussel, ASU)C. ProbioticsD. Higher Protein (for cats)E. Antioxidants, isoflavones, others
  47. 47. What are we trying to prevent? Overweight dogs & cats (even 10% overweight is not Ideal!) Dental disease Arthritis Cancer Immune system diseases
  48. 48. Treating & preventing obesity inpets has to be done now!
  49. 49. Pets Reducing for Rescues 2012 55 participants (36 dogs & 19 cats) DCHS, Grey Muzzle, FOF, & LEARN top rescues DCHS Contestants Lilly & Teena were winners! $1000 in prizes awarded $1020 donated to rescues Clover
  50. 50. Fish oils (EPA & DHA) Anti-inflammatory dose = 20mg/lb of EPA/day 60 lb dog will need 1200 mg (typical human capsule is 180mg) will need to give 7 capsules daily or feed Rx diet Sources: Can get at Wal-Mart, Costco etc or in Rx foods (Purina, Hills & Royal Canin) Flax oil does NOT = fish oil
  51. 51. Joint supplements Serious quality & quantity concerns! Glucosamine (not enough in food by law) Perna Green lipped Mussel (not regulated) Chondroitin sulfate (expensive) Use veterinary label products only!
  52. 52. Probiotics = The future is bright! LIVE organisms (need to know which ones and how many) Killed by heat Dose very important 5 billion CFU/capsule Human products up to 450 billion!
  53. 53. WFPC team’s favorite references “Feed Your Pet Right” Marion Nestle “Chow Hounds” Dr Ernie Ward FDA Pet food site
  54. 54. To minimize concerns lets worktogether to be educated! and be as concerned about the calorie content & ideal weight, manufacturer details, the preventive value of evidence based ingredients & supplements as any single ingredient
  55. 55. Thank you for your attention! Questions?