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Preparation of Nanoparticles


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  • 1. Ena Athaide Department of Biochemistry Institute of Science ,Mumbai Msc-1,Sem-2
  • 2. what is “nano” technology • A technology that measures ,manipulate or incorporate materials or features with a critical dimension between 1 – 100 nm, also whose application exploit properties distinct from bulk macroscopic systems from which they arise. Nanotechnology
  • 3.  Nano particles are particles which lie in dimensions between 1 – 100 nm.  “Nano” derived from the Greek word “nanos” which means dwarf or extremely small.  It can be used as a prefix for any unit to mean a billionth of that unit.  For example ,nanosecond (billionth of a second),nanoliter(billionth of a liter),nanometer(billionth of a meter)
  • 4.  They consist of micro molecular materials in which the active ingredients(drug or biologically active material)is dissolved , entrapped, encapsulated, adsorbed or attached.
  • 5. Nano particles Nanospheres Nanoencapsules Matrix type structure in which a drug dispersed . Membrane wall structure with a polymeric system containing drug
  • 6. Natural polymers •Gelatin •Albumin •Lectin •Alginate •Dextran •Agarose Synthetic polymers Either prepolymerized or polymerized in process •Poly( e-caprolactone) PECL •Poly(lactic acid) PLA •Polystyrene •Poly(isobutylcyanoacrylates) PICA
  • 7.  Top ⇨ Down: • Building what you want by assembling it from building blocks ( such as atoms and molecules). • Atom-by-atom, molecule-by- molecule, or cluster-by-cluster  Bottom ⇨ Up: • Start with the bulk material and “cut away material” to make the what you want
  • 8.  Nanoparticles may be created using several methods. The methods of creation include Attrition and Pyrolysis.  While some methods are bottoms up, some are called top down.  Top down methods involve breaking the larger materials into Nanoparticles.
  • 9.  Attrition methods include methods by which macro or micro scale particles are ground in a ball mill, a planetary ball mill, or other size reducing mechanism. The resulting particles are air classified to recover Nanoparticles.  Involves mechanical thermal cycles ◦ broad size distribution (10-1000 nm) ◦ varied particle shape or geometry ◦ Impurities
  • 10.  Nanocomposite: A nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometers (nm), or structures having Nano-scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material. This schematic shows a silicon- carbon nanocomposite granule formed through a hierarchical bottom-up assembly process. Annealed carbon black particles are coated by silicon nanoparticles and then assembled into rigid spheres with open interconnected internal channels.
  • 11. This scanning electron micrograph shows carbon-coated silicon nanoparticles on the surface of the composite granules.
  • 12.  Producing batteries with greater power output. Researchers have developed a method to make anodes for lithium ion batteries from a composite formed with silicon nanospheres and carbon Nanoparticles. The anodes made of the silicon-carbon nanocomposite make closer contact with the lithium electrolyte, which allows faster charging or discharging of power.
  • 13.  In Pyrolysis, a vapors precursor (liquid or gas) is forced through a hole or opening at high pressure and burned.  The resulting solid is air classified to recover oxide particles from by-product gases.  Pyrolysis often results in aggregates and agglomerates rather than singleton primary particles.  Instead of gas, thermal plasma can also deliver the energy necessary to cause evaporation of small micrometer size particles. The thermal plasma temperatures are in the order of 10,000 K, so that solid powder easily evaporates. Nanoparticles are formed upon cooling while exiting the plasma region.
  • 14.  For example, silica sand can be vaporized with an arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. The resulting mixture of plasma gas and silica vapour can be rapidly cooled by quenching with oxygen, thus ensuring the quality of the fumed silica produced.  The advantages of vapor phase Pyrolysis include it being a simple process, cost effective, a continuous operation with high yield.
  • 15.  The liquid phase fabrication entails a wet chemistry route. Methods are: o Solvothermal Methods (e.g. hydrothermal) o Sol-Gel Methods o Synthesis in Structure Media (e.g., microemulsion) o Effectiveness of Solvothermal Methods and Sol-gel methods demands a simple process, low cost, continuous operation and high yield.
  • 16. Solvothermal process: Precursors are dissolved in hot solvents (e.g., n- butyl alcohol).Solvent other than water can provide milder and friendlier reaction conditions .If the solvent is water then the process is referred to as hydrothermal method. Solvothermal synthesis has been used in laboratory to make nanostructured titanium dioxide, graphene, carbon nanotubes and other materials.
  • 17.  The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique that uses either a chemical solution (short for solution) or colloidal particles ( nanoscale particle) to produce an integrated network (gel).  Metal alkoxides and metal chlorides are typical precursors. They undergo hydrolysis and polycondensation reactions to form a colloid, a system composed of nanoparticles dispersed in a solvent. The sol evolves then towards the formation of an inorganic continuous network containing a liquid phase (gel).  Formation of a metal oxide involves connecting the metal centers with oxo (M-O-M) or hydroxo (M-OH-M) bridges, therefore generating metal-oxo or metal-hydroxo polymers in solution.  After a drying process, the liquid phase is removed from the gel. Then, a thermal treatment (calcination) may be performed in order to favor further polycondensation and enhance mechanical properties.
  • 18. Microemulsions are clear, stable, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. The aqueous phase may contain salt(s) and/or other ingredients, and the "oil" may actually be a complex mixture of different hydrocarbons and olefins. The two basic types of microemulsions are direct (oil dispersed in water, o/w) and reversed (water dispersed in oil, w/o). Nanosized CdS-sensitized TiO2 crystalline photocatalyst prepared by microemulsion. (Yu, J. C. et al. Chem. Commun. 2003, 1552.)
  • 19. 1. Lewis, L. N. Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 1993, 93, 2693. 2. Colvin, V. L.; Schlamp, M. C.; Alivisatos, A. P. Nature 1994, 370, 354. 3. Nanoparticles, Gunter Schmidt Edition, Wiley-VCH, 2004. 4. Hirai, H.; Toshima, N. Tailored Metal Catalysts; Iwasawa, Y., Ed.; D. Reidel: Dordrecht, 1986; pp 87-140. 5. Teranishi and M. Miyake, Chem. Mater. 1998, 10, 594-600 6. Nanoparticles - L. Anthony and P. Moghe
  • 20.  Scientists reveal new insights on nano 3D printing(12 Nov 2012) A team of physicists funded by FEI Company and the Australian Research Council have unveiled new physics behind the nanofabrication technique known as electron beam induced deposition (EBID), essentially 3D printing at the molecular level.
  • 21.  Using the UTS FEI laboratory and an advanced research grade electron microscope the scientists have been able to explain the nature of chemical reactions on hot, solid surfaces and to "write" highly pure nanostructures.  The UTS experiments have led to the discovery that the EBID technique performs optimally under conditions previously dismissed as ineffective, due to gaps in prior understanding of the basic science behind EBID. These findings help advance the techniques and build the machines used to advance nano scale science and technology.
  • 22. A nanostructure fabricated using EBID
  • 23. 1. Lewis, L. N. Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 1993, 93, 2693. 2. Colvin, V. L.; Schlamp, M. C.; Alivisatos, A. P. Nature 1994, 370, 354. 3. Nanoparticles, Gunter Schmidt Edition, Wiley-VCH, 2004. 4. Hirai, H.; Toshima, N. Tailored Metal Catalysts; Iwasawa, Y., Ed.; D. Reidel: Dordrecht, 1986; pp 87-140. 5. Teranishi and M. Miyake, Chem. Mater. 1998, 10, 594-600 6. Nanoparticles - L. Anthony and P. Moghe
  • 24. • Techniques for the manipulation of matter at the nano scale, 12 Nov 2012,UTS News room, entists-reveal-new-insights-on-nano-3d-printing