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Nanoparticle use in pharmaceutical analysis

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Nanoparticle use in pharmaceutical analysis

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Nanoparticle use in pharmaceutical analysis

  1. 1. • P R E P A R E D B Y : - B H A U M I K R . B A V I S H I 1 5 M P H 3 0 1 •G U I D E D B Y ; - D R . P R I T I J . M E H T A •D E P A R T M E N T O F P H A R M A C E U T I C A L A N A L Y S I S Nanoparticle Use in Pharmaceutical Analysis
  2. 2. Nanoparticle  Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size.  Particles are further classified according to diameter, Ultrafine particles are the same as nanoparticles and between 1 and 100 nanometers in size,  Fine particles are sized between 100 and 2,500 nanometers, and  coarse particles cover a range between 2,500 and 10,000 nanometers.
  3. 3. Nanoparticle Use in Pharmaceutical Analysis NanoParticles are widely uses in these areas.. 1. In Electrochemical Analysis 2. In Separation Analysis 3. In Clinical Analysis 4. Enhanced Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy 5. Other Pharmaceutical Applications
  4. 4. 1) In Electrochemical Analysis • The unique chemical and physical properties of NanoParticles make the suitable sensing devices for analysis like • Electrochemical sensors and biosensors • Many kinds of NanoParticles, such as metal, oxide and semiconductor nanoparticles have been used for constructing electrochemical sensors and biosensors • These NanoParticles play different roles in different sensing systems
  5. 5.  Metal NanoParticles have excellent conductivity and catalytic properties, which make them suitable for acting as “electronic wires” .  And also for enhance the electron transfer between redox centers in proteins and electrode surfaces, and as catalysts to increase electrochemical reactions.  Oxide NanoParticles are often used to immobilize biomolecules due to their biocompatibility, while semiconductor nanoparticles are often used as labels or tracers for electrochemical analysis.  Such as enzyme sensors, immunosensors and DNA sensors.
  6. 6.  The important functions provided by NanoParticles include  The immobilization of biomolecules, the catalysis of electrochemical reactions, the enhancement of electron transfer between electrode surfaces and proteins, labeling of biomolecules and even acting as reactant
  7. 7. Electrochemical Immunoassay o An immunoassay work as Electrochemical Analysis o It is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. o The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and in many cases it is a protein
  8. 8. 2) In Clinical Analysis • NanoParticles can be used to target tumor antigens as well as Biomarkers with high affinity and specificity. • NanoParticle-based detection technologies have the potential to improve detection sensitivity • Point of care testing has become the most famous way of diagnosis in clinical analysis  In recent years, Quantum dots (QDs), or semiconductor nanocrystals, are another type of NanoParticles which having a wide range of potential clinical applications including cell labeling, in vivo imaging and diagnostics
  9. 9. • Due to the Quantum dots's photophysical properties such as broad absorption spectra coupled to a narrow emission spectrum, • Quantum dots of different emission colors may be excited by a single wavelength, thus enabling multiple detection of molecular targets.
  10. 10.  Other fluorescent labels used in medical research include magnetic NanoParicles such as SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs)  SPIONs are one of the few clinically approved metal oxide NanoParticles and find applications in the biomedical field such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), drug and gene delivery and hyperthermic destruction of tumor tissue.  Fluorescent NanoParticles can be used for multiple profiling of tumour biomarkers and for detection of multiple genes and matrix RNA with fluorescent in-situ hybridization.
  11. 11.  Supermagnetic NanoParticles have exciting possibilities as agents for cancer detection in vivo, and for monitoring the response to treatment.
  12. 12. 3) In Separation Analysis  NanoParticles, containing magnetic materials, such as magnetite (Fe3O4), are particularly useful for imaging and separation techniques.  As these NanoParticles are generally considered to be biologically and chemically inert, they are typically coated with metal catalysts, antibodies or enzymes to increase their functionality as separation agents  MagneticNanoParticles have been used for separating proteins, DNA and cells from samples, for drug and gene targeting , for tissue engineering , for magnetic resonance imaging, as magnetic biosensors and as mediators of heat for cancer therapy.
  13. 13.  NanoParticles having ability to catalyse the oxidation of organic substrates to reduce their toxicity and/or to produce a colour change is frequently used in wastewater treatment or as a detection tool.  MagneticNanoParticles (such as Fe3O4) have been coated with metal catalysts or conjugated with enzymes, to combine the separating power of the magnetic properties with the catalytic activity of the metal surface or enzyme conjugate.  For example, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-entrapped MagneticNanoParticles have been used for biocatalysis and bioseparation, and a magnetic core of Co coated with Pt allows magnetic separation and catalysis of hydrogenation.
  14. 14. Figure 1 Fe3O4 MNPs show peroxidase-like activity. a, TEM images of Fe3O4 MNPs of different sizes. b, The Fe3O4 MNPs catalyse oxidation of various peroxidase substrates in the presence of H2O2 to produce different colour reactions. c, Scheme of the mechanism of catalysis by Fe3O4 MNPs. AH represents the substrate, which is a hydrogen donor
  15. 15. 4) Enhanced Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy  NanoParticle Enhanced LIBS (NELIBS) in order to improve the sensitivity of LIBS on metals without changing the classical set-up and keeping the analysis operations easy and fast.  Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) performed on thin sections of rodent tissues: kidneys and tumor, allows the detection of inorganic elements such as Na, Ca, Cu, Mg, and Fe, naturally present in the body.
  16. 16.  Nanoparticles appear as the perfect solution for several reasons: first of all,  they contaminate the target only in a negligible extent (less than 0.04 %);  they can be easily deposited on the sample surface and be completely removed during the laser irradiation.  And their effect on the sample under laser irradiation is huge, because of their physical properties.  In NELIBS a micro-drop of solution containing NanoParticles (NPs) is deposited on the sample surface in an area covering the focused laser spot.
  17. 17. • When the solvent evaporates, NanoParticles adhere to the surface and change its properties, notably increasing the efficiency of laser energy deposition on the sample.  NanoParticles can be considered as ideal thermally- insulated defects able to lower the breakdown threshold. • NanoParticle-enhanced LIBS (NELIBS) was found to be a robust and flexible tool for the chemical analysis of metals. • because the sample emission signal did not appear to be affected much by the size and concentration of deposited NanoParticles (NPs) within the ranges of 10 nm for diameter and 1 order of magnitude for concentration.
  18. 18. 5) Other Pharmaceutical Applications • Optical Applications: Silver NanoParticles are used to efficiently harvest light and for enhanced optical spectroscopies including metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. • Conductive Applications: Silver NanoParticles are used in conductive inks and integrated into composites to enhance thermal and electrical conductivity
  19. 19.  Diagnostics: Nanoparticles in particular have exhibited tremendous potential for detecting fragments of viruses, pre-cancerous cells, disease markers, and indicators of radiation damage  A NanoParticle-based biobarcode amplification assay (BCA) utilizes gold NanoParticles and magnetic microparticles attached to large numbers of DNA strands and antibodies for a specific disease marker.  This BCA technology has been applied to the detection of markers for Alzheimer’s disease and is being investigated for other numerous disease.
  20. 20. Targeted Drug Delivery: • Therapeutic drug molecules have been immobilized on the surface of magnetic NanoParticles or nanocrystals and directed to a specific target tissue using a magnetic field gradient • In hypothermal treatment, magnetic NanoParticles are directed to diseased tissue containing heat sensitive tumors. • Such as enzyme sensors, immunosensors and DNA sensors.
  21. 21.  The important functions provided by nanoparticles include  The immobilization of biomolecules, the catalysis of electrochemical reactions, the enhancement of electron transfer between electrode surfaces and proteins, labeling of biomolecules and even acting as reactant.
  22. 22.  Biosensors and Biolabels: Multi-color labeling of both fixed and living cells with fluorescent NanoParticles conjugated with biological ligands that specifically bind against certain cellular targets enables the recording of diffusion pathways in receptor cells  Other medical and pharmaceutical field having applications like include gene therapy, antibacterial/antimicrobial agents for burn and wound dressings, repair of damaged tissues, artificial tissues, enhancing signals for magnetic resonance imaging examinations, and as radio frequency controlled switching of complex biochemical processes.
  23. 23. REFERENCE  Application of Nanoparticles in Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Xiliang Luo, Aoife Morrin, Anthony J. Killard, Malcolm R. Smyth* School of Chemical Sciences, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland  http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/materials- science/nanomaterials/silver-nanoparticles.html  http://moscow.sci- hub.bz/c4f7ba410853d33f55ba966450fcf112/10.1038%40n nano.2007.260.pdf
  24. 24.  Nanoparticle Enhanced Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (NELIBS): effect of nanoparticles deposited on sample surface on laser ablation and plasma emission. A. De Giacomo* 1,2, R. Gaudiuso1,2 , C. Koral1 , M. Dell’Aglio2 , O. De Pascale2 1. University of Bari, Department of Chemistry, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari-Italy 2. CNR-IMIP, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari-Italy  Nanoparticle-Enhanced Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Metallic Samples A. De Giacomo,*,†,‡ R. Gaudiuso,†,‡ C. Koral,† M. Dell’Aglio,‡ and O. De Pascale‡ † Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari, Italy ‡ IMIP-CNR, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari, Italy

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