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  1. 1. Importance of Water Presented by Ena Athaide INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE,MUMBAI
  2. 2. Functions of Water • Cell life • Chemical and metabolic reactions • Transport of nutrients • Body temperature regulation • Elimination of waste
  3. 3. Total body water and its distribution • Total body water : water content of the human body, containted in the tissues, the blood, the bones, or elsewhere. • Body water makes up a significant fraction of the human body, both by weight and by volume. By weight, the average man is approximately 60% water.
  4. 4. Fluid Compartments in the Human Body
  5. 5. Water turnover and Balance • Water Intake: 1.Exogenous water:  Ingested water through food and beverages.  Range : 0.5- 5 liters .  Increase in the osmolality increases water intake. 2. Endogenous water:  Metabolic water  300-350 ml derived from oxidation of food.
  6. 6. Water turnover and Balance • Water Output 1.Urine 2.Skin 3.Lungs 4.Feces
  7. 7. Water Output Urine • Major route for water loss. • 1 -2 liter/day. • Highly regulated process depending on body demands. • 500 ml/day is necessary to be eliminated.
  8. 8. • Almost 180 L of water is filtered by the glomeruli into the renal tubules everyday. • 1-2 L is excreted as urine. • Water excretion is regulated by kidney with the action of ADH. • Osmolality increases, ADH secretion increases, water reabsorption increases from renal tubules. • Osmolality decreases, ADH secretion decreases, water reabsorbtion decreases.
  9. 9. Skin • 450ml /day occurs through perspiration. •Atmospheric temperature and humidity. •1° rise in temperature about 15% increase in water loss. Lungs • 400 ml/day is lost through expired air. • During fever water loss through lungs is increased.
  10. 10. Feces • 150ml/day is lost through feces in an healthy individual. • Increases during Diarrhea. The loss of water by perspiration(via skin) and respiration(via lungs) is collectively referred to as insensible water loss.
  11. 11. Recent Research Should children drink more water? the effects of drinking water on cognition in children. • Dehydration has well-documented negative effects on adult cognition, there is little research on hydration and cognitive performance in children. • They investigated whether having a drink of water improved children's performance on cognitive tasks. • Fifty-eight children aged 7-9 years old were randomly allocated to a group that received additional water or a group that did not. • Results showed that children who drank additional water rated themselves as significantly less thirsty than the comparison group (p=0.002), and they performed better on visual attention tasks (letter cancellation, p=0.02; spot the difference memory tasks, ps=0.019 and 0.014).
  12. 12. References • Importance of water in diet (http://www.nestle- waters.com/healthy-hydration/water-fonctions-in-human- body),viewed on 11/2/2014. • What Is the Purpose of Water & the Function It Provides for the Body?(http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/purpose-water- function-provides-body-3344.html), viewed on 11/2/2014. • The Importance Of Water And Your Health (http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages /Water_a_vital_nutrient?) , viewed on 11/2/2014. • Edmonds, C. J., & Burford, D. (2009). Should children drink more water?: The effects of drinking water on cognition in children. Appetite, 52(3), 776-779.
  13. 13. Thank you