Carbon Capture And Storage


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  • Dear Sir,

    A nice presentation.

    A few comments:
    - EOR is merely about extracting more Oil
    - the Japanese project was closed in 2008
    - Oceanic storage is not considered anymore. The two main reasons: the extra acidification of the oceans and the ocean turn over. So this disposal is not for a very long time.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
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Carbon Capture And Storage

  1. 1. Carbon Capture and Storage Carbon Capture and Storage Business, Society & Environment Professor Hector R Rodriguez School of Business Mount Ida College
  2. 2. <ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Corporation and Its Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Responsibility of Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shareholder Primacy Norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSR, Citizenship and Sustainability Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible Investing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Community and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation and Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Philanthropy Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing a Diverse Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Balanced Look at Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Information Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation, Electric Vehicles and the Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geo-Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Capture and Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid, Toxic and Hazardous Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests, Paper and Carbon Sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Use and Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Pollution </li></ul></ul>Course Map – Topics Covered in Course
  3. 3. <ul><li>CO 2 capture and storage is a technology that aims to prevent the CO 2 generated by large stationary sources , such as coal-fired power plants, from entering the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>The technology aims to capture about 90% of CO 2 emissions from these sources and permanently prevent their release into the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>CCS is designed to accomplish this in three steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 is captured and compressed at the emission site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s transported to a storage location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s permanently stored. </li></ul></ul>Source: Carbon Capture & Storage: Assessing the Economics, McKinsey and Company, September 22, 2008 What is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)? Watch Video: Carbon Capture and Storage 101: The Basics
  4. 4. <ul><li>Yes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several projects are already storing millions of tons of CO 2 underground and many more are now being planned. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleipner, Norway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved in 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In operation since 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 million tons CO 2 /year </li></ul></ul>Can CO 2 be Stored Deep Underground? Time Magazine, 17. May 2004
  5. 5. Where is CO 2 geological storage happening today? Sources: Storing CO2 Underground by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme
  6. 6. Side Note: Enhanced Oil or Gas Delivery
  7. 7. Three Methods for Capturing CO 2 Sources: Storing CO2 Underground by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme
  8. 8. <ul><li>The best rocks for CO 2 storage are depleted oil and gas fields and deep saline formations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depleted oil and gas fields are the best places to start because their geology is well known and they are proven traps. </li></ul></ul>Where can CO 2 be geologically stored? Sources: Storing CO2 Underground by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme <ul><li>These are layers of porous rock located underneath a layer of impermeable rock (known as a cap-rock) which acts as a seal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This cap-rock trapped the oil and gas underground for millions of years. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Many natural geological stores of CO 2 have been discovered underground (often by people looking for oil and gas). In many cases the CO 2 has been there for millions of years. </li></ul>Natural Geological Stores of CO 2 Sources: Storing CO2 Underground by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme <ul><li>In other situations (volcanoes, geysers), CO 2 does leak naturally from underground. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indeed the world’s natural carbonated mineral waters, long prized and bottled for drinking, come from natural CO 2 sources. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>As CO 2 is pumped deep underground it is compressed by the higher pressures and becomes essentially a liquid , which then becomes trapped in the pore spaces between the grains of rock by several means, summarized on the next few slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on the physical and chemical characteristics of the rocks and fluids, all or some of these trapping mechanisms will take place. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural storage has immediate effect, the others take time, but provide increased storage security. The longer the CO 2 remains underground, the more securely it is stored. </li></ul>Why does CO 2 stay underground? Sources: Storing CO2 Underground by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme
  11. 11. <ul><li>When the CO 2 is pumped deep underground, it is initially more buoyant than water and will rise up through the porous rocks until it reaches the top of the formation where it can become trapped by an impermeable layer of cap-rock , such as shale. </li></ul>Structural Storage <ul><li>The wells that were drilled to place the CO 2 in storage can be sealed with plugs made of steel and cement. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The map below shows the location of the best rocks for CO 2 storage based on our current knowledge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total global man-made CO 2 emissions are currently around 24 gigatonnes of CO 2 per year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The CO 2 storage capacity of hydrocarbon (oil, gas and coal) reservoirs is estimated to be around 800 gigatonnes of CO 2 . </li></ul></ul></ul>Structural Storage Sites Sources: Storing CO2 Underground by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme <ul><ul><li>The world’s deep saline formations may have a much greater storage capacity than depleted oil and gas fields. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. These pictures show seismic datasets over the period 1994-2006. It clearly shows that CO2 is contained in the formation by an overlaying cap-rock. Sleipner, Norway: Time-Lapses Data Sets
  14. 14. <ul><li>Reservoir rocks act like a tight, rigid sponge. When liquid CO 2 is pumped into a rock formation, much of it becomes stuck within the pore spaces of the rock and does not move. </li></ul>Residual Trapping Sources: Storing CO2 Underground by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme
  15. 15. <ul><li>CO 2 dissolves in salty water , just like sugar dissolves in tea. The water with CO 2 dissolved in it is then heavier than the water around it (without CO 2 ) and so sinks to the bottom of the rock formation, trapping the CO 2 indefinitely. </li></ul>Dissolution Storage Sources: Storing CO2 Underground by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme
  16. 16. <ul><li>Current project in California will generate low-carbon electricity using hydrogen manufactured from petroleum coke and will store resultant CO 2 in a nearby mature oil field. </li></ul>What is the future of CO 2 geological storage? Sources: Storing CO2 Underground by IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme <ul><ul><li>This project will generate up to 500 MW of low-carbon electricity (enough to power a third of a million homes) and is planned to be operating by 2012. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Carbon capture and storage could help significantly in slowing down the increase of CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>The required technology has been used by the oil and gas industry for many years – it is proven and available today. </li></ul><ul><li>However, CCS is a relatively new concept and therefore not specifically addressed by most laws and regulations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial organizations will invest in CCS projects when they are legal and financially viable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is a solution that invokes the “moral hazard” dilemma as it does not address efficiency or consumption concerns which are at the root of the problem. </li></ul>Conclusion