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non-Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change non-Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change Professor Hector R Rodriguez School ...
<ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Corporation and Its Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People for the Ethic...
<ul><li>Weather:  daily temperature and moisture conditions in a place </li></ul><ul><li>Climate:  a description of the lo...
Climate Change Over the Years There is a significant amount of historical evidence pointing to episodes of climate change ...
Glaciation Advancing Glaciers Original State
<ul><li>Glacial features in the White Mountains - Cirques   </li></ul>Glaciation in Our Backyard – White Mountains, NH <ul...
<ul><li>Glacial features in the White Mountains  -  Glacial throughs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The notches in the White Mounta...
More Evidence of Glaciation Cirques Glacial Through Hanging Valley Horn
<ul><li>The  Medieval Warm Period  in the 11 th  century raised the mean temperature in AK to 3-5 o  F warmer than it is t...
<ul><li>Glaciers have been advancing and receding since the last ice age; most glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere were sm...
<ul><li>Variations in the Earth's Orbit and Inclination to the Sun (see Milankovitch Cycles on next slide) </li></ul><ul><...
Milankovitch Cycles Click Here <ul><li>Inclination (variation of tilt) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The changes in the axial tilt...
<ul><li>What I said… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change has happened in the past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is evi...
<ul><li>A comprehensive strategy to mitigate the risk associated with GHG emissions must be implemented.  It should includ...
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Non Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change

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Non Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change

  1. 1. non-Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change non-Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change Professor Hector R Rodriguez School of Business Mount Ida College Business, Society & Environment
  2. 2. <ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Corporation and Its Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Responsibility of Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shareholder Primacy Norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSR, Citizenship and Sustainability Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible Investing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Community and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation and Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Philanthropy Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing a Diverse Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Balanced Look at Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Information Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation, Electric Vehicles and the Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geo-Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Capture and Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid, Toxic and Hazardous Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests, Paper and Carbon Sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Use and Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Pollution </li></ul></ul>Course Map – Topics Covered in Course
  3. 3. <ul><li>Weather: daily temperature and moisture conditions in a place </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: a description of the long-term weather pattern in a particular area </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming: the increase in Earth’s average surface temperature due to rising levels of greenhouse gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change: a long-term change in the Earth’s climate, or of a region on Earth. Climate change includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in temperature (Global Warming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes to precipitation patterns and sea levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity, wind, and severe weather events. </li></ul></ul>First, Some Terms to Understand
  4. 4. Climate Change Over the Years There is a significant amount of historical evidence pointing to episodes of climate change in both distant and recent past. How do we know? Let’s review some geology first.
  5. 5. Glaciation Advancing Glaciers Original State
  6. 6. <ul><li>Glacial features in the White Mountains - Cirques </li></ul>Glaciation in Our Backyard – White Mountains, NH <ul><li>Cirques are one of the most common and most distinct glacial landforms in glaciated mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Cirques are large bowl-like shaped valleys with a large steep headwall on one side. </li></ul><ul><li>Cirques are commonly found on the eastern slopes of the White Mountains where the snow would have been blown off of the summits and collected. </li></ul>Winter Spring
  7. 7. <ul><li>Glacial features in the White Mountains - Glacial throughs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The notches in the White Mountains were carved by the valley glaciers. These glaciers followed V-shaped river valleys and as the glacier passed through it widened and deepened the valley leaving behind a U-shaped valley after the glaciers retreated. </li></ul></ul>Glaciation in Our Backyard – White Mountains, NH Crawford Notch
  8. 8. More Evidence of Glaciation Cirques Glacial Through Hanging Valley Horn
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Medieval Warm Period in the 11 th century raised the mean temperature in AK to 3-5 o F warmer than it is today; the snow line in the Rocky Mountains was about 300 yards higher than today </li></ul>Recent Changes in Climate <ul><li>Likewise in the middle of the last millennium saw a marked cooling, named the Little Ice Age . The Artic pack ice extended so far south that there are six records of Eskimos landing their kayaks in Scotland. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Glaciers have been advancing and receding since the last ice age; most glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere were small or absent from 9,000 to 6,000 years ago. </li></ul>Conclusion: Glaciers are Cyclical <ul><li>They reached a recent maximum at the end of the Little Ice Age. So it should not be surprising to see them dwindling as we leave the Little Ice Age; we are comparing them with their absolute maximum over the last 10,000 years </li></ul>What causes this cyclicality?
  11. 11. <ul><li>Variations in the Earth's Orbit and Inclination to the Sun (see Milankovitch Cycles on next slide) </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the Atmosphere (which can be caused by volcanoes and sunspots) </li></ul>Some Causes of Climate Change These are not related to human activity… <ul><li>Changes in Circulation of Sea Water </li></ul><ul><li>Sliding of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet over the Ocean </li></ul>June 1991 Mt Pinatubo eruption cooled temperatures in some regions by as much as 0.5 degrees C* *http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/VolcWeather/description_volcanoes_and_weather.html
  12. 12. Milankovitch Cycles Click Here <ul><li>Inclination (variation of tilt) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The changes in the axial tilt (22 o to 24.5 o ) of the Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The greater the tilt the greater the contrast between summer and winter temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle is about 41,000 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wobble of the Earth as it spins on its axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle is about 26,000 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth’s orbital changes controls its climate </li></ul><ul><li>Eccentricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of the non-circularity of Earth's orbit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle is about 100,000 years </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>What I said… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change has happened in the past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is evidence that proves so </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These effects were not driven by human activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What I will also say… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pace of climate change seems to be increasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human activity is influencing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is causing anthropogenic global warming and may cause future catastrophic climate change </li></ul></ul>Please Note! As future business leaders we cannot afford to be influenced by unbalanced arguments, laced with hyperbole… our stakeholders expect more of us… our credibility depends on it.
  14. 14. <ul><li>A comprehensive strategy to mitigate the risk associated with GHG emissions must be implemented. It should include the following steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing renewable sources of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing comprehensive International Protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing emission trading markets (Cap & Trade) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing efficiency (in buildings, IT, transportation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing engineering controls (geo-engineering, CCS) </li></ul></ul>A Balanced Conclusion (cont.) We’ll discuss each one of these potential steps in future sessions…

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