Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost Professor Hector R Rodriguez School of Busin...
<ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Corporation and Its Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People for the Ethic...
<ul><li>The reason we are concerned about global warming is due to the so-called greenhouse effect; several gases reflect ...
The Greenhouse Effect GHG effect increases with increasing concentrations of CO 2
<ul><li>The greenhouse gas effect increases with increasing concentration of GHG’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global GHG emissi...
Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,” 2007 Attribution of Temper...
<ul><li>Why up and down? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of the Earth’s vegetation is North of the Equator </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Global atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 , CH 4  and N 2 O are determined from  ice cores  spanning many thousand...
<ul><li>There are other factors influencing temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is hypothesized that sulfate aerosols, pr...
<ul><li>Urban Warming (Heat Island) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Urban Heat Island Effect refers to the fact that cities can ...
<ul><li>Permafrost - is soil at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most pe...
<ul><li>Methane, a gas, is about 20 times more powerful as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The permafrost has...
<ul><li>Some believe that its release could accelerate global warming in a giant positive feedback where more atmospheric ...
<ul><li>There is  high agreement   and  much evidence  that  with current  climate change mitigation  policies and related...
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Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost

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Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost

  1. 1. Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost Professor Hector R Rodriguez School of Business Mount Ida College Business, Society & Environment
  2. 2. <ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Corporation and Its Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Responsibility of Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shareholder Primacy Norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSR, Citizenship and Sustainability Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible Investing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Community and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation and Corporate Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Philanthropy Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees and the Corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing a Diverse Workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Balanced Look at Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfates, Urban Warming and Permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Information Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation, Electric Vehicles and the Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geo-Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Capture and Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid, Toxic and Hazardous Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests, Paper and Carbon Sinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Use and Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Pollution </li></ul></ul>Course Map – Topics Covered in Course
  3. 3. <ul><li>The reason we are concerned about global warming is due to the so-called greenhouse effect; several gases reflect or trap heat, most importantly CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>They trap the heat emitted by the earth, like a blanket around the globe; the basic effect is good, if the atmosphere did not contain greenhouse gases, the average temperature on Earth would be approximately 59 o colder, or a constant -18 o C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is by the way the constant temperature above the GHG layer in our atmosphere. </li></ul></ul>Temperature Changes
  4. 4. The Greenhouse Effect GHG effect increases with increasing concentrations of CO 2
  5. 5. <ul><li>The greenhouse gas effect increases with increasing concentration of GHG’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global GHG emissions due to human activities have grown since pre-industrial times, with an increase of 70% between 1970 and 2004 </li></ul></ul>Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,” 2007 Emissions of Long-lived Greenhouse Gases
  6. 6. Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,” 2007 Attribution of Temperature Change
  7. 7. <ul><li>Why up and down? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of the Earth’s vegetation is North of the Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun during the spring and summer, the leaves come out, the amount of CO 2 decreases worldwide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The leaves fall during fall and winter, CO 2 is released, and the amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere goes up again. </li></ul></ul>Source: National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Recent Changes in CO 2 Concentration
  8. 8. <ul><li>Global atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O are determined from ice cores spanning many thousands of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Ice cores - collected from glaciers reveal light and dark bands caused by annual snow accumulation on glacier </li></ul>Side Note - Studying Climate <ul><ul><li>Gas bubbles can be analyzed for atmospheric composition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash and sulfur deposits correlate with volcanic eruptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vostok ice core in Antarctica gives us a record back 420,000 years (4 past glacial cycles). </li></ul></ul>Studying Climate
  9. 9. <ul><li>There are other factors influencing temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is hypothesized that sulfate aerosols, produced by burning of fossil fuels, created the cooling effects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effects were mitigated when scrubbers were put in place in an effort to eliminate acid rain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There seem to be two “knobs” at play; CO 2 and SO 4 </li></ul></ul>Source: Climate of Extremes, Patrick Michaels, 2009 p. 36-37 Attribution of Temperature Change - Sulfates How about this drop?
  10. 10. <ul><li>Urban Warming (Heat Island) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Urban Heat Island Effect refers to the fact that cities can be up to 5-7 º C hotter than the surrounding rural areas. This is due to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete can absorb a lot of heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tall buildings increase overall surface area for heat absorption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Canyon effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry of urban settlements provide multiple surfaces for refection and absorption </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks cooling via convection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Attribution of Temperature Change – Urban Warming Atlanta
  11. 11. <ul><li>Permafrost - is soil at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most permafrost is located in high latitudes (i.e. land in close proximity to the North and South poles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent of permafrost can vary as the climate changes. Today, a considerable area of the Arctic is covered by permafrost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General circulation models predict that, for a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide due to anthropogenic sources, mean annual air temperatures may rise up to several degrees over much of the Arctic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In those areas where ground temperatures are within 1-2 degrees of melting, permafrost will likely ultimately disappear as a result of ground thermal changes associated with global climate warming. </li></ul></ul>Attribution of Temperature Change - Permafrost
  12. 12. <ul><li>Methane, a gas, is about 20 times more powerful as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The permafrost has acted like a &quot;lid&quot; to prevent large amounts of methane (greater than the total amount of carbon locked up in global coal reserves) from escaping </li></ul>Change in permafrost temperatures at various depths in Fairbanks, Alaska Attribution of Temperature Change - Permafrost
  13. 13. <ul><li>Some believe that its release could accelerate global warming in a giant positive feedback where more atmospheric methane causes higher temperatures, leading to further permafrost melting and the release of yet more methane. </li></ul>Attribution of Temperature Change - Permafrost
  14. 14. <ul><li>There is high agreement and much evidence that with current climate change mitigation policies and related practices , global GHG emissions will continue to grow over the next few decades. </li></ul>The scenarios are grouped into four scenario families (A1, A2, B1 and B2) that explore alternative development pathways, covering a wide range of demographic, economic and technological driving forces and resulting GHG emissions. Conclusion Source: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report,” 2007 What does it mean?

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