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Can Carbon Capture and Storage Clean up Fossil Fuels
Geoffrey Thyne
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Institute
University of Wyoming
Main Points
 Possible with current science and technologies.
 Future technological advances will reduce cost, improve
efficiency and enhance safety.
 More scientific work needs to be done.
 There is technical knowledge and experience within petroleum
industry.
 CCS is a potentially viable approach, but with legislation
(international and national) creating a carbon-constrained world.
 Legal/Regulatory framework is under construction, but the political
will is questionable.
 CCS industry will be on scale of oil and gas industry in terms of
infrastructure, personnel and $$$.
 Expense is uncertain until large scale projects are completed, but
the likely cost is on order of $1 trillion/year.
Carbon (Dioxide) Emissions and Climate Change
 Increase in atmosphere is “linked” to climate changes.
 There is still no proof of the link.
Technology Options for Stabilization
The Stabilisation Wedge
Emission trajectory to achieve 500ppm
Emission trajectory BAU
1 GtC Slices of the Stabilisation Wedge
Carbon Capture and Sequestration
 First step is capture of carbon applied to large point sources that
currently emit 10,500MtCO2/year (e.g. power stations).
 CO2 would be compressed and transported for storage and use.
Large Stationary CO2 Sources
•carbon dioxide sources >0.1 MtCO2/yr
•most (75 %) CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion/processing (coal-fired
power plants are almost 3 wedges)
North American CO2 Sources
Four basic systems
 Post combustion
 Pre combustion
 Oxyfuel
 Industrial
All gas is mostly CO2 plus N2,
CO, SO2, etc.
All Methods capture 80-95%
of CO2
Carbon Dioxide Capture
Carbon Dioxide Capture
Matching captured CO2 to target (P-T)
Four basic systems
 Pre combustion
 Post combustion
 Oxyfuel
 Industrial
Separation stage CO2
Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided
PC+ Capture
(500 MW)
Tons
of
CO2
Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided
PC+ Capture
(500 MW)
Tons
of
CO2
90%
capture
Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided
PC+ Capture
(500 MW)
Tons
of
CO2
90%
capture
Carbon Captured
Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided
PC+ Capture
(500 MW)
Tons
of
CO2
90%
capture
Carbon Captured
PC
(500 MW)
Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided
Sequestration Targets
 Terrestrial
 Release into the atmosphere for incorporation into biomass
(short term - 10-100’s years)
 Oceanic
 Release into ocean for dissolution and dispersion (medium
term – 100-1000’s years)
 Geologic
 Injection into subsurface (long term – 10,000-1,000,000’s
years)
Sequestration Targets
 Atmospheric
 Oceanic
 Geologic
Sequestration Targets
 Atmospheric
 Oceanic
 Geologic Disposal into deep ocean locations
Much of the ocean is deep enough for CO2
to remain liquid phase
(average ocean depth is 12,460 feet)
Largest potential storage capacity
(2,000 - 12,000GtCO2 – worldwide)
Storage time 100’s – 1000’s years
Potential ecological damage (pH change)
Models and small scale projects only
Characteristics
Sequestration Targets
 Atmospheric
 Oceanic
 Geologic
Sequestration Targets
 Atmospheric
 Oceanic
 Geologic
Disposal into subsurface locations
Deep enough to remain supercritical
(greater than 2500 feet depth)
Large potential storage capacity
(200 - 2,000GtCO2 worldwide)
Storage time 10,000’s – 1,000,000’s
years
Potential ecological damage (point
source leaks)
40+ years experience in petroleum EOR
operations and sour gas disposal
Characteristics
CO2 trapping
mechanisms
Carbon Dioxide Phase Behavior
Supercritical Fluid is a liquid-like gas
Gas-like viscosity, fluid-like
compressibility and solvent behavior
CO2 above critical T and P
(31°C and 73.8 bar or 1085 psi)
Density about 50% of water
 Combustion product
from fossil fuel
 GHG
 Four phases of interest
Carbon Storage
Geological Sequestration
 want to inject to greater than
800 m depth
 CO2 in supercritical state
 behaves like a fluid with
properties that are mixture
of liquid and gas
 also stores more in given
volume
 price to pay in compressing gas
 Terrestrial, Oceanic and
Geologic P and T
conditions.
 Ocean conditions allow
disposal of liquid CO2
 Geologic conditions
allow disposal of
supercritical CO2
Carbon Dioxide Phase Behavior and
Sequestration
 need geologic site that will hold
CO2 safely for 1000s of years –
natural analogs
 four possible geologic targets
 enhanced oil and gas recovery
 depleted oil and gas fields
 saline aquifers
 enhanced CBM recovery
Geological Carbon Sequestration
Geological Carbon Sequestration
Leakage Paths
Carbon Capture and Sequestration
CCS relative cost
Capture + Pressurization
 Cost data from
IGPCC 2005
 Includes cost of
compression to
pipeline pressure
(1500 psi)
Separation stage CO2
45% difference
CCS relative cost
Capture + Pressurization + Transport
 Price highly
dependent on
volume per year.
 Includes
construction, O&M,
design, insurance,
right of ways.
 for capacities of >5
MtCO2 yr-1 the
cost is between 2
and 4
2002US$/tCO2 per
250km for an
onshore pipe
Separation stage CO2
37% difference
CCS relative cost
Capture + Pressurization + Transport
+ Storage (Oceanic and Geologic)
 Oceanic - For
transport (ship)
distance of 100-
500km and
injection depths of
3000m
 Geologic - For
storage in
onshore, shallow,
highly permeable
reservoir with pre-
existing
infrastructure
Separation stage CO2
31% difference
23% difference
CCS relative cost
Capture + Pressurization + Transport
+ Storage (Oceanic and Geologic) – EOR Offset
 Assuming oil price
of $50 bbl.
 Without
Sequestration
Credit (Carbon
Tax)
Separation stage CO2
Pilot Projects
 Sleipner, Norway (North Sea)
 Weyburn Project, Saskatchewan (Canada)
Pilot Projects: Sleipner
 Sleipner is a North Sea gas
field
 operated by Statoil,
Norway’s largest oil
company
 produces natural gas for
European market
 in North Sea, hydrocarbons
are produced from platforms
Pilot Projects: Sleipner
 special platform, Sleipner
T, built to separate CO2
from natural gas
 supports 20 m (65 ft) tall,
8,000 ton treatment plant
 plant produces 1 million tons
of CO2
 also handles gas piped from
Sleipner West
 Norway has a carbon tax of
about $50/ton for any CO2
emitted to the atmosphere
 to avoid the tax, Statoil has
re-injected CO2
underground since
production began in 1996
 production is from Heimdal
Formation
 2,500 m (8,200 ft) below
sea level
 produces natural gas -
mixture of hydrocarbons
(methane (CH4), ethane
(C2H6), butane (C4H10)),
gases (N2, O2, CO2, sulfur
compounds, water)
 the natural gas at Sleipner
has 9 % CO2
Pilot Projects: Sleipner
 CO2 injected into Utsira
Formation
 high porosity &
permeability sandstone
layer
 250 m thick and 800 m
(2,600 ft) below sea bed
 filled with saline water, not
oil or gas
 CO2 storage capacity
estimated at 600 billion
tons (20 years of world
CO2 emissions)
 millions tons CO2 stored
since 1996
 first commercial storage of
CO2 in deep, saline aquifer
Pilot Projects: Sleipner
 seismic surveys
conducted to determine
location of CO2
 results shown in diagram
to left
 Optimum conditions for
geophysical imaging
Pilot Projects: Sleipner
Conclusions
 Ultimately CCS is viable only if legislation (international and
national) produces a carbon-constrained world.
 Legal/Regulatory framework under construction.
 CCS industry will be on scale of oil and gas industry (largest in
human history).
 Expense is uncertain until large scale project completed, but on
order of $1 trillion/year to build CCS industry.
 Possible with current science and technologies.
 Future technological advances will reduce cost, improve
efficiency and enhance safety.
 More scientific work needs to be done.
 There is technical knowledge and experience within petroleum
industry.

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Can Carbon Capture Clean up Fossil Fuels

  • 1. Can Carbon Capture and Storage Clean up Fossil Fuels Geoffrey Thyne Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute University of Wyoming
  • 2. Main Points  Possible with current science and technologies.  Future technological advances will reduce cost, improve efficiency and enhance safety.  More scientific work needs to be done.  There is technical knowledge and experience within petroleum industry.  CCS is a potentially viable approach, but with legislation (international and national) creating a carbon-constrained world.  Legal/Regulatory framework is under construction, but the political will is questionable.  CCS industry will be on scale of oil and gas industry in terms of infrastructure, personnel and $$$.  Expense is uncertain until large scale projects are completed, but the likely cost is on order of $1 trillion/year.
  • 3. Carbon (Dioxide) Emissions and Climate Change  Increase in atmosphere is “linked” to climate changes.  There is still no proof of the link.
  • 4. Technology Options for Stabilization The Stabilisation Wedge Emission trajectory to achieve 500ppm Emission trajectory BAU 1 GtC Slices of the Stabilisation Wedge
  • 5. Carbon Capture and Sequestration  First step is capture of carbon applied to large point sources that currently emit 10,500MtCO2/year (e.g. power stations).  CO2 would be compressed and transported for storage and use.
  • 6. Large Stationary CO2 Sources •carbon dioxide sources >0.1 MtCO2/yr •most (75 %) CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion/processing (coal-fired power plants are almost 3 wedges)
  • 8. Four basic systems  Post combustion  Pre combustion  Oxyfuel  Industrial All gas is mostly CO2 plus N2, CO, SO2, etc. All Methods capture 80-95% of CO2 Carbon Dioxide Capture
  • 9. Carbon Dioxide Capture Matching captured CO2 to target (P-T) Four basic systems  Pre combustion  Post combustion  Oxyfuel  Industrial Separation stage CO2
  • 10. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided PC+ Capture (500 MW) Tons of CO2
  • 11. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided PC+ Capture (500 MW) Tons of CO2 90% capture
  • 12. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided PC+ Capture (500 MW) Tons of CO2 90% capture Carbon Captured
  • 13. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided PC+ Capture (500 MW) Tons of CO2 90% capture Carbon Captured PC (500 MW)
  • 14. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided
  • 15. Sequestration Targets  Terrestrial  Release into the atmosphere for incorporation into biomass (short term - 10-100’s years)  Oceanic  Release into ocean for dissolution and dispersion (medium term – 100-1000’s years)  Geologic  Injection into subsurface (long term – 10,000-1,000,000’s years)
  • 17. Sequestration Targets  Atmospheric  Oceanic  Geologic Disposal into deep ocean locations Much of the ocean is deep enough for CO2 to remain liquid phase (average ocean depth is 12,460 feet) Largest potential storage capacity (2,000 - 12,000GtCO2 – worldwide) Storage time 100’s – 1000’s years Potential ecological damage (pH change) Models and small scale projects only Characteristics
  • 19. Sequestration Targets  Atmospheric  Oceanic  Geologic Disposal into subsurface locations Deep enough to remain supercritical (greater than 2500 feet depth) Large potential storage capacity (200 - 2,000GtCO2 worldwide) Storage time 10,000’s – 1,000,000’s years Potential ecological damage (point source leaks) 40+ years experience in petroleum EOR operations and sour gas disposal Characteristics
  • 21. Carbon Dioxide Phase Behavior Supercritical Fluid is a liquid-like gas Gas-like viscosity, fluid-like compressibility and solvent behavior CO2 above critical T and P (31°C and 73.8 bar or 1085 psi) Density about 50% of water  Combustion product from fossil fuel  GHG  Four phases of interest
  • 22. Carbon Storage Geological Sequestration  want to inject to greater than 800 m depth  CO2 in supercritical state  behaves like a fluid with properties that are mixture of liquid and gas  also stores more in given volume  price to pay in compressing gas
  • 23.  Terrestrial, Oceanic and Geologic P and T conditions.  Ocean conditions allow disposal of liquid CO2  Geologic conditions allow disposal of supercritical CO2 Carbon Dioxide Phase Behavior and Sequestration
  • 24.  need geologic site that will hold CO2 safely for 1000s of years – natural analogs  four possible geologic targets  enhanced oil and gas recovery  depleted oil and gas fields  saline aquifers  enhanced CBM recovery Geological Carbon Sequestration
  • 26. Carbon Capture and Sequestration
  • 27. CCS relative cost Capture + Pressurization  Cost data from IGPCC 2005  Includes cost of compression to pipeline pressure (1500 psi) Separation stage CO2 45% difference
  • 28. CCS relative cost Capture + Pressurization + Transport  Price highly dependent on volume per year.  Includes construction, O&M, design, insurance, right of ways.  for capacities of >5 MtCO2 yr-1 the cost is between 2 and 4 2002US$/tCO2 per 250km for an onshore pipe Separation stage CO2 37% difference
  • 29. CCS relative cost Capture + Pressurization + Transport + Storage (Oceanic and Geologic)  Oceanic - For transport (ship) distance of 100- 500km and injection depths of 3000m  Geologic - For storage in onshore, shallow, highly permeable reservoir with pre- existing infrastructure Separation stage CO2 31% difference 23% difference
  • 30. CCS relative cost Capture + Pressurization + Transport + Storage (Oceanic and Geologic) – EOR Offset  Assuming oil price of $50 bbl.  Without Sequestration Credit (Carbon Tax) Separation stage CO2
  • 31. Pilot Projects  Sleipner, Norway (North Sea)  Weyburn Project, Saskatchewan (Canada)
  • 32. Pilot Projects: Sleipner  Sleipner is a North Sea gas field  operated by Statoil, Norway’s largest oil company  produces natural gas for European market  in North Sea, hydrocarbons are produced from platforms
  • 33. Pilot Projects: Sleipner  special platform, Sleipner T, built to separate CO2 from natural gas  supports 20 m (65 ft) tall, 8,000 ton treatment plant  plant produces 1 million tons of CO2  also handles gas piped from Sleipner West  Norway has a carbon tax of about $50/ton for any CO2 emitted to the atmosphere  to avoid the tax, Statoil has re-injected CO2 underground since production began in 1996
  • 34.  production is from Heimdal Formation  2,500 m (8,200 ft) below sea level  produces natural gas - mixture of hydrocarbons (methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), butane (C4H10)), gases (N2, O2, CO2, sulfur compounds, water)  the natural gas at Sleipner has 9 % CO2 Pilot Projects: Sleipner
  • 35.  CO2 injected into Utsira Formation  high porosity & permeability sandstone layer  250 m thick and 800 m (2,600 ft) below sea bed  filled with saline water, not oil or gas  CO2 storage capacity estimated at 600 billion tons (20 years of world CO2 emissions)  millions tons CO2 stored since 1996  first commercial storage of CO2 in deep, saline aquifer Pilot Projects: Sleipner
  • 36.  seismic surveys conducted to determine location of CO2  results shown in diagram to left  Optimum conditions for geophysical imaging Pilot Projects: Sleipner
  • 37. Conclusions  Ultimately CCS is viable only if legislation (international and national) produces a carbon-constrained world.  Legal/Regulatory framework under construction.  CCS industry will be on scale of oil and gas industry (largest in human history).  Expense is uncertain until large scale project completed, but on order of $1 trillion/year to build CCS industry.  Possible with current science and technologies.  Future technological advances will reduce cost, improve efficiency and enhance safety.  More scientific work needs to be done.  There is technical knowledge and experience within petroleum industry.