3 1 io psych overview


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3 1 io psych overview

  1. 1. OVERVIEW Atty. Harve B. Abella, Esq. Psy 11 5:30-6:30 MWF
  2. 2. Industrial vs Organizational Psychology <ul><li>Industrial Psychology ( personnel psychology ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personnel selection--individual differences of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction of job performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers job analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distinguish what a successful worker from unsuccessful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and selection, training, performance appraisal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job performance = company “bottom line” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally, correlational approach used for research (motivation, interview test) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Psychology (social life aspects applied to work) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only job performance, but satisfaction, motivation, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally experimental research method </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. I/O Psychology Work Areas <ul><li>Primary work areas for I/O work: </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop, validate, and administer psychological tests to assess (measure) skills, abilities and interests as aids in selection and placement and promotion. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T raining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze: First thing I/O dude does, is try to understand nature of job-- knowledge & task requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct training programs, and evaluate the effectiveness of training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze organizations’ culture/climate, develop interventions --> increase in efficiency. E.g. user interface causing problems with productivity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Functions of an I/O Psychologist <ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop rating scales, and other measures of individua/organizational performance to improve employee performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality of Work-life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previously, human workers were not viewed as human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop surveys that assess employees’ satisfaction with their jobs and commitment to the organization. Satisfaction : one of most common surveys. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>A series of research studies that began in the late 1920s at the Western Electric Company </li></ul><ul><li>Refocused the interests of I/O Psychologists on how work behavior manifests itself in an organizational context </li></ul><ul><li>Joint venture between Western Electric & several researchers from Harvard University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NONE OF WHOM WERE INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGISTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The original study attempted to find the relationship between lighting and efficiency </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Worker’s job performance began to improve following the start of the researchers’ intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Continued to improve because of the novelty of the situation </li></ul><ul><li>The novelty began to wear off, productivity returned to its earlier level </li></ul><ul><li>This phenomenon of change in behavior as the novelty wears off, is the Hawthorne Effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Psychology was never the same again after the Hawthorne Studies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Early I/O psychologists studied worker productivity in the factory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What physical factors (e.g. lighting) govern worker productivity? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• 1924 study conducted at the Hawthorne factory of Western Electric failed to find that physical environment factors controlled productivity </li></ul><ul><li> Rather, any changes made increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>• Conclusion: Mere observation of a worker is sufficient to change their behavior (termed the Hawthorne effect) </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Founding Fathers of I/O Psych <ul><li>1. Walter Dill Scott (American Psychologist) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hugo Munsterberg (German) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Frederick Taylor (American Engineer) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Walter Dill Scott <ul><li>Walter Dill Scott (American Psychologist) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First to apply the principles of psychology to motivation and productivity in the workplace. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would later become instrumental in the application of personnel procedures within the army during World War I . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boosted Industrial Psychology </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hugo Munsterberg <ul><li>Father of industrial psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Applied psychological method to practical industrial problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Psychology and Industrial Efficiency ( 1913 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* View of I/O psychology: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. People need to fit the organization -- training! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Applied behavioral sciences should help organizations to shape people to serve as replacement parts for organizational machines. Mechanistic. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Frederick Taylor <ul><li>Principles of Scientific Management (1911). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Science over intuition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The best workers should be selected and trained in the established “ one best method ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management and workers should cooperatively share responsibility for the design and conduct of work. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation and monetary gain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation results from monetary gain . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.: Showed that workers who handle heavy iron ingots were more productive when allowed work rests . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training when to work and when to rest raised productivity from 12.5 to 47.0 tons moved per day. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company increase efficiency. Costs dropped from 9.2 to 3.9 cents per ton. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. WW2 <ul><li>Committee on Selection and Classification of Military Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>The army approached psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a test to sort new recruits into 5 categories based on their ability to learn the duties and responsibilities of a soldier </li></ul><ul><li>The Army General Classification Test is the best-known product of the World War II personnel research organization. Among other products were: mental alertness tests for the Women's Army Corps, aptitude tests for specialized training, performance tests, trade knowledge tests, the West Point Qualifying Examination, and warrant officer tests. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1946-1963 <ul><li>WW1 helped form I/O Psych. </li></ul><ul><li>WW2 helped develop and refine it. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Subspecialties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Psychology became splintered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engineering Psychology (ergonomics) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixture of experimental and industrial psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as applied experimental psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1950s to 1960s explosive growth due to research done in affiliation with the defense industries </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1946-1963 <ul><li>That part of industrial psychology which deals with personnel selection, classification, and training became known as </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Future <ul><li>Growing importance of technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology-mediated communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Workers can work anywhere (from home, etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Loss of direct human contact--impact on social relationships, mental health, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-technology interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New jobs in maintenance of technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replace manufacturing operatives as “worker elite” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater focus on decision-making and coordination of activities by humans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because jobs are becoming more technologically complex </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Future <ul><li>Redefinition of “job”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less emphasis on job as a fixed bundle of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis on constantly changing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Requires constant learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. More higher-order thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Less “8to 5” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Changing nature of pay: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. *Tied less to position or tenure in organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Tied more to market value of person’s KSAOs ( Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Other characteristics). </li></ul></ul>