Usage of psychological principles and theories to the workplace. OR Study of how people get along at work and are able to perform effectively”
Industrial and Personnel psychology:i. HR stuff: recruitment, job analysis, selection, training, performance appraisal, compensation, employment law
ii. KSAOs Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and other aspects related to job performance Organizational psychology:i. Micro: motivation, leadership, teams, worker attitudes, safety & well-being, work-family.ii. Macro: organizational theory, culture, organizational development & change
Human factors & ergonomics:i. Modifying equipmentii. Environmental Changesiii. To fit workers needs
Experimental Psychology Social Psychology Sociology Management Industrial Engineering
I/O psychologist can be classified in two general groups:1. Academics: Professors in research- and teaching- oriented universities and colleges. Example in psychology, management, industrial relations, quantitative sciences, occupational health & safety
Their major activities; teaching courses, conducting research, writing and presenting research papers, attending conferences, mentoring students, performing university and professional service2. Practioners: HR and organizational specialists in consulting, private, and public organizations Their major activities; Job analysis, diagnosis, surveying employees, designing and administering selection & performance appraisal systems, training, developing psychological tests, implementing and evaluating OD & change, data analysis
8% Universities21% 36% Consulting Firms7% Government 29% Private Companies
Country Topics Canada Career development, Employee selection, job stress, leadership England Employee selection, gender, job stress, leadership, turnoverGermany Job Stress, motivation, training, work environment India Job satisfaction, job stress, motivation, organizational level Israel Career development, job satisfaction, motivation, performance appraisal, values Japan Career development, job stress, leadership, motivationScandinavi Gender, job stress, shift work, a unemployment United Career development, employee States selection, leadership, performance appraisal
1991- American Disability Act passed1970- APA adopts the name I/O Psy1964- Civil Rights Act Passed1941- World War II war efforts begin1924- Hawthorne Studies begin1921- First I O PhD awarded Psychological Corporation Founded1917- Mental Tests for Job Placement Developed1913- First I O text book published1904-The term industrial Psychology used for the first time by W L Bryan who had written a paper in 1899
W. L. Bryan Stressed importance of studying “concrete activities and functions as they appear in daily life.” Butnot really considered father of I/O Psych because he was a originator, before the field was established
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Interested in improving productivity and efficiency of industrial engineers. Argued for the use of psychology in the work lives of industrial engineers.
Led to the merger of psychology with applied interests. The nameless was crowned industrial psychology in 1910. The “organizational” bit came in the 1970s. Lillian Gilbreth is called the mother of management
Walter Dill Scott (American Psychologist) Hugo Munsterberg (German) Frederick Taylor (American Engineer)
Firstto apply the principles of psychology to motivation and productivity in the workplace. Would later become instrumental in the application of personnel procedures within the army during World War I. He boosted industrial psychology
Father of industrial psychology 1. Applied psychological method to practical industrial problems. 2. Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913) View of I/O psychology: 1. People need to fit the organization -- training! 2. Applied behavioral sciences should help organizations to shape people to serve as replacement parts for organizational machines. Mechanistic.
Principles of Scientific Management (1911) Management and workers should cooperatively share responsibility for the design and conduct of work. E.g.: Showed that workers who handle heavy iron ingots were more productive when allowed work rests. Training when to work and when to rest raised productivity from 12.5 to 47.0 tons moved per day. Company increase efficiency. Costs dropped from 9.2 to 3.9 cents per ton.
Robert Yerkes and Walter Dill Scott: ◦ Screening recruits for mental deficiency—Army Alpha and Beta intelligence tests developed. ◦ Classification of selected recruits into jobs ◦ Performance evaluations of officers ◦ Job Analysis ◦ soldier motivation and morale ◦ Discipline First journal of applied psychology began in 1917
Robert Yerkes created the WW-I Army Alphaand Beta intelligence tests for the war recruits.Army Alpha: five alternate forms of the verbaltest,Army Beta: a nonverbal test for illiterate andnon-English speaking recruitsIndividual Examination: An individual verbalexamination for those who failed BetaAdministered on approximately two million men
The test was criticized by Gould, S. J. as being culturally unfair; Many of alpha test participants were not familiar with language Many were not familiar with the use of pencil Questions inappropriate for recent immigrants (e.g. question about TV star, Tennis Player etc).
Began in 1920 for more than 10 years at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company. Initially designed to study the effect of working conditions on performance such as lighting, and room temperature. Later studied the impact of supervisory styles, arrangement of work groups, length of work breaks, and the length of work day. Established the “Hawthorne Effect”: An effect on behavior that is due to getting any treatment and not necessarily to the nature of the treatment per se.
A concentrated effort by managers andtheir advisors to become more sensitive tothe needs of employees or to treat them ina more humanistic manner, i.e. socialfactors boost worker morale.
Hawthorne Studies Threat of Unionization Philosophy of Humanism Human Relations Movement Philosophy of Hawthorne Threat of Industrial Studies Unionization Humanism
It is essential for the psychologists in theprofession to follow the Ethical Codedeveloped by American PsychologicalAssociation (APA), in order prevent anyharm to the client.The code includes both ethical principlesand statements of appropriate professionalconduct.
1. Competence: A psychologist only does work that he/she is competent to perform.2. Integrity: Psychologists are fair and honest in their professional dealing with others.3. Professional and Scientific Responsibility: Psychologists maintain high standards of professional behavior.4. Respect for People’s Rights and Dignity: Psychologists respect the rights of confidentiality and privacy of others.5. Concern for Other’s Welfare: Psychologists attempt to help others through their professional work.6. Social Responsibility: Psychologists have a responsibility to use their skills to benefit society.