Factors Affecting Solubility

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  • 1. Factors Affecting Solubility Joan Santos Elena Villanueva
  • 2. Solubility
    • whether or not a solute will dissolve in a solvent and the extent in which it will dissolve
    • the amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific solvent given condition
  • 3. Factors that affect solubility
    • The nature of the solute and solvent
    • Temperature
    • Pressure (only applicable to gases)
  • 4. Nature of Solute and Solvent
    • Remember Covalent and Ionic?
    • Polar Solvent- a liquid made up of polar molecules
    • Non-polar Solvent- a liquid made up of non-polar molecules
  • 5. Nature of Solute and Solvent
    • When two substances are similar they can dissolve in each other
      • polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents
      • non-polar solutes tend to dissolve in non-polar solvents
    • “ like dissolves like”
      • two liquids dissolve in each other because their molecules are alike in polarity
  • 6. Nature of Solute and Solvent
    • Ionic compounds are made up of charged ions similar to polar compounds
    • Ionic compounds are more soluble in a polar solvent than in a non-polar solvent
  • 7. Nature of Solute and Solvent Insoluble Soluble Ionic Soluble Insoluble Non-Polar Insoluble Soluble Polar Non-polar solvent Polar Solvent Solute
  • 8. Temperature
    • Solutions of gases in liquids are affected by temperature
      • as temperature increases, the solubility of a GAS in a liquid decreases
    • WHY?
      • As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the solute gas increases and the gas can escape
    • Solubility of SOLIDS in liquids: total opposite
      • the solubility of a solid increases as the temperature increases (there are a few exceptions)
  • 9. Temperature
    • Temperatures Affecting the Solubility as the Solution is Formed
      • When the temperature drops while you mix the solute and solvent, raising the temperature will increase solubility
      • If the temperature stays neutral, the temperature will have minimal or insignificant effect either way
      • If the temperature is increased when the solute and solvent are mixed, raising the temperature will decrease solubility
  • 10. Pressure
    • When the pressure is increased over the SOLVENT, the solubility of the gas is increased.
    • Why?
      • pressure increases as gas molecules strike the surface to enter solution is increased
    • Henry’s Law: solubility of gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
  • 11. Factors Affecting Solubility
    • p=k h c
    • p= partial pressure
    • k h = gas constant
    • (dimensions: pressure divided by concentration, depends on the solute, solvent and temperature)
    • c= concentration of the solute
  • 12. Factors of Dissolving
    • rate of which a solid solute dissolves in a solution depends on three factors: surface area, stirring, and temperature
    • the rate of dissolving is unrelated to the solubility if the solutes dissolves quickly or slowly does not alter or depend on its solubility
  • 13. Surface Area
    • dissolving solutes happen in the surface area of the solvent
    • speed up the process by increasing the surface area
    • The greater the surface area per unit mass, the quicker it will dissolve
  • 14. Stirring
    • dissolving happens at the surface of the solvent
    • contact between the solvent and the solute is increased
  • 15. Temperature
    • raising the temperature increases the rate at which a solute dissolves
    • solvent particles move faster as they come in contact more with the solute