Factors Affecting Solubility
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Factors Affecting Solubility



Powerpoint presentation for our chem report :D

Powerpoint presentation for our chem report :D



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    Factors Affecting Solubility Factors Affecting Solubility Presentation Transcript

    • Factors Affecting Solubility Joan Santos Elena Villanueva
    • Solubility
      • whether or not a solute will dissolve in a solvent and the extent in which it will dissolve
      • the amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific solvent given condition
    • Factors that affect solubility
      • The nature of the solute and solvent
      • Temperature
      • Pressure (only applicable to gases)
    • Nature of Solute and Solvent
      • Remember Covalent and Ionic?
      • Polar Solvent- a liquid made up of polar molecules
      • Non-polar Solvent- a liquid made up of non-polar molecules
    • Nature of Solute and Solvent
      • When two substances are similar they can dissolve in each other
        • polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents
        • non-polar solutes tend to dissolve in non-polar solvents
      • “ like dissolves like”
        • two liquids dissolve in each other because their molecules are alike in polarity
    • Nature of Solute and Solvent
      • Ionic compounds are made up of charged ions similar to polar compounds
      • Ionic compounds are more soluble in a polar solvent than in a non-polar solvent
    • Nature of Solute and Solvent Insoluble Soluble Ionic Soluble Insoluble Non-Polar Insoluble Soluble Polar Non-polar solvent Polar Solvent Solute
    • Temperature
      • Solutions of gases in liquids are affected by temperature
        • as temperature increases, the solubility of a GAS in a liquid decreases
      • WHY?
        • As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the solute gas increases and the gas can escape
      • Solubility of SOLIDS in liquids: total opposite
        • the solubility of a solid increases as the temperature increases (there are a few exceptions)
    • Temperature
      • Temperatures Affecting the Solubility as the Solution is Formed
        • When the temperature drops while you mix the solute and solvent, raising the temperature will increase solubility
        • If the temperature stays neutral, the temperature will have minimal or insignificant effect either way
        • If the temperature is increased when the solute and solvent are mixed, raising the temperature will decrease solubility
    • Pressure
      • When the pressure is increased over the SOLVENT, the solubility of the gas is increased.
      • Why?
        • pressure increases as gas molecules strike the surface to enter solution is increased
      • Henry’s Law: solubility of gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid
    • Factors Affecting Solubility
      • p=k h c
      • p= partial pressure
      • k h = gas constant
      • (dimensions: pressure divided by concentration, depends on the solute, solvent and temperature)
      • c= concentration of the solute
    • Factors of Dissolving
      • rate of which a solid solute dissolves in a solution depends on three factors: surface area, stirring, and temperature
      • the rate of dissolving is unrelated to the solubility if the solutes dissolves quickly or slowly does not alter or depend on its solubility
    • Surface Area
      • dissolving solutes happen in the surface area of the solvent
      • speed up the process by increasing the surface area
      • The greater the surface area per unit mass, the quicker it will dissolve
    • Stirring
      • dissolving happens at the surface of the solvent
      • contact between the solvent and the solute is increased
    • Temperature
      • raising the temperature increases the rate at which a solute dissolves
      • solvent particles move faster as they come in contact more with the solute