Factors Affecting Solubility


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Factors Affecting Solubility

  1. 1. Factors Affecting Solubility Joan Santos Elena Villanueva
  2. 2. Solubility <ul><li>whether or not a solute will dissolve in a solvent and the extent in which it will dissolve </li></ul><ul><li>the amount of a solute that will dissolve in a specific solvent given condition </li></ul>
  3. 3. Factors that affect solubility <ul><li>The nature of the solute and solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure (only applicable to gases) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nature of Solute and Solvent <ul><li>Remember Covalent and Ionic? </li></ul><ul><li>Polar Solvent- a liquid made up of polar molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Non-polar Solvent- a liquid made up of non-polar molecules </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nature of Solute and Solvent <ul><li>When two substances are similar they can dissolve in each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-polar solutes tend to dissolve in non-polar solvents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ like dissolves like” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two liquids dissolve in each other because their molecules are alike in polarity </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nature of Solute and Solvent <ul><li>Ionic compounds are made up of charged ions similar to polar compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic compounds are more soluble in a polar solvent than in a non-polar solvent </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nature of Solute and Solvent Insoluble Soluble Ionic Soluble Insoluble Non-Polar Insoluble Soluble Polar Non-polar solvent Polar Solvent Solute
  8. 8. Temperature <ul><li>Solutions of gases in liquids are affected by temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as temperature increases, the solubility of a GAS in a liquid decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As temperature increases, the kinetic energy of the solute gas increases and the gas can escape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solubility of SOLIDS in liquids: total opposite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the solubility of a solid increases as the temperature increases (there are a few exceptions) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Temperature <ul><li>Temperatures Affecting the Solubility as the Solution is Formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the temperature drops while you mix the solute and solvent, raising the temperature will increase solubility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the temperature stays neutral, the temperature will have minimal or insignificant effect either way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the temperature is increased when the solute and solvent are mixed, raising the temperature will decrease solubility </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Pressure <ul><li>When the pressure is increased over the SOLVENT, the solubility of the gas is increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure increases as gas molecules strike the surface to enter solution is increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry’s Law: solubility of gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid </li></ul>
  11. 11. Factors Affecting Solubility <ul><li>p=k h c </li></ul><ul><li>p= partial pressure </li></ul><ul><li>k h = gas constant </li></ul><ul><li>(dimensions: pressure divided by concentration, depends on the solute, solvent and temperature) </li></ul><ul><li>c= concentration of the solute </li></ul>
  12. 12. Factors of Dissolving <ul><li>rate of which a solid solute dissolves in a solution depends on three factors: surface area, stirring, and temperature </li></ul><ul><li>the rate of dissolving is unrelated to the solubility if the solutes dissolves quickly or slowly does not alter or depend on its solubility </li></ul>
  13. 13. Surface Area <ul><li>dissolving solutes happen in the surface area of the solvent </li></ul><ul><li>speed up the process by increasing the surface area </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the surface area per unit mass, the quicker it will dissolve </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stirring <ul><li>dissolving happens at the surface of the solvent </li></ul><ul><li>contact between the solvent and the solute is increased </li></ul>
  15. 15. Temperature <ul><li>raising the temperature increases the rate at which a solute dissolves </li></ul><ul><li>solvent particles move faster as they come in contact more with the solute </li></ul>