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    movingimage movingimage Presentation Transcript

    • SAA Workshop Pennsylvania State University April 2009 MOVING IMAGES: An Introduction for Archivists
    • Workshop Goals Introduction
      • Value
      • Basic history and technology
      • Physical properties
      • Preservation issues and how to deal with
      • them
      • Core archival functions:
      • Collection, description and access
      • Reformatting options; digitization
      • Resources
    • Heritage Health Index (Heritage Preservation, 2005) Introduction
    • Heritage Health Index (Heritage Preservation, 2005) Introduction
    • Definitions From SAA’s Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology MOVING IMAGE: A generic term for a visual work that has the appearance of movement FILM: A thin sheet of plastic, in a sheet or roll, coated with light-sensitive emulsion to be exposed in a camera VIDEOTAPE: Magnetic tape used to record video and audio signals Understanding Moving Images
    • VIDEO: Moving images, with sound, recorded electronically [in analog format, on magnetic tape or optical disk] [ DIGITAL VIDEO: A moving image that is created as, or transferred or transcoded to, digital information onto optical or magnetic media] MACHINE DEPENDENT: Requiring a specific type of hardware to operate Understanding Moving Images Definitions From SAA’s Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology
    • ANALOG: Continuously varying in correlation to a physical process, [ analogous to the sensory signals found in nature] DIGITAL: Representing information through a sequence of discrete units, especially binary code Understanding Moving Images Definitions From SAA’s Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology
    • Value Understanding Moving Images
      • Motion
      • Image, sound
      • Purpose
      • Increased
      • popularity,
      • demand and
      • use
    • . . . Content Value Understanding Moving Images
    • Zoetrope Flip Book History & Science Understanding Moving Images “ Persistence of Vision”
    • History & Science Eadweard Muybridge’s motion studies, 1872 Understanding Moving Images
    • History & Science Understanding Moving Images Flexible film, 1887
    • History & Science JVC VHS format, 1976 AMPEX Quadruplex 2” reel-to-reel VTR, 1956 Understanding Moving Images
    • History & Science Mechanical Understanding Moving Images Apparatus Electronic
    • Nature of Moving Images Understanding Moving Images
      • Machine dependency
      • Format obsolescence
        • Format evolution
      • Interconnectedness with
      • other resources and objects
      • Audiovisual heritage
    •  
    • Physical Properties: Film
        • Film gauges:
        • 35mm
        • 16mm
        • 8mm
        • Super-8
        • Others:
          • 9mm
          • Super-16
          • 70mm
          • etc.
      Indentifying Moving Images
    • Physical Properties: Film
      • Base (nitrate, acetate, polyester)
      • Emulsion: Black & white, color,
      • reversal
      • Frames
      • Sprocket configuration
      • Frame rate: Silent speed = 16 fps,
      • sound speed = 24 fps
      • Soundtrack: Optical, magnetic
      • Leader
      • Container (reel, core, can, box,
      • etc.)
      • Accompanying material
      Indentifying Moving Images
      • Base (plastic: acetate or
      • polyester)
      • Binder (“emulsion”): not
      • sensitive to light, but
      • to magnetism
      • Frame rate: 30 fps (NTSC)
      • Leader
      • Container (case, reel)
      • Accompanying material
      • Magnetic signal: Color,
      • sound, time code, etc.
      Physical Properties: Videotape Indentifying Moving Images
    • Physical Properties: Digital Media Optical Disc: Seven+ layers Indentifying Moving Images
      • Advertisements:
      • political, commercial
      • Documentaries
      • Home movies/
      • amateur footage
      • Local TV newsfootage
      • and programs
      • Newsreels
      • Promotional films
      • Public service films
      • Sponsored films
      • Theatrical films
      Genres Elements
      • A or B roll
      • Answer print
      • Daily
      • Full mag sound reel
      • Leader
      • Master
      • Negative
      • Release print
      • Rough cut
      • Stock footage
      • Trailer
      • Transfer
      Indentifying Moving Images
    • Dating
      • Physical evidence:
        • Gauge or format
        • Plastic base
        • Color
        • Soundtrack
        • Edge codes
        • Camera
        • identification
        • marks
        • Leader
      Indentifying Moving Images
    • Dating
      • Internal evidence:
        • Title & intertitles
        • Sound/narration
        • Copyright date
        • Content clues:
          • Dateable event
          • Built environment
          • Fashion
          • Technology
          • Signs and
          • broadsides
          • License plates
      Indentifying Moving Images
    • Dating
      • External evidence:
        • Notations on
        • leader, reel, can,
        • etc.
        • Expiration date
        • and postmark on
        • shipping box
        • Information from
        • donor
        • Information from
        • elsewhere
      Indentifying Moving Images
    • Chemical Damage: Film Nitrate decomposition Physical Threats
    • Chemical Damage: Film Acetate decomposition (a.k.a. acid hydrolysis, or “Vinegar Syndrome”) Physical Threats
    • Chemical Damage: Film Color fading Physical Threats
    • Chemical Damage: Videotape “ Sticky Shed Syndrome” (binder hydrolysis) Physical Threats
    • Chemical Damage: Digital Media Physical Threats
      • Poor
      • manufacture
      • Adhesive labels
      • Markers with
      • solvents
      • “ DVD Rot”
    • Mechanical Damage: Film
      • Sprocket hole
      • damage
      • Tears, scratches,
      • dimples, edge
      • damage, oil, dirt
      • Splices, old repairs
      • Winding
      Physical Threats
    • Mechanical Damage: Videotape Physical Threats
      • Playback
      • Dirt & debris
      • Accidental erasure,
      • over-recording
      • Magnetic fields
    • Mechanical Damage: Digital Media Physical Threats
      • Poor
      • manufacture
      • Scratches
      • Dirt and debris
    • Biological Damage
      • Mold
      • Mildew
      • Fungi
      • Insects
      • Handling
      Physical Threats
    • Storage & Environment
      • Temperature &
      • relative humidity
      • Air exchange
      • Housing
      • Positioning in
      • storage
      • Labeling
      Physical Threats IPI Preservation Calculator
    •  
    • Examination & Assessment: Film Preservation
      • Container
      • Odor
      • Surface &
      • edges
      • Format
      Examination & Assessment: Videotape and Digital Media Preservation
    • Repair & Cleaning: Film Preservation
      • Splicing
      • Repairing sprocket
      • hole damage
      • Adding leader
      • Cleaning
      • Rehousing
    • Repair & Cleaning: Video & Digital Media Preservation Videocassette and optical disk cleaning machines
    • Storage & Environment
      • Temperature &
      • relative humidity
      • Air exchange
      • Monitoring for threats or
      • further deterioration
      • Winding
      • Handling
      • Positioning
      • Housing
      • Labeling
      • Cold/frozen storage
      Preservation
    • Trustworthy Apparatus Preservation
    • Use Preservation Original
    • Reformatting Options: For Preservation or Access? Reformatting
      • Film:
        • Film-to-film
        • Transfer to analog videotape
        • Transfer to digital format
      • Video:
        • Video-to-film
        • Copy to analog videotape
        • Transfer to digital format
      • Digital video:
        • Copy to analog videotape
        • Copy to digital videotape
        • Duplicate
        • Transcode to other digital formats
    • Anatomy of a Digital Video File Reformatting FRAME SIZE: Width and height of the frame, measured in pixels ASPECT RATIO: Ratio of width to height of the frame in pixels FRAME RATE: Output frames per second BITRATE: Determines the amount of data needed to best represent the quality of the video, measured in megabits per second BROADCAST STANDARD: Video frame rates and lines of resolution used in different parts of the world. (Americas: NTSC) AUDIO: File format, codec, bitrate, sample rate, bit depth, number of output channels (mono or stereo), etc.
    • Reformatting
      • FILE FORMAT:
      • Container or “wrapper” that determines the way
      • data are stored (not coded) within the file
      • Holds the actual data and the information about
      • how the data is organized within the file
      • Usually identified by its file extension: .avi, .wmv,
      • .mov, etc.
      • Camcorders and other creators of “born digital”
      • mostly use the DV file format
      • Format currently getting most attention for
      • archival purposes: JPG2000
      Anatomy of a Digital Video File
    • Reformatting
      • CODEC:
      • Contraction of the words “compressor” and
      • “ decompressor”
      • Algorithm in the form of software that enables
      • compression and decompression of a digital video
      • file
      • Multimedia codecs are among the most complex due
      • to the intricacy of digital audio and video files
      • Compresses the raw data to create the file and
      • decompresses it when the file is accessed
      • Either “lossless” or “lossy”
      • Used for specific purposes, like creating DVDs,
      • podcasting, and videoconferencing
      Anatomy of a Digital Video File
    • Steps in Creating a Digital Video Product Reformatting
      • Capture/Import
      • Edit
      • Encode
      • Distribute
    • Reformatting
    • Reformatting
    • Reformatting
    • Reformatting
    •  
    • Steps to Creating a Digital Video Product Reformatting
      • SOME QUESTIONS:
      • Do I need a computer to make a digital copy of a master
      • video?
      • Capture seems easy if I start with a digital source. What if
      • my master is an analog videotape? A film?
      • What if we can’t do it in-house?
      • We need to protect copyrights and our revenue stream. How
      • can we deliver digital video over the Web for research
      • purposes only without allowing it to be copied without
      • permission?
    •  
    • Description Description
      • Descriptive Metadata Schema & Resources :
      • PB-CORE: Public Broadcasting Metadata Dictionary
      • Project
      • VRA-CORE: Visual Resources Association
      • Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, I and II. Library of
      • Congress, 2003
      • Archival Moving Image Materials: a Cataloging Manual.
      • Library of Congress, 2003
      • Compendium of Moving Image Cataloging Practices.
      • Association of Moving Image Archivists & Society of
      • American Archivists, 2001
    • Description Description Independent Media Arts Preservation Cataloging Template
    • Description Description
    • Access & Use Access & Use
      • Increased interest:
        • Cable TV
        • Internet
        • Digitization
      • Actual vs. virtual:
        • Preservation of the original
        • Ability or finances to make virtual copies
        • Web access
      • Revenue generation
      • Use policies, procedures, and fee schedules
      • Copyright
    • Collection Collection
      • Institutional/curatorial concerns: Fits mission,
      • best or only repository, use potential, condition,
      • ability to preserve and provide access, collegial
      • cooperation
      • Donor education
      • Retention schedules
      • In-house creation
      • Sources: Corporate, private, public – consider
      • who creates or collects them
      • Acquisition: Consider copyrights, identification,
      • accompanying documentation and artifacts
    • Resources: Professional Community
      • Organizations and interest groups
      • Websites and listservs
      • Conferences and workshops
      • Publications
      • Best practices
      • Colleagues
      • Consultants
      • Granting agencies
      Resources
    • Resources: Corporate & Private Communities
      • Labs & reformatting services
      • Vendors
      • Creators:
        • Broadcasters
        • Ad agencies
        • Photographers
        • Other media producers
        • Hobbyists – Camera clubs
      Resources
    • Paul Eisloeffel Archives Filmworks 328 S. 28 th St. Lincoln, NE 68510 402-730-9735 [email_address] MOVING IMAGES: An Introduction for Archivists