Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. SAA Workshop Pennsylvania State University April 2009 MOVING IMAGES: An Introduction for Archivists
  2. 2. Workshop Goals Introduction <ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><li>Basic history and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Physical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation issues and how to deal with </li></ul><ul><li>them </li></ul><ul><li>Core archival functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Collection, description and access </li></ul><ul><li>Reformatting options; digitization </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. Heritage Health Index (Heritage Preservation, 2005) Introduction
  4. 4. Heritage Health Index (Heritage Preservation, 2005) Introduction
  5. 5. Definitions From SAA’s Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology MOVING IMAGE: A generic term for a visual work that has the appearance of movement FILM: A thin sheet of plastic, in a sheet or roll, coated with light-sensitive emulsion to be exposed in a camera VIDEOTAPE: Magnetic tape used to record video and audio signals Understanding Moving Images
  6. 6. VIDEO: Moving images, with sound, recorded electronically [in analog format, on magnetic tape or optical disk] [ DIGITAL VIDEO: A moving image that is created as, or transferred or transcoded to, digital information onto optical or magnetic media] MACHINE DEPENDENT: Requiring a specific type of hardware to operate Understanding Moving Images Definitions From SAA’s Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology
  7. 7. ANALOG: Continuously varying in correlation to a physical process, [ analogous to the sensory signals found in nature] DIGITAL: Representing information through a sequence of discrete units, especially binary code Understanding Moving Images Definitions From SAA’s Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology
  8. 8. Value Understanding Moving Images <ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Image, sound </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Increased </li></ul><ul><li>popularity, </li></ul><ul><li>demand and </li></ul><ul><li>use </li></ul>
  9. 9. . . . Content Value Understanding Moving Images
  10. 10. Zoetrope Flip Book History & Science Understanding Moving Images “ Persistence of Vision”
  11. 11. History & Science Eadweard Muybridge’s motion studies, 1872 Understanding Moving Images
  12. 12. History & Science Understanding Moving Images Flexible film, 1887
  13. 13. History & Science JVC VHS format, 1976 AMPEX Quadruplex 2” reel-to-reel VTR, 1956 Understanding Moving Images
  14. 14. History & Science Mechanical Understanding Moving Images Apparatus Electronic
  15. 15. Nature of Moving Images Understanding Moving Images <ul><li>Machine dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Format obsolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Format evolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interconnectedness with </li></ul><ul><li>other resources and objects </li></ul><ul><li>Audiovisual heritage </li></ul>
  16. 17. Physical Properties: Film <ul><ul><li>Film gauges: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8mm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Super-8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9mm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Super-16 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>70mm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>Indentifying Moving Images
  17. 18. Physical Properties: Film <ul><li>Base (nitrate, acetate, polyester) </li></ul><ul><li>Emulsion: Black & white, color, </li></ul><ul><li>reversal </li></ul><ul><li>Frames </li></ul><ul><li>Sprocket configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Frame rate: Silent speed = 16 fps, </li></ul><ul><li>sound speed = 24 fps </li></ul><ul><li>Soundtrack: Optical, magnetic </li></ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Container (reel, core, can, box, </li></ul><ul><li>etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Accompanying material </li></ul>Indentifying Moving Images
  18. 19. <ul><li>Base (plastic: acetate or </li></ul><ul><li>polyester) </li></ul><ul><li>Binder (“emulsion”): not </li></ul><ul><li>sensitive to light, but </li></ul><ul><li>to magnetism </li></ul><ul><li>Frame rate: 30 fps (NTSC) </li></ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Container (case, reel) </li></ul><ul><li>Accompanying material </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic signal: Color, </li></ul><ul><li>sound, time code, etc. </li></ul>Physical Properties: Videotape Indentifying Moving Images
  19. 20. Physical Properties: Digital Media Optical Disc: Seven+ layers Indentifying Moving Images
  20. 21. <ul><li>Advertisements: </li></ul><ul><li>political, commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Documentaries </li></ul><ul><li>Home movies/ </li></ul><ul><li>amateur footage </li></ul><ul><li>Local TV newsfootage </li></ul><ul><li>and programs </li></ul><ul><li>Newsreels </li></ul><ul><li>Promotional films </li></ul><ul><li>Public service films </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsored films </li></ul><ul><li>Theatrical films </li></ul>Genres Elements <ul><li>A or B roll </li></ul><ul><li>Answer print </li></ul><ul><li>Daily </li></ul><ul><li>Full mag sound reel </li></ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul><ul><li>Master </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Release print </li></ul><ul><li>Rough cut </li></ul><ul><li>Stock footage </li></ul><ul><li>Trailer </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul>Indentifying Moving Images
  21. 22. Dating <ul><li>Physical evidence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gauge or format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soundtrack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edge codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader </li></ul></ul>Indentifying Moving Images
  22. 23. Dating <ul><li>Internal evidence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title & intertitles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound/narration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content clues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dateable event </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fashion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signs and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>broadsides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>License plates </li></ul></ul></ul>Indentifying Moving Images
  23. 24. Dating <ul><li>External evidence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notations on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leader, reel, can, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiration date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and postmark on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shipping box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>donor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elsewhere </li></ul></ul>Indentifying Moving Images
  24. 25. Chemical Damage: Film Nitrate decomposition Physical Threats
  25. 26. Chemical Damage: Film Acetate decomposition (a.k.a. acid hydrolysis, or “Vinegar Syndrome”) Physical Threats
  26. 27. Chemical Damage: Film Color fading Physical Threats
  27. 28. Chemical Damage: Videotape “ Sticky Shed Syndrome” (binder hydrolysis) Physical Threats
  28. 29. Chemical Damage: Digital Media Physical Threats <ul><li>Poor </li></ul><ul><li>manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesive labels </li></ul><ul><li>Markers with </li></ul><ul><li>solvents </li></ul><ul><li>“ DVD Rot” </li></ul>
  29. 30. Mechanical Damage: Film <ul><li>Sprocket hole </li></ul><ul><li>damage </li></ul><ul><li>Tears, scratches, </li></ul><ul><li>dimples, edge </li></ul><ul><li>damage, oil, dirt </li></ul><ul><li>Splices, old repairs </li></ul><ul><li>Winding </li></ul>Physical Threats
  30. 31. Mechanical Damage: Videotape Physical Threats <ul><li>Playback </li></ul><ul><li>Dirt & debris </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental erasure, </li></ul><ul><li>over-recording </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic fields </li></ul>
  31. 32. Mechanical Damage: Digital Media Physical Threats <ul><li>Poor </li></ul><ul><li>manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Scratches </li></ul><ul><li>Dirt and debris </li></ul>
  32. 33. Biological Damage <ul><li>Mold </li></ul><ul><li>Mildew </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Insects </li></ul><ul><li>Handling </li></ul>Physical Threats
  33. 34. Storage & Environment <ul><li>Temperature & </li></ul><ul><li>relative humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Air exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning in </li></ul><ul><li>storage </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling </li></ul>Physical Threats IPI Preservation Calculator
  34. 36. Examination & Assessment: Film Preservation
  35. 37. <ul><li>Container </li></ul><ul><li>Odor </li></ul><ul><li>Surface & </li></ul><ul><li>edges </li></ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul>Examination & Assessment: Videotape and Digital Media Preservation
  36. 38. Repair & Cleaning: Film Preservation <ul><li>Splicing </li></ul><ul><li>Repairing sprocket </li></ul><ul><li>hole damage </li></ul><ul><li>Adding leader </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Rehousing </li></ul>
  37. 39. Repair & Cleaning: Video & Digital Media Preservation Videocassette and optical disk cleaning machines
  38. 40. Storage & Environment <ul><li>Temperature & </li></ul><ul><li>relative humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Air exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring for threats or </li></ul><ul><li>further deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>Winding </li></ul><ul><li>Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Labeling </li></ul><ul><li>Cold/frozen storage </li></ul>Preservation
  39. 41. Trustworthy Apparatus Preservation
  40. 42. Use Preservation Original
  41. 43. Reformatting Options: For Preservation or Access? Reformatting <ul><li>Film: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Film-to-film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer to analog videotape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer to digital format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video-to-film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy to analog videotape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer to digital format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital video: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy to analog videotape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy to digital videotape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcode to other digital formats </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. Anatomy of a Digital Video File Reformatting FRAME SIZE: Width and height of the frame, measured in pixels ASPECT RATIO: Ratio of width to height of the frame in pixels FRAME RATE: Output frames per second BITRATE: Determines the amount of data needed to best represent the quality of the video, measured in megabits per second BROADCAST STANDARD: Video frame rates and lines of resolution used in different parts of the world. (Americas: NTSC) AUDIO: File format, codec, bitrate, sample rate, bit depth, number of output channels (mono or stereo), etc.
  43. 45. Reformatting <ul><li>FILE FORMAT: </li></ul><ul><li>Container or “wrapper” that determines the way </li></ul><ul><li>data are stored (not coded) within the file </li></ul><ul><li>Holds the actual data and the information about </li></ul><ul><li>how the data is organized within the file </li></ul><ul><li>Usually identified by its file extension: .avi, .wmv, </li></ul><ul><li>.mov, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Camcorders and other creators of “born digital” </li></ul><ul><li>mostly use the DV file format </li></ul><ul><li>Format currently getting most attention for </li></ul><ul><li>archival purposes: JPG2000 </li></ul>Anatomy of a Digital Video File
  44. 46. Reformatting <ul><li>CODEC: </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction of the words “compressor” and </li></ul><ul><li>“ decompressor” </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm in the form of software that enables </li></ul><ul><li>compression and decompression of a digital video </li></ul><ul><li>file </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia codecs are among the most complex due </li></ul><ul><li>to the intricacy of digital audio and video files </li></ul><ul><li>Compresses the raw data to create the file and </li></ul><ul><li>decompresses it when the file is accessed </li></ul><ul><li>Either “lossless” or “lossy” </li></ul><ul><li>Used for specific purposes, like creating DVDs, </li></ul><ul><li>podcasting, and videoconferencing </li></ul>Anatomy of a Digital Video File
  45. 47. Steps in Creating a Digital Video Product Reformatting <ul><li>Capture/Import </li></ul><ul><li>Edit </li></ul><ul><li>Encode </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute </li></ul>
  46. 48. Reformatting
  47. 49. Reformatting
  48. 50. Reformatting
  49. 51. Reformatting
  50. 53. Steps to Creating a Digital Video Product Reformatting <ul><li>SOME QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Do I need a computer to make a digital copy of a master </li></ul><ul><li>video? </li></ul><ul><li>Capture seems easy if I start with a digital source. What if </li></ul><ul><li>my master is an analog videotape? A film? </li></ul><ul><li>What if we can’t do it in-house? </li></ul><ul><li>We need to protect copyrights and our revenue stream. How </li></ul><ul><li>can we deliver digital video over the Web for research </li></ul><ul><li>purposes only without allowing it to be copied without </li></ul><ul><li>permission? </li></ul>
  51. 55. Description Description <ul><li>Descriptive Metadata Schema & Resources : </li></ul><ul><li>PB-CORE: Public Broadcasting Metadata Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>Project </li></ul><ul><li>VRA-CORE: Visual Resources Association </li></ul><ul><li>Thesaurus for Graphic Materials, I and II. Library of </li></ul><ul><li>Congress, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Archival Moving Image Materials: a Cataloging Manual. </li></ul><ul><li>Library of Congress, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Compendium of Moving Image Cataloging Practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Association of Moving Image Archivists & Society of </li></ul><ul><li>American Archivists, 2001 </li></ul>
  52. 56. Description Description Independent Media Arts Preservation Cataloging Template
  53. 57. Description Description
  54. 58. Access & Use Access & Use <ul><li>Increased interest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actual vs. virtual: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation of the original </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability or finances to make virtual copies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revenue generation </li></ul><ul><li>Use policies, procedures, and fee schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright </li></ul>
  55. 59. Collection Collection <ul><li>Institutional/curatorial concerns: Fits mission, </li></ul><ul><li>best or only repository, use potential, condition, </li></ul><ul><li>ability to preserve and provide access, collegial </li></ul><ul><li>cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Donor education </li></ul><ul><li>Retention schedules </li></ul><ul><li>In-house creation </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: Corporate, private, public – consider </li></ul><ul><li>who creates or collects them </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition: Consider copyrights, identification, </li></ul><ul><li>accompanying documentation and artifacts </li></ul>
  56. 60. Resources: Professional Community <ul><li>Organizations and interest groups </li></ul><ul><li>Websites and listservs </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences and workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Consultants </li></ul><ul><li>Granting agencies </li></ul>Resources
  57. 61. Resources: Corporate & Private Communities <ul><li>Labs & reformatting services </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Creators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other media producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hobbyists – Camera clubs </li></ul></ul>Resources
  58. 62. Paul Eisloeffel Archives Filmworks 328 S. 28 th St. Lincoln, NE 68510 402-730-9735 [email_address] MOVING IMAGES: An Introduction for Archivists