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Unit #2    North America

Unit #2 North America



Global Studies Unit #2

Global Studies Unit #2



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    Unit #2    North America Unit #2 North America Presentation Transcript

    • Global Studies Unit #2 North America
    • North America
      • Geographical region between the Arctic Circle and Mexico
      • Includes the countries of Canada and the United States
    • Physical Map of North America
    • Major Landforms and Regions
      • Rocky Mountains – extends about 3000 miles along the western section of the continent – the continental divide runs along the spine of the Rockies – east of the divide, rivers flow to the Atlantic ocean – west of the divide, rivers flow to the Pacific Ocean
      • Appalachian Mountains – eastern mountain system that runs about 1600 miles, from the American Southeast (Georgia) to the Laurentian Highlands in Canada
      • Great Plains – lie between the Rockies and the Appalachians. Area of rich soil and intense farming.
      • US plateaus and basins – west of the Rockies – Great Basin in Utah (Great Salt lake) – Death Valley in California
      • Glaciers – huge sheets of ice that cover much of Alaska and northern Canada
      • Canadian features – Coast Mountains (run along the western coast of Canada and link up with the Cascade Range at the US border) – Canadian Shield (east of the Canadian plains – an ancient region of rock covered by a thin layer of soil – not many inhabitants)
    • Physical Map of North America
    • Major Bodies of Water and Rivers
      • Great Lakes – Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario – formed by melting glaciers -- take water from the Canadian plains and upper US Midwest to the Atlantic ocean via the St. Lawrence Seaway – the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence form a major shipping lane between the two countries
      • Mississippi River – “Father of Waters” that drains water away from the great plains and to the Gulf of Mexico (the lowest point east of the Rockies). The MS river is fed by many tributaries , minor rivers that feed the main river, including the Ohio River and the Missouri River
    • Climate of North America
      • Northern arctic regions in Canada are very cold
      • As one moves south towards the Equator, the temperature moderates, to the point where southern Florida and Texas are tropical.
      • Wind patterns generally flow from west to east (from the Pacific to the Atlantic) – when the moist air from the Pacific meets the western mountains, it rises and cools, producing rain (or snow) on the western side of the mountains. On the eastern side of the mountains, the now dry air warms and rushes into the plains. As that air moves across the plains, it encounters warm moist air coming from the Gulf of Mexico, producing often violent storms. The Appalachians are lower in elevation than the Rockies, so the wind patterns generally flow across them, into the eastern seaboard and out into the Atlantic.
      • Affected by elevation – warm, moist air is forced up – as the air rises, it gets colder and the moisture is compressed out
    • Natural Resources of America
      • United States – alluvial (flood ) soils found in the South and the Great Plains (left over from a vast inland sea and/or drainage of silt from the MS River) make for some of the best faming land in the world. The US also has huge stores of coal, natural gas, oil and wood – Minerals such as iron ore (largely found in the Upper Midwest) are important for industrial production.
      • Canada – great fishing grounds on both coasts (due in large part to the convergence of great ocean currents) – about 12 % of Canada is part of the Great Plains, and thus has the same type of soil for growing crops as the US Great Plains (albeit with a colder and shorter growing season) – mineral, oil and gas stores are similar to the US as well, but are often hard to reach due to the climate. Almost ½ of Canada is covered in forests.
    • North American History
    • American Indians before 1492
      • Arrived via a land bridge across the Bering Strait (between Siberia and Alaska) sometime between 30,000 and 10,000 years ago
      • Filtered down throughout the continent over the centuries
      • created hundreds of separate tribes and societies
      • Adapted to the environment wherever they went.
    • European Colonial Holdings in North America before 1763
    • European Colonization – part 1
      • Spain – 1492
        • Columbus
        • Conquistadors
        • Three Gs: God, Gold and Glory
        • Nueva Espana – “New Spain” – huge super colony created to exploit the Indians
        • Spanish missions set up in the American Southwest and along the California coast – idea was to convert the Indians to Christianity – led to a system of loosely held territories
        • Colombian Exchange – movement of goods, food, disease, culture and people between the Old World and New World (be prepared to give examples)
    • European Colonization – part 2
      • France – Canada and Louisiana
        • Quebec -- French speaking even today
        • Louisiana -- Strong French influence, combined with Creole from the islands
        • Big reason for colonization -- MONEY FROM FUR TRADERS
        • Small settlements in Canada -- Montreal and Quebec City centered on trade with the Indians
        • Big missionary effort -- French will use the Indians as allies against the English -- this effort will be largely unsuccessful, but the French will try
        • French trappers will eventually make it to the Great Lakes area and down the Mississippi
        • Important to remember -- French colonies founded over money and TRADE. THEY'RE REALLY THE ONLY EUROPEAN POWER THAT TREATS THE INDIANS AS ALLIES
    • European Colonization – part 3
      • England – Along the East Coast
      • Virginia (Southern Colonies)
        • 1607 – Jamestown settled
        • Important aspect of southern colonies -- started for Money. They quickly turn to crops and Mercantilism (tobacco, Rice, indigo)
        • 1619 -- Dutch ship blown off course by a storm lands in Jamestown. They trade Black Africans for supplies. The Africans are not slaves, but rather indentured servants -- slavery will not come to Virginia in full force until the 1640s.
      • Massachusetts (New England)
        • Religious descent -- Puritans unhappy with the Church of England -- it's too Catholic
        • 1620 -- Pilgrims (separatists) settle Plymouth after crossing on the Mayflower
        • Will bring the idea of the people ruling themselves
        • Thriving trade system takes hold -- only substance agriculture, but fishing and shipping create wealth
    • Independence of the United States
      • 1775 – After heavy taxation by the British, and frustrated by a lack of representation in Parliament, 13 of Britain’s American colonies rebelled against the mother country
      • July 4, 1776 – Declaration of Independence signed
        • Restates the “Social Contract” (enlightenment idea)
          • Men form governments
          • Governments must be responsive to men
          • If a government is not responsive to men, then men have the right to change the government
        • List of Grievances – what the king did to break the contract
      • 1781 – War ends with an American victory
      • Sep 1783 – Treaty of Paris awards the United States independence from Britain
      • Sep 1787 – US Constitution is published (it takes about 9 months to get it adopted) – established the government we have today with 3 branches (legislative, executive and judicial)
    • Settlement and Independence in Canada
      • French originally settled the St. Lawrence River valley in the 17 th century
      • 1713 – after a series of wars, France and Britain sign a treaty that gives Acadia to the British (now called Nova Scotia) – many Acadian Catholics leave for Louisiana – their descendents are known as the “Cajuns”
      • 1754 – War breaks out between British and French colonists over land in the Ohio River valley (west of the Appalachians) – French and their Indian Allies were eventually defeated
      • 1763 – Under a treaty signed in Paris, all French possessions east of the Mississippi River go to England (under the same treaty, Spain, a French ally, received all land west of the Mississippi)
      • 1867 – British provinces in Canada are granted the right to rule themselves – they are united under one “dominion” – Canadians were still British subjects and thus had to follow the directives from London, but could make their own rules at home
      • During both World Wars – Canada follows Great Britain into the wars, but at the end of each the country is granted more freedom and independence
      • 1976 – French Canadians (some of whom want Quebec to become a separate country) gain status when Canada officially becomes a bilingual (two language) country. French and English are both official languages. In the same year, Canadians gained complete independence from England when they received the right to change their constitution without English permission.
    • Diversity in North America
      • Ethnic Groups – people who share a common culture, language and history
      • Since early colonial times, millions of immigrants from all over the world came to Canada and the United States looking for the promise of a better life.
      • 1619 – first Africans arrive in Virginia
      • By 1861 – over 4 million African slaves in the United States
      • Before 1850 – most immigrants came from Northern and Western Europe (mostly English)
      • During the mid 1800s – immigrants from Asia began to come to America’s western shores. Many Chinese immigrants left the west coast to work on the railroads crossing the country
      • Early 1900s – millions of immigrants cross the Atlantic from Southern Europe (the Italians are the most famous)
      • Since 1950 – influx of Latino immigrants (they now make up the largest minority in the country with just over 13%)
      • Religious Diversity – important concept to US culture is the ability to worship (or not to worship as the case may be) any way we choose
    • Italian Immigrants (early 20 th century)
    • Immigrants Today
    • Physical Map of the United States
    • The Northeast
      • centered around the megalopolis – a coastal region where cities and suburbs have grown so much that they seem to run into one urban area – stretches from Boston to Washington DC
      • most densely populated region in the country
      • economy is based on the cities – they serve not only as trading centers, but financial, educational and communication centers as well
    • The South
      • Warm, moist weather and great soil make the South a great place for farming
      • Cotton used to be “king” in the region, but now a wide variety of crops are grown.
      • Citrus fruits are grown in Florida and South Texas
      • Rice and Sugar are found in Louisiana and Southeast Texas
      • Peanuts and Peaches – Georgia
      • Shellfish – famous from the Chesapeake Bay area (VA and MD)
      • Oil – found in Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico
      • Timber (especially Pine) – found throughout the South
      • Southern Cities – vast changes since World War II due to industrialization and the shift of population from the Northeast to the Sunbelt
      • Washington DC – our nation’s capital – lies between Virginia and Maryland
    • The Midwest
      • America’s “heartland” – rich soil produces an agricultural center
      • Over the years, family farms have been swallowed up by corporate farms – where large agricultural companies run efficient farms with modern machines and few farmers
      • Area has been hit hard by recession and over 1 million farmers have lost their land since 1980
      • Major Cities in the Midwest – trading centers that served to funnel agricultural products to the rest of the country and the world
        • St. Louis
        • Detroit
        • Chicago
    • The West
      • wealth of natural resources – minerals such as coal, silver, gold and phosphates.
      • Forty-niners – first miners of the gold rush in the San Francisco area in 1849
      • As a result of the gold rush (1849-50), California’s population soared.
      • Parts of the West have been reserved as a natural wilderness, such as the Grand Canyon, Yosemite, and the Painted Desert
      • Important Cities – Seattle, Portland (Oregon), San Jose (home of “Silicon Valley” – home of the computer industry)
    • Map of Canada Today
    • French Influence in Quebec
      • remnant of the French settlement – dates back to the original colonization of the 1530s
      • Canada is really a bilingual country – 83% of the people in Quebec speak French as their 1 st language
      • Francophones – people who speak French as their first language
      • Separatists – people in Quebec who want to separate from Canada and form their own country – they have been unable (so far) to accomplish their goal
    • Ontario
      • originally settled by English loyalists after the American Revolution
      • the wealthiest province in Canada
      • home to Canada’s industrial heartland
      • 1/3 of Canada’s population – Centered on the cities of Ottawa and Toronto
      • Rich in natural resources – timber, minerals and fertile soils
      • Also close to large population centers of in the United States
      • Canadian Shield (in northern Ontario) – contains nickel and copper
    • Canadian Plains
      • Indigenous people – Canadian Indians – descendents of the settlers who came across the Bering Strait
      • European Settlers came and brought diseases – 75% of the Indians wiped out
      • Buffalo herds were killed off
      • By 1900 – the plains were a checkerboard of different ethnic settlements
      • Saskatchewan – center of “Canada’s Breadbasket” – think of the Great Plains stretching into Canada – also a province heavy into cattle ranching
    • British Columbia
      • On Canada’s west coast, south of Alaska
      • Indian peoples carved giant totem poles – large wooden poles that were symbols for a group, clan or family
      • Discovery of gold brought miners and boomtowns
      • Today about 2/3 of the people live along the coast – many feel connected to the Pacific Rim countries (40% of the trade in British Columbia is with Asia)
    • Canadian Northern Lands – the new frontier
    • Canadian North
      • Huge Oil Deposits – larger than Saudi Arabia, but it’s heavy crude oil chemically locked with sand – the oil CAN be unlocked, but it’s an expensive undertaking
      • Large Diamond and Gold mines
      • North of Yellowknife – is serviced by Ice Roads in the winter that cross over frozen lakes
      • Global warming has brought the thought of the opening of polar shipping lanes
      • Area is experiencing a population boom