Case mis ch04


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Case mis ch04

  1. 1. 4장Hardware and Software
  2. 2. Dee’s Challenge• Dee needs information system to support her blog – She must calculate costs to get approval • Needs to consider five components of information systems 1. People: sales force and herself 2. Procedures: for posting, accessing blog, leaving comments 3. Hardware: server 4. Software: blog software, setup 5. Data: security 4-2
  3. 3. What Does a Manager Need to Know About Computer Hardware?• Basic hardware categories: (IPOS) – Input • Keyboard, mouse, document scanners, bar-code scanners, microphones, magnetic ink readers – Processing • CPU – “the brain” • Main memory and cache memory • Special function cards – Output • Video displays, printers, audio speakers, overhead projectors, plotters – Storage • Magnetic disks, optical disks, magnetic tapes 4-3
  4. 4. What a Manager Needs to Know About Hardware (cont’d) Figure 4-1 4-4
  5. 5. What a Manager Needs to Know About Hardware (cont’d) 4-5
  6. 6. Computer Data• Binary digits (bits) – Used to represent data • Bit is either zero or one• Sizing Computer Data – Bytes – 8-bit chunk equals 1 byte – Size of main memory, storage devices etc. 4-6
  7. 7. Computer Components 4-7
  8. 8. How Does a Computer Work?• CPU (central processing unit) – Transfers program or data from disk to main memory – Moves instruction from main memory via data channel or bus – Has small amount of fast memory called cache • Keeps frequently used instructions • Large cache makes computer fast, but is expensive• Main memory – Contains program instructions – Contains operating system instructions 4-8
  9. 9. How Does a Computer Work? (cont’d)• Operating system (OS) – Program that controls computer’s resources and blocks of data – Provides services to application programs and users 4-9
  10. 10. Memory Swapping• Why? Main memory is too small to hold all programs and data• CPU loads programs from memory in chunks – Places new program into unused memory – If none available, the operating system will remove chunk being used and replace with requested data – It does slow down your computer 4-10
  11. 11. Why Should a Manager Care How a Computer Works?• Main memory size – Too little means constant memory swapping • Slows processing • Need more memory if processing many programs or large files• CPU speed – Expressed in hertz (Hz) – Needs more CPU if handling large spreadsheets or database files – Dual core processors for PCs – Quad core processors for servers 4-11
  12. 12. Why Should a Manager Care How a Computer Works? (cont’d)• Cache and main memory are “volatile” – Contents lost when power is cut off• Magnetic and optical disks are “nonvolatile” – Saved contents survive after power is turned off 4-12
  13. 13. What’s the Difference Between a Client and a Server?• Client computers are used for word processing, spreadsheets, database access – Connect to servers for Web, email, database• Servers provide service to clients – They are faster, larger, more powerful – Usually have very simple video display, if any• Server farm – Large collection of coordinated servers – Google has several hundred thousand servers in 36 data centers around world 4-13
  14. 14. Client and Server Computers Figure 4-8 4-14
  15. 15. What’s the Difference Between a Client and Server? (cont’d)• Grid computing – Network of computers operating as if it is one computer – Companies lease time on grid from IBM and others – Used for intensive arithmetic computing – See• Cloud computing – Computing networks provided as a service on Internet – Example: Facebook and others 4-15
  16. 16. What Does a Manager Need to Know about Software?• Two fundamental types: 1. Operating system • Large, complex program that controls computer’s resources 2. Application programs • Perform specific user tasks• Software constraints – Operating systems • Run only on particular types of hardware • Must conform to instruction set of CPU • Windows works only on Intel instruction set CPUs – Application programs • Written to use particular operating system 4-16
  17. 17. What a Manager Needs to Know about Software Figure 4-9 4-17
  18. 18. What Are the Four Major Operating Systems?1. Windows – Used by 85% of the world’s desktops – 95% of business users – Different versions for client computers and servers, Web sites, email, and so on2. Mac OS (click) – Apple Computer, Inc. developed for Macintosh computers – Easy-to-use interfaces – Used primarily by graphic artists and art community – Runs on PowerPC processor or a MAC with Intel processor 4-18
  19. 19. What Are the Four Major Operating Systems? (cont’d)1. Unix – Workhorse for scientific and engineering communities – More difficult to use than Windows or MAC – Not for business users2. Linux – Developed by open-source community – No fee to use it – IBM has developed business systems solutions that use Linux 4-19
  20. 20. What Types Of Applications Exist and How Do Organizations Obtain Them?• Application Software – Programs that perform a business function – Some are general purpose – Excel, Word – Some are specific purpose – QuickBooks• Application Software Acquisition – Buy off-the-shelf • May not be a good fit • May need alterations – Custom-developed software • Tailor-made for organization 4-20
  21. 21. What Is the Difference Between a Thin and Thick Client?• Thin client – Requires nothing more than browser – Does not require installation and administration of client software• Thick client – Has more code to run on it – More features and functions – More expense and administration 4-21
  22. 22. Thin and Thick Clients Figure 4-11 4-22
  23. 23. What Buying Decisions Do You Make?• Manager’s role depends on organization’s policies – Large organizations have IS department that sets standards for hardware and software – Medium to small organizations less formal • Managers take more active role • Usually standardize to single client operating systems• Managers and employees may have role in specifying horizontal application software• Usually no role in specifications of server hardware• Work with technical personnel to test and accept software 4-23
  24. 24. Business Manager’s Role in Hardware and Software Specifications Figure 4-12 4-24
  25. 25. What Are Viruses, Trojan Horses, and Worms• Viruses – Computer programs that replicates themselves – Take unwanted and harmful actions – Consume computer resources • Payload causes unwanted activity• Trojan horses – Viruses that masquerade as useful programs or files, such as games, MP3s, and so on• Macro viruses – Attach to Word, Excel, and so on to infect documents – Place themselves in startup files – Infect every file the application creates or processes 4-25
  26. 26. What Are Viruses, Trojan Horses, and Worms (cont’d)• Worms – Viruses that propagate using Internet or network – Specifically programmed to spread – Actively use networks to spread• Prevention – Patches • Vendor-provided security fixes for programs • Automatic updates or regular checks for patches 4-26
  27. 27. Guide: Keeping up to Speed• Technology continues to change• If you don’t keep up, you might not gain a competitive advantage – Managers need to understand what technology is needed • Don’t depend solely on experts – Develop a competitive advantage in non- technology areas to compensate• Other extreme are the “technophiles” 4-27
  28. 28. Guide: Keeping Up to Speed (cont’d)• What can a manager do? 1. Don’t ignore technology 2. Take seminars 3. Read articles, ads • C/NET, • Wall Street Journal technology articles 4. Attend professional events 5. Get involved as a user representative in technology committees 4-28
  29. 29. How Does the Knowledge in This Chapter Help Dee and You?• Reduces the work and costs of her consultant• Dee more confident in dealing with IT department and consultant• Better able to understand consultant’s questions and IT department’s concerns• Can determine: – No new client hardware needed – Use thin client on sales rep computers – Prefer thin client on her computer – Blog server software must be installed on server – IT department will decide whether to run Linux or Windows • Then blog software will be chosen – Set up to be performed by either IT department or consultant – Needs program to author HTML 4-29
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