גפנים באקלים חם - אנגלית
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  • 1. California California grape-growing Winegrape Ripening Sequence, CA Regions based on GDD-50F Viticultural (Amerine and Winkler, 1944) Regions Two-fold range of degree-day heat summation during the growing season across the state. Major differences in grape varieties and wine quality among five regions Los Carneros: South Napa/Sonoma St. Helena: Upper Napa Valley: Decreased vine size on slope Aspect Influences Heat (South & West exposure in N’ Hemisphere) 1
  • 2. Climate Region x Cultivar Jackson & Lombard (1993) Combinations (From: Reynolds, 1996) Alpha/Beta Viticultural Regions Cool Warm Tempranillo Mourvedre Nebbiolo Barbera Sangiovese Syrah Palomino Pedro Ximenez Touriga Nacional “Warm Climate” Grapes & Wines • High heat unit (GDD) regions (3500-4500) Cabernet Sauvignon • Long growing seasons (180-220 days) • Does well in both cool and warm regions • Mid-winter low temps usually not extreme • Flavor and aromatic qualities of wine differ • Soils in these climate regions usually lack across climate zones. organic matter, droughty, low fertility • Late ripening advantage in warm areas • Vines often head trained, spur pruned, • Black currant, cedar, tannic in warm regions widely spaced, “sprawling” • Bell pepper aromas in cooler regions • Yields per ha relatively low w/out irrigation • Grapes often ripen high sugar, but low acid Cabernet Sauvignon Roman Viticultural Regions Purple areas are historical Roman viticultural regions,brown areas above 700 m a.s.l. (From Johnson & Robinson, 2001) 2
  • 3. Viticultural regions of Spain Climate and Wine Zones: Spain • Jerez de la Frontera in the S’west • Upper Douro valley in West (From Johnson & Robinson, 2001) • Rioja and • Most of vineyards in drier regions Navarra in • Summers often too hot for grapevines, northeast actually delaying ripening • Rias Baixas • Little water available for irrigation Sierra Nevadas near Granada Spanish Wines and Grapes • Native grape varieties adapted to hot climates, low-fertility soils, very low (1/6) vine densities • “Isolated” until 1970s, making wines with traditional varieties and methods (tinajas) • High latitude (Madrid ~ Ithaca), high elevation plateau (meseta), long hot, dry growing season • Main varieties: Tempranillo, Touriga Nacional, Garnacha, Mourvedre, and a few white grapes like Palomino, Airen (brandy) and Verdejo in Galicia (Rías Baixas) Olives & Grapes: Olives, Grapes Marriage of Tree and Vine and Cork Oaks 3
  • 4. Tempranillo (Tinto fino, Tinto del pais, Traditional Aragonez) on albariza soil, Rioja Spain Winemaking Tempranillo Grenache Noir • Notes of tobacco, leather, (Garnacha, Cannonao, Alicante) cloves, spice • Workhorse variety—blended • Intensely purple small with Tempranillo in classic berries (tinto = ink) wines of Rioja & Navarra • Early budbreak and • Does best in older vines, hot, ripening (hence its name) dry, windy regions; quality • Juice is low in TA, with declines with irrigation high malic fraction • In fortified wines or rosés, • Needs blending with another grape like low color & tannins on its Garnacha or Cabernet own. Simple, fruity wines. Sauvignon to produce • Common in California high-quality wines Languedoc blends, also used in Chateauneuf-du-Pape Weathered red clay soils: Estremadura Navarra Garnacha Vineyard 4
  • 5. New Vineyard in Navarra Upper Rio Ebro (left) and Rioja Vineyards: Spain Head Trained Spur Pruned Vine Head Trained Cane Pruned Cabernet Sauvignon in Napa La Frontera: Moorish Spain Jerez de la Frontera: Solera Sherry 5
  • 6. ‘Palomino Fino’ Viña near Jerez Solera System: Sherries Transfers Portugal: Douro Valley Region from Criaderas (Jackson, 2000) • Oldest DOC in Europe • Unique varieties (Touriga Nacional) • World’s steepest vineyards? Upper Douro Vineyards: Portugal Douro Terraced Vineyards 6
  • 7. Hillside Vineyard Equipment Other Major Warm Region Grapes • Barbera: Italy, California, Argentina • Nebbiolo: unique to northern Italy • Carignan: Spain (Aragon), southern France, California. Most productive grape? • Sangiovese: Italy (Chianti), California • Mourvedre: Spain, southern France • Zinfandel: California, southern Italy (as Primitivo) • Syrah/Shiraz: France, Australia, California Barbera Nebbiolo • Signature variety of Piemonte • Mostly grown in (NW Italy) northwest Italy • California and Argentina • Notes of tar, roses, • Blended for its acidity, deep violets, citrus… color, low tannins • High in tannins, acid • “Fruity” aromas and pigments • High yields, ease of • Wines of great longevity mechanical harvest • Varietal character • Adapts well to various soil elusive outside of types in hot regions Piedmont (Alba) • May need fog? Carignan(e) Sangiovese (Catalan, Mazuelo) (Brunello) • May be the most • Main variety in Chianti productive vine Classico, Tuscan Italy worldwide • Clonal variability makes • Mostly grown in wine quality extremely south France, Spain, variable (Grosso & Piccolo) California, Chile • Low pigment content, ease • Very susceptible to of oxidation, fading wines mildew and other • Blends well with Cabernet diseases in humid Sauvignon regions • Traditional blends with • Main virtue is high Trebbiano (a white grape) yields (12 tons/acre), • Low yields but good and good color disease resistance 7
  • 8. Zinfandel Mourvèdre (Monastrell, (Primitivo) Mataro) • California’s “native” grape variety • Main variety in Bandol wines of Provence • From Slovenia via Italy (as Primitivo) • Needs warm climate for • Widely planted in quality (California, Northern California Australia, Valencia) • Very productive vine • Notes of blackberry, • Robust wines, berry notes, “animal,” acidic and rich tannins, high alcohol, astringent juice spicy (wasted in blush) • Has substantial body, • Uneven bunch ripening blending well with Syrah • In warmer regions, needs and Grenache low vigor sites to produce high quality wines Syrah (Shiraz) • From upper Rhone Valley in France • Blended in Hermitage and Cote Rôtie wines • Notes of black pepper, chocolate, cloves, cinnamon; rich tannins • Major variety in Australia, increasing in California too • Produces very different but equally interesting wines in both cool and warm regions • Not synonymous with Petite Sirah in California 8