Ionic Naming


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Ionic Naming

  1. 1. Naming Ionic Compounds, Cations and Anions "What's in a name? That which we call a rose, by any other name, would smell as sweet." Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, 1-2)
  2. 2. Elements and symbols that you should know: Part 1 – The obvious ones: <ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beryllium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul></ul>H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Mg Al Si P
  3. 3. Some more obvious ones: <ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argon </li></ul></ul>18) Calcium 19) Zinc The less obvious ones: <ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul></ul>6) Tin 7) Gold 8) Mercury 9) Lead S Cl Ar Ca Zn Na K Fe Cu Ag Sn Au Hg Pb
  4. 4. Naming Systems <ul><ul><li>A lot of chemicals have common names as well as the proper IUPAC name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common name = “nickname” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper name = systematic name developed by methods of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Though chemicals have both a common and proper name, some chemicals are called exclusively by their common name: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H2O water, not dihydrogen monoxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NH3 ammonia, not nitrogen trihydride </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM IONS Na+ + Cl-  NaCl CATION + ANION  COMPOUND A neutral compound requires equal number of (+) and (-) charges. Let’s learn how to name the ions. Then, we can name their compounds.
  6. 6. Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions KNOW THESE !!!! +1 +2 +3 +4 -3 -2 -1 0 Cd+2
  7. 7. Naming Monatomic Cations: Rule – The metal ion has the same name as the element but add “ion” after
  8. 8. Naming Transition Cations: Rule – The transition metal ion has the same name as the element but add the charge value in Roman Numerals after: <ul><ul><li>This happens with the following elements: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fe = Iron  Fe2+ = Iron (II) ion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fe = Iron  Fe3+ = Iron (III) ion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name each of the following monatomic cations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cu 2+ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cu + </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hg 2+ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sn 4+ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co 3+ </li></ul></ul></ul>Writing the transition ions this way helps to differentiate between the different “flavors” the ions come in
  9. 9. Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals (you do not have to memorize these)
  10. 10. Naming Monatomic Anions: Rule – When a nonmetal forms an ion, it is named: element stem name + “-ide” + ion
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>1. Cation first, then anion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Monatomic cation = name of the element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca 2+ = calcium ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cl  = chlor ide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CaCl 2 = calcium chlor ide </li></ul></ul>Overview of Binary Ionic Compounds:
  12. 12. Naming Ionic Compounds: <ul><ul><li>The cation name + the anion “stem-ide” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CaO = Calcium cation + Oxygen anion  calcium oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LiF = Lithium + Fluorine  Lithium Fluoride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name each of the following monatomic anions: </li></ul></ul>Rule – the cation goes FIRST the anion SECOND The naming uses the individual ion naming system: LiBr CaBr 2 MgO KCl BeS
  13. 13. Ionic Naming Practice NaCl CaCl 2 MgO Al 2 O 3 FeBr 2 CuCl SnO 2 Fe 2 O 3 Hg 2 S
  14. 14. Ionic Naming Practice NaCl CaCl 2 MgO Al 2 O 3 FeBr 2 CuCl SnO 2 Fe 2 O 3 Hg 2 S Sodium chloride Calcium chloride Magnesium oxide Aluminium oxide Iron (II) Bromide Copper (I) Chloride Tin (IV) Oxide Iron (III) Oxide Mercury (II) Sulfide [notice the subscript number under the oxygen = the number for Iron’s Roman Numerals]
  15. 15. Ionic Naming Warm Up NaBr BeCl 2 K 2 O Al 2 S 3 AgBr 2 CdCl 2 SnO FeO CuS
  16. 16. Ionic Naming Warm Up NaBr BeCl 2 K 2 O Al 2 S 3 AgBr 2 CdCl 2 SnO FeO CuS Sodium bromide Beryllium chloride Potassium oxide Aluminium sulfide Silver Bromide Cadmium (II) Chloride Tin (II) Oxide Iron (II) Oxide Copper (II) Sulfide
  17. 17. Now…Polyatomics <ul><ul><li>NO 3 - = nitrate ion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO2- = nitrite ion </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Polyatomic ions (-1 charge) <ul><ul><li>H2PO4 Dihydrogen phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C2H3O2 Acetate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HSO3 Hydrogen Sulfite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HCO3 Hydrogen Carbonate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO2 Nitrite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO3 Nitrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CN Cyanide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OH Hydroxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MnO4 Permanganate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ClO Hypochlorite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ClO2 Chlorite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ClO3 Chlorate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ClO4 Perchlorate </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Polyatomic ions (-2 charge) <ul><ul><li>HPO4 Hydrogen Phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C2O4 Oxalate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SO3 Sulfite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SO4 Sulfate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO3 Carbonate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CrO4 Chromate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cr2O7 Dichromate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SiO3 Silicate </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Polyatomic ions (-3 charge) <ul><ul><li>PO3 Phosphite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PO4 Phosphate </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = elemental name Ca 2+ = calcium ion 3. polyatomic anion = name of polyatomic CO32  = carbonate Thus  CaCO3 = calcium carbonate Overview of Naming Ternary Ionic Compounds: Take Home Message: Same method as with binary ionics except a polyatomic anion is in place of the monatomic anion!
  22. 22. Naming Ternary Compounds <ul><ul><li>Contains at least 3 elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There MUST be at least one polyatomic ion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(it helps to circle the ions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Na NO3 Sodium nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>K2 SO4 Potassium sulfate </li></ul><ul><li>Al (HCO3)3 Aluminum hydrogen carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum bicarbonate </li></ul>
  23. 23. Learning Check <ul><li>Match each set with the correct name: </li></ul><ul><li>Na2CO3 </li></ul><ul><li>a) sodium cyanate </li></ul><ul><li>b) sodium bicarbonate </li></ul><ul><li>c) sodium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Mg(HCO3)2 </li></ul><ul><li>a) magnesium carbonate </li></ul><ul><li>b) magnesium phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>c) magnesium bicarbonate </li></ul>
  24. 24. we’ve learned to name Chemicals Now, let’s write some formulas!
  25. 25. Ternary Ionic Formulas Calcium Sulfate Ca2+ and SO4-2 CaSO4 Iron (III) hydroxide Fe+3 and OH- Fe(OH)3 Ammonium carbonate NH4+ and CO3–2 (NH4)2CO3 The (2+) and (2-) charges cancel each other out So, we need one of each The (3+) needs (3-) to cancel but OH is only a (1-) So, we need three OH ions The (2-) needs (2+) to cancel but NH4 is only a (1+) So, we need two NH4 ions
  26. 26. Learning Check 1. aluminum nitrate a) AlNO3 b) Al(NO)3 c) Al(NO3)3 2. copper (II) nitrate a) CuNO3 b) Cu(NO3)2 c) Cu2(NO3) 3. Iron (III) hydroxide a) FeOH b) Fe3OH c) Fe(OH)3 4. Tin (IV) hydroxide a) Sn(OH)4 b) Sn(OH)2 c) Sn4(OH)
  27. 27. Ionic Formula Writing Going in Reverse of Naming <ul><ul><li>Write each ion separately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cation first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anion second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t show ion charges in the final formula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall charge of compound must equal zero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If charges on the cation and anion cancel each other  just write one of each ion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If not, you need more than one of either the cation or anion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use subscripts to balance charges </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use parentheses to show more than one of a particular polyatomic ion. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. 1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = elemental name calcium = Ca2+ 3. monatomic anion = “-ide” name sulfide = S2- Thus  calcium sulfide = CaS Overview of Formula Writing Steps: Take Home Message: It’s just that easy! But, beware the charge balance!!!!!!
  29. 29. You Try it: Write these out on your notes Write the formula: Potassium bromide  Barium fluoride  Copper (II) oxide  Calcium nitride  Aluminum carbonate  Beryllium hydroxide  KBr K+ & Br- BaF2 Ba2+ & F- CuO Cu2+ & O2- Ca3N2 Ca2+ & N3- Al2(CO3)3 Al3+ & CO32- Be(OH)2 Be2+ & OH- *Notice any relationship between the charges of the anions and the subscripts on the cations? Vice-versa?
  30. 30. Can You Write It? <ul><ul><li>From a name? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium oxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Li2O </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Sulfate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Na2SO4 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the individual ions can you make a formula? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fe3+ & Br- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FeBr3 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>K+ & MnO4- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>KMnO4 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Got It?