Atomic Structure Review

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Atomic Structure Review

  1. 1. Atomic Structure Review Mrs. Frommel Physical Science Clover High School
  2. 2. What makes up an atom??? <ul><li>Electron Cloud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Shells (Period number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons (negative charge) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons (positive charge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons (no charge) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How do I know how many there are? <ul><li>The atomic number (above the symbol) tells you how many Protons and Electrons (in neutral atom) A=P=E </li></ul><ul><li>The atomic mass is the number of protons (also the atomic number) plus the number of neutrons M=A+N </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples <ul><li>Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is an ion? <ul><li>An ion is an atom that has lost or gained electrons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The outer shell is exposed and atoms want to have a full outer shell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They lose or gain electrons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1, 2, or 3 valence (outside shell) electrons lose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5, 6, and 7 valence (outside shell) electrons gain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What happens then? <ul><li>Gaining or losing electrons changes the overall charge of the atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Losing electrons (-) gives the atom a POSITIVE charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaining electrons (-) gives the atom a NEGATIVE charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Ca F </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How is an ion shown in writing? <ul><li>Ionic charges: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive (Mg) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative (Cl) </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is an isotope? <ul><li>An isotope is when an atom of an element has more or less neutrons than the stable version shown on the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Why does this happen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These variations occur in nature and degrade (called half life) over time </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How are isotopes written? <ul><li>Two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Fourteen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus Thirty-Six </li></ul>
  10. 10. This is confusing!!! <ul><li>How can I keep it straight? </li></ul><ul><li>The way you can always tell what the element is: PROTONS (they don’t change) </li></ul><ul><li>Ions are when the atom loses or gains electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes are when the atom has a different number of neutrons (more or less) than the stable version on the P.T. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What if I have more questions? <ul><li>Email Mrs. Frommel: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] (or through SchoolNotes or my website) </li></ul><ul><li>IM Mrs. Frommel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on AIM screenname: BFrommel </li></ul></ul>

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