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指定閱讀:i have a dream

指定閱讀:i have a dream

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  • 1. Martin Luther King I HAVE A DREAM 馬丁.路德.金恩 我有一個夢想 在二十世紀六十年代,美國人逐漸認識到,南北戰爭所致力解放黑奴運動,並沒有產生使美國 黑人成為完全平等公民的預效果。十九世紀後期,美國黑人的公民權利受到州和地方歧視黑人 的法規和慣例層層約束和限制。在日常生活中,美國黑人常常被隔離開來,不能與白人同在一 個學校上學,乘坐同一公共交通工具,同在一個地方居住。黑人不能充分參與美國社會生活, 甚至在一百年後仍然和奴隸一樣被剝奪各種權利,他們生活水準的提高與國家的發展並非完全 相稱。因此美國黑人的平等問題成為一個嚴重的社會問題。黑人志願團體和教會以及其它各階 層關心此事的美國人團體,同心合力掀起了一場爭取民權的運動。他們敦促國會通過強有力的 法律,清除美國社會種族隔離和種族歧視的最後殘餘。 一九六三年八月二十八日在華盛頓林肯紀念堂舉行的「為工作的自由進軍」是民權運動的重要 里程碑。那天最激勵人心的,是馬丁‧路德‧金恩牧師代表南方基督教領導會議所作的講演。 一 位新聞記者指出,金氏的演講「充滿林肯和甘地精神的象徵和聖經的韻律」。他既義正嚴辭又 有節制;公開宣揚-這是其基本哲學的一部分--非暴力的改革途徑;並且侃侃陳詞,雄辯有 力。在六十年代和七十年代,美國國會、總統和法院將金氏在講演中提到的各種法律障礙解除 了。 1
  • 2. 一百年前,一位偉大的美國人簽署了解放黑奴宣言,今天我們就是在他的雕像 前集會。這一莊嚴宣言猶如燈塔的光芒,給千百萬在那摧殘生命的不義之火中受 煎熬的黑奴帶來了希望。它之到來猶如歡樂的黎明,結束了束縛黑人的漫漫長 夜。Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. 然而一百年後的今天,黑人仍舊沒有得到自由。But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. 一百年後的今天,在種族隔離的鐐銬和種族歧視的枷鎖下,黑人的生活仍舊備受 壓榨。One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination 一百年後的今天,黑人仍舊生活在富裕海洋中的窮困孤島上。ne hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. 一百年後的今天,黑人仍舊萎縮在美國社會的角落,並且發現自己是這片屬於他 自己土地的流亡者。One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. 今天我們在這裡集會,就是要把這種駭人聽聞的情況公諸於眾。And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition. 就某種意義而言,今天我們是為了要求兌現諾言而匯集到我們國家的首都來的。 當共和國的締造者草擬莊嚴恢弘的憲法和獨立宣言時 曾向每一個美國人許下了 , 諾言。他們承諾所有的人,不論是黑人或白人,都將擁有「生存」、「自由」 和「追求幸福」的不可剝奪的權利。In a sense we've come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the quot;unalienable Rightsquot; of quot;Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.quot; 2
  • 3. 就有色公民而論,美國顯然沒有實踐她的諾言。美國沒有履行這項神聖的義務, 只是給黑人開了一張空頭支票,支票上蓋著「資金不足」的戳子後便退了回來。 但是我們不相信正義的銀行已經破產。我們不相信,在這個國家巨大的機會之庫 裡已沒有足夠的儲備。因此今天我們要求兌現這張自由和正義的支票。It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked quot;insufficient funds.quot; But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we've come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. 我們來到這個聖地也是為了提醒美國,現在是非常急迫的時刻。現在決非侈談冷 靜下來或服用漸進主義的鎮靜劑的時候。We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. 現在是實現民主的諾言的時候。Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy.現在是從種族隔離的荒涼陰暗的深谷攀登種族平等的光明大道的時 候。Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice.現在是把我們的國家從種族不平等的流沙中拯救出 來,置於兄弟情誼的磐石上的時候。Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.現在是位所有上帝的 兒女實現正義的時候。Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God's children. 如果忽視這一刻的迫切性,那麼,對美國來說,這將是致命傷。自由和平等的爽 朗秋天如不到來,黑人義憤填膺的酷暑就不會過去。一九六三年並不意味著鬥爭 的結束,而是開始。有人希望,黑人只要消消氣就會滿足;如果國家安之若素, 毫無反應,這些人必會大失所望的。黑人得不到公民的權利,美國就不可能有 安寧或平靜。正義的光明的一天不到來,叛亂的旋風就將繼續動搖這個國家的 基礎。It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges. 3
  • 4. 但是,對於那些等候正義的心急如焚的人們,有些話我是必須說的。在爭取合法 地位的過程中,我們不要採取錯誤的做法。我們不要為了滿足對自由的渴望而 抱著敵對和仇恨之杯痛飲。我們鬥爭時必須永遠舉止得體,紀律嚴明。我們不 能容許我們的具有嶄新內容的抗議轉變為暴力行動。我們要不斷地昇華到以精 神力量對付物質力量的崇高境界中去。But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. 現在黑人社會充滿著了不起的戰鬥精神,但是我們卻不能因此而不信任所有的 白人。因為我們的許多白人兄弟已經認識到,他們的命運與我們的命運是緊密相 連的,他們今天參加遊行集會就是明證。他們的自由與我們的自由是息息相關 的 我們不能單獨行動 The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro 。 。 community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone 當我們行動時,我們必須保證向前進。我們不能倒退。現在有人問熱心民權運動 的人,「你們什麼時候才能滿足?」And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, quot;When will you be satisfied?quot; 只要黑人仍然遭受警察難以形容的野蠻迫害,我們就絕不會滿足。We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. 只要我們在外奔波而疲乏的身軀不能在公路旁的汽車旅館和城裡的旅館找到住 宿之所,我們就絕不會滿足。We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. 只要黑人的基本活動範圍只是從少數民族聚居的小貧民區轉移到大貧民區,我 們就絕不會滿足。We cannot be satisfied as long as the negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. 4
  • 5. 只要密西西比仍然有一個黑人不能參加選舉 只要紐約有一個黑人認為他投票無 , 濟於事 我們就絕不會滿足 We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi , 。 cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. 不!我們現在並不滿足,我們將來也不滿足,除非正義和公正猶如江海之波濤, 洶湧澎湃,滾滾而來。No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until quot;justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream.quot; 我並非沒有注意到,參加今天集會的人中,有些受盡苦難和折磨;有些剛剛走出 窄小的牢房;有些由於尋求自由,曾在居住地慘遭瘋狂迫害的打擊,並在警察暴 行的旋風中搖搖欲墜。你們是人為痛苦的長期受難者。堅持下去吧,要堅決相 信,忍受不應得的痛苦是一種贖罪。I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. 讓我們回到密西西比去,回到阿拉巴馬去,回到南卡羅來納去,回到喬治亞去, 回到路易斯安那去,回到我們北方城市中的貧民區和少數民族居住區去,要心中 有數,這種狀況是能夠也必將改變的。我們不要陷入絕望而不克自拔。Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair 朋友們,今天我對你們說,在此時此刻,我們雖然遭受種種困難和挫折,我仍然 有一個夢想。這個夢想是深深紮根於美國的夢想中的。 I say to you today, my friends. And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. 我夢想有一天,這個國家會站立起來,真正實現她信仰的真理:「人人生而平等」 I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: quot;We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.quot; 我夢想有一天,在喬治亞的紅山上,昔日奴隸的兒子將能夠和昔日奴隸主的兒子 坐在一起,共敘兄弟情誼。I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. 5
  • 6. 我夢想有一天,甚至連密西西比州這個正義匿跡,壓迫成風,如同沙漠般的地方, 也將變成自由和正義的綠洲。I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. 我夢想有一天,我的四個孩子將在一個不是以他們的膚色,而是以他們的品格優 劣來評價他們的國度裡生活 I have a dream that my four little children will one day 。 live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. 我今天有一個夢想。I have a dream today!我夢想有一天,阿拉巴馬州能夠有所 轉變,儘管該州州長現在仍然滿口異議,反對聯邦法令,但有朝一日,那裡的黑 人男孩和女孩將能與白人男孩和女孩情同骨肉,攜手並進。I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of quot;interpositionquot; and quot;nullificationquot; -- one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. 我今天有一個夢想。I have a dream today!我夢想有一天,幽谷上昇,高山下降, 坎坷曲折之路成坦途,聖光披露,滿照人間。I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; quot;and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.quot; 這就是我們的希望和信念。我懷著這種信念回到南方。有了這個信念,我們將能 從絕望之山劈出一塊希望之石。有了這個信念,我們將能把這個國家刺耳爭吵的 聲音,改變成為一支洋溢手足之情的優美交響曲。有了這個信念,我們將能一起 工作,一起祈禱,一起鬥爭,一起坐牢,一起維護自由;因為我們知道,終有一 天,我們是會自由的。This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. 6
  • 7. 在自由到來的那一天,上帝的所有兒女們將以新的含義高唱這支歌: 「我的祖國, 美麗的自由之鄉,我為您歌唱。您是父輩逝去的地方,您是最初移民的驕傲,讓 自由之聲響徹每個山崗。」And this will be the day -- this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning: My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing.Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride, From every mountainside, let freedom ring! 如果美國要成為一個偉大的國家,這個夢想必須實現。And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. 讓自由之聲從新罕布什爾州的巍峨峰巔響起來! And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire.讓自由之聲從紐約州的崇山峻嶺響起來! Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.讓自由之聲從賓夕法尼 亞州阿勒格尼山的頂峰響起來! Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania.讓自由之聲從科羅拉多州冰雪覆蓋的洛基山響起來! Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado.讓自由之聲從加利福尼亞州蜿蜒 的群峰響起來!Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California.不僅如 此,還要讓自由之聲從喬治亞州的石山響起來!But not only that: Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia.讓自由之聲從田納西州的瞭望山響起來! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee.讓自由之聲從密西西比的每一 座丘陵響起來?讓自由之聲從每一片山坡響起來。Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. 當我們讓自由之聲響起來,讓自由之聲從每一個大小村莊、每一個州和每一個城 市響起來時,我們將能夠加速這一天的到來,那時,上帝的所有兒女,黑人和白 人,猶太教徒和非猶太教徒,耶穌教徒和天主教徒,都將手攜手,合唱一首古老 From 的黑人靈歌: 「終於自由啦!終於自由啦!感謝全能的上帝,我們終於自由啦!」 every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual:” Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!” 7
  • 8. 和平 (PEACE) 左邊這個很像賓士車的標誌多長了一隻腳的圖形就是 quot;PEACEquot;「和平」的意思;1960 年代美國由於投入越南戰場之故,美國國內的反戰聲音亦隨之水漲船高,當時喊得震天價 響的口號便是 LOVE & PEACE,也就是「愛與和平」的意思;所以,我們今 天看到的,任何以這兩個詞,或這兩者的圖形為主題的造形藝術,或公共藝術,幾乎都是 源於1960年代的這種抗議精神來的。。。 美國(黑)人權運動 (American Civil Rights Movement) 作為 20 世紀最有活力、變動最為劇烈的年代,1960年代也是黑人權有長足進步 的年代;黑人權運動,簡單來說,就是廢除種族歧視並爭取黑人的政治經濟地位與白 人平等的一種社會運動。1960 年代,就在不斷的靜坐、遊行、示威抗議等活動下,促 成了相關的解放黑人權的立法。在這些黑人權鬥士之中,最受到傳頌與與紀念的,便 是 Martin Luther King, Jr.,也就是馬丁‧路德‧金恩博士;也許是因為他短暫而傳奇的 一生(註 1)、也許因為他悲劇性的死亡(註 2)、又也許因為他的知名演說「我有一個夢想 (I Have A Dream)」實在算得上 20 世紀人權運動的里程碑(註 3),所以金恩博士總是受到後 世最多的懷念與崇敬。(註 4) 註 1: 金恩博士生於 1929 年 1 月 15 日,卒於 1968 年 4 月 4 日,享年 39 歲。 註 2: 金恩博士在 1968 年 4 月 4 日在美國南方田納西州 (Tennessee) 的曼菲斯 市 (Memphis) 遭到暗殺。 註 3: 「我有一個夢想 (I Have A Dream)」演說,是金恩博士 1963 年 8 月 28 日 在美國首府華盛頓國家廣場 (National Mall) 前所發表的一場演說,請按這個 連結,有這場演說的錄影檔、錄音檔及演講稿原文文本;至於演講稿的中文 版本,請按這裡。 8