Indoor Air Quality
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Indoor Air Quality






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Indoor Air Quality Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Indoor Air Quality
  • 2. Indoor Air Quality
      • Refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes and how it relates to the health and comfort of it’s occupants
      • Recent findings have demonstrated that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air
      • The average individual spends up to 90% of their time indoors, whether they are at home or at work
  • 3. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Concerns
      • Sources release gases and particles into the air
      • Inadequate ventilation increases indoor pollutants to dangerous levels
      • Ventilation of outdoor air is needed to dilute emissions from indoor sources
      • High temperature and humidity may increase concentrations of some pollutants
      • Improper maintenance of central heating, cooling, and ventilation systems
  • 4. Pollutants and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution
      • Asbestos
      • Biological Pollutants
      • Carbon Monoxide
      • Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood Products
      • Lead (Pb)
      • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
      • Radon
      • Respirable Particles
      • Secondhand/Environmental Tobacco Smoke
  • 5. Asbestos
      • A mineral fiber commonly used in construction materials for insulation and as a fire retardant
      • Defined as a group of impure magnesium silicate minerals which occur in fibrous form
  • 6. Asbestos
      • Commonly found in building materials and insulation in aging structures
      • Materials containing Asbestos
        • Pipe and furnace insulation materials
        • Shingles
        • Millboard
        • Siding
        • Floor Tiles
        • Textured Paints and Coating Materials
  • 7. Airborne Asbestos
      • How do elevated concentrations of airborne asbestos occur?
      • Cutting, sanding, and other remodeling activities
      • Improper attempts to remove these materials releases asbestos fibers and endangers the workers or people living in the dwelling
  • 8. Health Effects of Asbestos
      • Lung cancer
        • Smokers are at higher risk of developing asbestos-induced lung cancer
      • Asbestosis
        • A condition in which the lungs become scarred with fibrous tissue
      • Mesothelioma
        • Cancer of the lining of the chest and abdominal cavity
  • 9. Biological Pollutants
      • Examples of Biological Pollutants
        • Bacteria
        • Mold
        • Mildew
        • Viruses
        • Cockroaches
        • Animal dander
        • Pollen
        • House dust
        • Mites
  • 10. Health Effects of Biological Pollutants
      • Allergic Reactions
        • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis-inflammation of the lung caused by the body's immune reaction to small air-borne particles. These particles can be bacteria, mold, fungi, or even inorganic matter
        • Allergic Rhinitis-a collection of symptoms, predominantly in the nose and eyes, caused by airborne particles of dust, dander, or plant pollens in people who are allergic to these substances
      • Symptoms of Health Problems
        • Sneezing, watery eyes, shortness of breath
        • Dizziness, lethargy, fever
        • Digestive problems
  • 11. Reducing Exposure to Biological Pollutants
      • Sanitary housekeeping
      • Maintenance of heating and air conditioning equipment
      • Adequate ventilation and air distribution
      • Use disinfectants
      • Maintain relative humidity between 30% to 60% will aid in controlling mold, dust, mites, and cockroaches
  • 12. Carbon Monoxide
      • An odorless, colorless, and toxic gas
      • Impossible to see, taste, or smell CO can kill you before you are aware it is in the home
      • The effects of exposure vary greatly in individuals depending on age, overall health, concentration, and length of exposure.
  • 13. Sources of CO
      • Unvented kerosene and gas space heaters, leaking chimneys and furnaces
      • Backdrafting from furnaces and fireplaces, gas water heaters and stoves, wood stoves
      • Generator exhaust, gasoline powered equipment, automobile exhaust in attached garages
      • Be sure all ventilation equipment for heaters, chimneys, and furnaces is properly sized, clear of blockage, connected, and not leaking.
  • 14. Health Effects of Co2
      • Acute affects are the formation of carboxy-hemoglobin in the blood which inhibits oxygen intake
      • At low concentrations symptoms include fatigue and chest pain
      • At higher concentrations symptoms include impaired vision and coordination, headaches, dizziness, confusion, and nausea
      • At extremely high concentrations it will be fatal if no action is taken
  • 15. Formaldehyde
      • A chemical used widely in industry to manufacture building materials, numerous household products, a by-product of combustion and other natural processes, and is released as a colorless pungent smelling gas
      • Most significant sources of formaldehyde are pressed wood products using adhesives containing urea-formaldehyde (UF) and carpets.
      • Particleboard, hardwood plywood paneling, and medium density fiberboard
  • 16. Health Effects of Formaldehyde
      • May cause watery eyes, burning sensations in the eyes and throat, nausea, difficulty in breathing, skin rash, and allergic reactions
      • High concentrations may trigger asthma attacks
      • Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen
  • 17. Organic Gases (VOCs)
      • Emitted as a gas from household products, office products, and craft materials
      • Paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings
      • Copiers, printers, correction fluids, and carbonless copy paper
      • Glues, adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions
      • All of these products can release organic compounds while you use them, and to some extent when they are stored
  • 18. Lead (Pb)
      • The #1 environmental threat to the health of children in the United States
      • Exposures come from air, drinking water, food, contaminated soil, deteriorating paint, and dust
      • Before it was known to be harmful lead was used in paint, gasoline, water pipes, and many other products
      • Old lead-based paints are the leading source of exposure today
  • 19. Health Effects of Lead
      • Lead affects practically all systems within the body
      • At high levels it can cause convulsions, coma, and death
      • At low levels it can cause damage to the central nervous system, kidneys, and blood cells
      • Lead exposures to fetuses and young children can be severe since lead is easily absorbed in growing bodies
      • Acute and long-term effects in children are delays in physical and mental development, lower IQ levels, shortened attention spans, and increased behavioral problems
  • 20. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
      • Two of the most prevalent oxides of nitrogen are nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and (NO)
      • Both are toxic gases with NO2 being a highly reactive oxidant and corrosive
      • A reddish-brown gas or yellow liquid that can become colorless
      • Sources include unvented gas stoves and heaters, kerosene heaters, welding, and environmental tobacco smoke
  • 21. Health effects of Nitrogen Dioxide
      • Acts as an irritant affecting the mucosa of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract
      • Extremely high exposures (a building fire) may result in pulmonary edema - swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs which leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure
      • Low exposures may cause increased bronchial reactivity in asthmatics, decreased lung function, and an increased risk of respiratory infections
  • 22. Radon
  • 23. Radon
      • A naturally occurring, cancer causing radioactive gas that you can see, smell or taste
      • Leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers and second leading cause of cancer in America and claims about 20,000 lives annually
      • If you live in the areas of the United States where radon levels are potentially dangerous have your home tested by a professional radon testing company
      • Take action to reduce the potential areas where radon can enter the home, especially in the basement, foundation, and water source of the home
  • 24. Respirable Particles
      • Sources of respirable particles include: ash from fireplaces and wood stoves, kerosene heaters, asbestos fibers, dust, and animal dander
      • Health effects include: eye, nose, and throat irritation, respiratory infections and bronchitis, and lung cancer
      • Changing filters on central heating and cooling systems regularly will increase their efficiency
  • 25. Secondhand/Environmental Tobacco Smoke
      • Developing lungs of young children are severely affected by exposure for several reasons
        • Their lungs are still developing having higher breathing rate than adults, and have little control over their indoor environments
      • Children and non-smokers exposure to secondhand smoke is responsible for
        • Increases and severity of asthma attacks
        • Respiratory tract infections and bronchial reactivity
  • 26. NASA Study – Plant Clean Our Air
      • NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) funded a two year study of the potential of common varieties of indoor ornamental plants to determine their effectiveness and removing several key pollutants associated with indoor air pollution
  • 27. Pollutants Used In The Study
      • Trichloroethylene (TCE)
      • Benzene
      • Formaldehyde
      • Carbon Monoxide
  • 28. Results Of The Study
      • Top 10 plants most effective in removing the indoor air pollutants
        • Bamboo Palm
        • Chinese Evergreen
        • English Ivy
        • Gerbera Daisy
        • Janet Craig
        • Marginata
        • Corn Plant
        • Mother-in-Laws Tounge
        • Pot Mum
        • Peace Lily
        • Warneckii
  • 29. Sick Building Syndrome
      • A term used to describe situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified
      • SBS is related to “building related illness” a diagnosable illness that can be identified and attributed directly to airborne building contaminates
      • Reports suggest that up to 30% of new and remodeled buildings may be the subject of excessive complaints related to indoor air quality, though it is often temporary
  • 30. Causes of SBS and BRI
      • Inadequate ventilation
      • Chemical contaminants from indoor sources – new carpet, new furniture, construction adhesives, cleaning agents
      • Chemical contaminants from outdoor sources – motor vehicle exhausts, plumbing vents, and building exhausts
  • 31. Indoor Air Quality
      • Clean air is the first step to improving your health
      • You determine the air you, your children, and quests breathe
      • As you have seen the air within our homes can be polluted and contaminated with a wide variety of chemicals, natural toxins, harmful particles we can not see
      • We do have the knowledge to take measures to significantly reduce them
  • 32. Measures To Reduce Pollutants
      • Maintain central cooling and heating systems, use a good filter, and change it regularly
      • Increase ventilation to a maximum so the polluted is constantly being replaced by cleaner air
      • Keep the home clean and when you do use cleaning products, open the window or turn on an air cycling system
      • Keep the moisture and temperature at a minimum