Indoor Air Quality


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Indoor Air Quality

  1. 1. Indoor Air Quality
  2. 2. Indoor Air Quality <ul><ul><li>Refers to the air quality within and around buildings and homes and how it relates to the health and comfort of it’s occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent findings have demonstrated that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The average individual spends up to 90% of their time indoors, whether they are at home or at work </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Concerns <ul><ul><li>Sources release gases and particles into the air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate ventilation increases indoor pollutants to dangerous levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilation of outdoor air is needed to dilute emissions from indoor sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperature and humidity may increase concentrations of some pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper maintenance of central heating, cooling, and ventilation systems </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pollutants and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution <ul><ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Monoxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead (Pb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respirable Particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondhand/Environmental Tobacco Smoke </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Asbestos <ul><ul><li>A mineral fiber commonly used in construction materials for insulation and as a fire retardant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined as a group of impure magnesium silicate minerals which occur in fibrous form </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Asbestos <ul><ul><li>Commonly found in building materials and insulation in aging structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials containing Asbestos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pipe and furnace insulation materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shingles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Millboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Siding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Tiles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Textured Paints and Coating Materials </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Airborne Asbestos <ul><ul><li>How do elevated concentrations of airborne asbestos occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting, sanding, and other remodeling activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper attempts to remove these materials releases asbestos fibers and endangers the workers or people living in the dwelling </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Health Effects of Asbestos <ul><ul><li>Lung cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smokers are at higher risk of developing asbestos-induced lung cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asbestosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A condition in which the lungs become scarred with fibrous tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesothelioma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer of the lining of the chest and abdominal cavity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Biological Pollutants <ul><ul><li>Examples of Biological Pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mildew </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cockroaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal dander </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House dust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mites </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Health Effects of Biological Pollutants <ul><ul><li>Allergic Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis-inflammation of the lung caused by the body's immune reaction to small air-borne particles. These particles can be bacteria, mold, fungi, or even inorganic matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allergic Rhinitis-a collection of symptoms, predominantly in the nose and eyes, caused by airborne particles of dust, dander, or plant pollens in people who are allergic to these substances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of Health Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sneezing, watery eyes, shortness of breath </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dizziness, lethargy, fever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Reducing Exposure to Biological Pollutants <ul><ul><li>Sanitary housekeeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of heating and air conditioning equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate ventilation and air distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use disinfectants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain relative humidity between 30% to 60% will aid in controlling mold, dust, mites, and cockroaches </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Carbon Monoxide <ul><ul><li>An odorless, colorless, and toxic gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to see, taste, or smell CO can kill you before you are aware it is in the home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effects of exposure vary greatly in individuals depending on age, overall health, concentration, and length of exposure. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Sources of CO <ul><ul><li>Unvented kerosene and gas space heaters, leaking chimneys and furnaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backdrafting from furnaces and fireplaces, gas water heaters and stoves, wood stoves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generator exhaust, gasoline powered equipment, automobile exhaust in attached garages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure all ventilation equipment for heaters, chimneys, and furnaces is properly sized, clear of blockage, connected, and not leaking. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Health Effects of Co2 <ul><ul><li>Acute affects are the formation of carboxy-hemoglobin in the blood which inhibits oxygen intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At low concentrations symptoms include fatigue and chest pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At higher concentrations symptoms include impaired vision and coordination, headaches, dizziness, confusion, and nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At extremely high concentrations it will be fatal if no action is taken </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Formaldehyde <ul><ul><li>A chemical used widely in industry to manufacture building materials, numerous household products, a by-product of combustion and other natural processes, and is released as a colorless pungent smelling gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most significant sources of formaldehyde are pressed wood products using adhesives containing urea-formaldehyde (UF) and carpets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particleboard, hardwood plywood paneling, and medium density fiberboard </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Health Effects of Formaldehyde <ul><ul><li>May cause watery eyes, burning sensations in the eyes and throat, nausea, difficulty in breathing, skin rash, and allergic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High concentrations may trigger asthma attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Organic Gases (VOCs) <ul><ul><li>Emitted as a gas from household products, office products, and craft materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copiers, printers, correction fluids, and carbonless copy paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glues, adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of these products can release organic compounds while you use them, and to some extent when they are stored </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Lead (Pb) <ul><ul><li>The #1 environmental threat to the health of children in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposures come from air, drinking water, food, contaminated soil, deteriorating paint, and dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before it was known to be harmful lead was used in paint, gasoline, water pipes, and many other products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old lead-based paints are the leading source of exposure today </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Health Effects of Lead <ul><ul><li>Lead affects practically all systems within the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At high levels it can cause convulsions, coma, and death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At low levels it can cause damage to the central nervous system, kidneys, and blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead exposures to fetuses and young children can be severe since lead is easily absorbed in growing bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute and long-term effects in children are delays in physical and mental development, lower IQ levels, shortened attention spans, and increased behavioral problems </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) <ul><ul><li>Two of the most prevalent oxides of nitrogen are nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and (NO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both are toxic gases with NO2 being a highly reactive oxidant and corrosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reddish-brown gas or yellow liquid that can become colorless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources include unvented gas stoves and heaters, kerosene heaters, welding, and environmental tobacco smoke </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Health effects of Nitrogen Dioxide <ul><ul><li>Acts as an irritant affecting the mucosa of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely high exposures (a building fire) may result in pulmonary edema - swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs which leads to impaired gas exchange and may cause respiratory failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low exposures may cause increased bronchial reactivity in asthmatics, decreased lung function, and an increased risk of respiratory infections </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Radon
  23. 23. Radon <ul><ul><li>A naturally occurring, cancer causing radioactive gas that you can see, smell or taste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers and second leading cause of cancer in America and claims about 20,000 lives annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you live in the areas of the United States where radon levels are potentially dangerous have your home tested by a professional radon testing company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take action to reduce the potential areas where radon can enter the home, especially in the basement, foundation, and water source of the home </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Respirable Particles <ul><ul><li>Sources of respirable particles include: ash from fireplaces and wood stoves, kerosene heaters, asbestos fibers, dust, and animal dander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health effects include: eye, nose, and throat irritation, respiratory infections and bronchitis, and lung cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing filters on central heating and cooling systems regularly will increase their efficiency </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Secondhand/Environmental Tobacco Smoke <ul><ul><li>Developing lungs of young children are severely affected by exposure for several reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their lungs are still developing having higher breathing rate than adults, and have little control over their indoor environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children and non-smokers exposure to secondhand smoke is responsible for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases and severity of asthma attacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory tract infections and bronchial reactivity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. NASA Study – Plant Clean Our Air <ul><ul><li>NASA and the Associated Landscape Contractors of America (ALCA) funded a two year study of the potential of common varieties of indoor ornamental plants to determine their effectiveness and removing several key pollutants associated with indoor air pollution </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Pollutants Used In The Study <ul><ul><li>Trichloroethylene (TCE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benzene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formaldehyde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Monoxide </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Results Of The Study <ul><ul><li>Top 10 plants most effective in removing the indoor air pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bamboo Palm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese Evergreen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English Ivy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerbera Daisy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Janet Craig </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marginata </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corn Plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mother-in-Laws Tounge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pot Mum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peace Lily </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warneckii </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Sick Building Syndrome <ul><ul><li>A term used to describe situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SBS is related to “building related illness” a diagnosable illness that can be identified and attributed directly to airborne building contaminates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports suggest that up to 30% of new and remodeled buildings may be the subject of excessive complaints related to indoor air quality, though it is often temporary </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Causes of SBS and BRI <ul><ul><li>Inadequate ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical contaminants from indoor sources – new carpet, new furniture, construction adhesives, cleaning agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical contaminants from outdoor sources – motor vehicle exhausts, plumbing vents, and building exhausts </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Indoor Air Quality <ul><ul><li>Clean air is the first step to improving your health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You determine the air you, your children, and quests breathe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As you have seen the air within our homes can be polluted and contaminated with a wide variety of chemicals, natural toxins, harmful particles we can not see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We do have the knowledge to take measures to significantly reduce them </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Measures To Reduce Pollutants <ul><ul><li>Maintain central cooling and heating systems, use a good filter, and change it regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase ventilation to a maximum so the polluted is constantly being replaced by cleaner air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the home clean and when you do use cleaning products, open the window or turn on an air cycling system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the moisture and temperature at a minimum </li></ul></ul>