100 Years Chapters 06-08


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100 Years Chapters 06-08

  1. 1. Chapter6 Devastation During World War II 1941-1945
  2. 2. Leopoldo B. Uichanco Appointed Dean W hen Dr. Gonzalez assumed his duties as University President, many expected Dr. Nemesio Mendiola to succeed him as Dean of the College of Agriculture because Dr. Gonzalez and Dr. Mendiola were close friends. Mendiola was the most senior among the faculty members, and was a hard-working, productive scientist and a very competent administrator. But his wife, Filomena Alvarez, a Spanish mestiza and sister of Governor Agustin Alvarez of Zamboanga, was hard to get along with. President Gonzalez was smart; he tasked the College of Agriculture Executive Committee (composed of department heads) to nominate the next dean. The Executive Committee, in a secret balloting, voted for Dr. Leopoldo B. Uichanco who had a modest but charming wife.7 Dr. Uichanco, an accomplished entomologist, a prolific writer, and the editor-in-chief of the Philippine Agriculturist, was highly qualified for the position of dean. On April 26, 1939 or less than a week after he received his appointment as University President, Dr. Gonzalez announced to the faculty and students the appointment of Dr. Uichanco as Acting Dean. The BOR later approved and confirmed his appointment as Dean. Dr. Leopoldo B. Uichanco Pre-war military parade along the Royal Palm Drive 76
  3. 3. World War II Broke Out W orld War II reached the Philippine shores on December 8, 1941. On Christmas Day, at about one o’clock in the afternoon, and wounding several more. The wounded were rushed to nearby hospitals, including the College Infirmary. For the three Japanese bombers attacked the campus. One of the bombs first time, many in Los Baños witnessed the gory spectacle made a direct hit on Molawin Hall, and completely destroyed the of war.2 student mess hall. There were no casualties on the campus except for the death of a civilian who left Manila to take refuge in Los Baños. By the end of December and early January, the ROTC cadets had gone to the war front in Bataan. The College of Evacuees on a train from Manila were less fortunate. Japanese Agriculture and School of Forestry faculty and employees planes bombed and strafed the train at Los Baños killing hundreds had fled the campus together with their families.2 Japanese fighter plane ROTC graduates UPCA ROTC parade of colors, circa 1939 77
  4. 4. Classes Continued... I n February 1942, both the College of Agriculture and School of Forestry had to reopen and remain open despite the ongoing war. Crops had to be taken care of, animals had to be fed, and ongoing experiments in the laboratories or fields had to be tended, other- wise, valuable investments would go to waste. On April 9, 1942, Bataan fell. Thousands of Filipinos died in their youth either in the battle front or in the infamous “Death March” to Camp O’Donnell in Capas, Tarlac. The College of Agriculture and School of Forestry remained open throughout the war years, but “owing to reduced faculty, lack of materials, widespread feeling of insecurity and fear, instruction and scholarship was seriously hampered, and research work practically stopped.”5 Manila and Corregidor surrendered Under the Scorching Rising Sun I n May 1943, a great part of the lower campus was The next day, all of those in the Makiling School were taken to transformed into an internment camp for over 2,000 Allied nationals, a military garrison in Sta. Cruz for special indoctrination on the most of whom were Americans. To house all the prisoners, several supposed merits of the “Southeast Asia Co-prosperity Sphere.” temporary barracks made of light materials – sawali walls and nipa roofings – were constructed in a large strongly fenced-area south of Toward the end of September, the prisoners were released, the athletic field up to the animal husbandry compound. except for Dean Uichanco and Dr. David who were sentenced to death on charges of hiding Americans and firearms, and supporting In the middle of 1943, the Japanese with the help of guerrillas. However, with the intercession of high ranking Filipino Sakdalistas (Filipino collaborators) heard about the existence of a officials in the puppet government of the Philippines, they were College guerrilla unit called “Home Guard.” The Japanese took eventually pardoned, but dismissed from service. Because of the immediate action by rounding up all male members of the faculty, “untoward happenings” in the College, President B. M. Gonzalez employees, and student body. They were all “concentrated” in the resigned from his position. Chemistry lecture hall from August 19 to August 23 without food.2, 8 Dr. Francisco O. Santos was designated Dean of the College On the fifth day of incarceration, a Japanese military officer of Agriculture, effective September 30, 1943. As the Dean, he had with the help of a Filipino interpreter called the names of eight faculty to constantly walk a tight rope. To give in to all the “requests” of the members and about thirty students identified as members of the Japanese would not be good in the suspicious eyes of local guerrillas. “Home Guard.” All were made to fall in line and were herded to the On the other hand, to be suspected of assisting and protecting Makiling School where Dean Uichanco and Dr. Pedro David, guerrillas would lead to disaster in the hands of the Japanese Supervisor of Students and In-charge of security, were suffering from Imperial Army. “third-degree treatment” to extract guerilla information.8 78
  5. 5. Map of the internment camp which practically covers the areas around Baker Hall and the Animal Science compound. 79
  6. 6. War Prisoners Liberated I n 1944, the Japanese expected the return of General Douglas MacArthur whose forces were already gaining territories in The abandoned campus consisted of distorted ruins of galvanized iron roofings, ugly stumps of charred beams the Pacific Ocean. True enough, General MacArthur returned with and rafters, and smoldering heaps. In no time, looters had full force in Leyte on October 20, 1944, and crushed the Japanese a holiday, resulting in almost total loss of valuable livestock, fleet in the great “Battle of Leyte Gulf.” But it was not until December automobile and truck engines, refrigerators, laboratory 31, 1944 that Los Baños and its vicinity were raided by American equipment, etc. planes. It took two months more before the American army In the dark night of February 22, 1945, guerrillas quietly returned and finally liberated Los Baños on March 24, 1945. surrounded the internment camp to protect it. They also guarded a predetermined drop zone for paratroopers in the College farm near Boot Creek at Tuntungin Hill. At dawn on February 23, nine big Allied forces dropping paratroopers. low-flying American planes dropped the Eleventh Airborne Division paratroopers at the drop zone, and numerous amphibian tractors came roaring from Laguna de Bay. The amphibian tractors of the First Calvary Division of General MacArthur forces carried ROTC Hunters and American infantry men who made a major thrust northwest of the internment camp, while the paratroopers and local guerrillas advanced southeast of the internment camp. The timing of the northeast-southwest thrusts was perfect. Also, American fighter planes came flying over the areas to provide aerial protection.4 The firefight started with the sound of rifles and machineguns near Baker Hall. Suffering only two guerilla casualties, US and Filipino forces killed several Japanese soldiers and dispersed the 250-man guard force. Obviously caught by surprise, most of the Japanese soldiers retreated and sought protection along Molawin Creek and in the upper forested areas. With the local guerrillas protecting the rescue operations, 2,147 Allied prisoners were loaded on the amphibian tractors that roared back to the Laguna de Bay. Thus, all the Allied prisoners – Americans, British, Canadians, Australians, Dutchmen, etc. – were saved without any casualties among them. On the night of February 26, the Japanese solders retaliated. They burned almost all residential and school buildings, and massacred men, women and children on the campus. Many sought sanctuary at the St. Therese Chapel. But the Japanese burned the chapel, and used their bayonets on those attempting to escape through the doors. Hundreds of civilians, including women and children, were massacred at the Chapel.5 80
  7. 7. The internment camp marker at Baker Memorial Hall Liberated internee couple The new Los Baños Internment Camp Memorial at the back of Baker Memorial Hall 81
  8. 8. Decades of Setback I n the College of Agriculture, 23 buildings were completely destroyed or reduced to ashes. Twelve buildings, including the hall, museum, herbaria, clubhouse, and even the seedhouse had been reduced to ashes. Only the school building, the coop, the administration and departments of entomology, agronomy, and sawmill, and the pavilion were spared.6 The Forest Products agricultural botany, were partially damaged. Only the agricultural building and the wood shop of the Division of Forest Investigation, engineering building was spared. Bureau of Forestry, were spared.3 Of the residences on campus, four student dormitories, nine The damage to the Forest Nursery and Arboretum was student bungalows, all houses of self-supporting students on extensive. Large parts of the Makiling Forest Reserve were Copeland Heights, and 22 houses of the faculty and employees were denuded. Protected trees such as molave, camagon, tindalo, etc. destroyed or burned. were destroyed.3 All botanical and insect collections were lost, scientific Clearly, scientific work in agriculture and forestry suffered equipment were burned or looted, and over 26,000 volumes of books several decades of setback. and pamphlets, 1,400 thesis manuscripts and over 500 scientific journals and serials were reduced to ashes.1 Seeds and planting materials of extremely valuable breeding lines or improved varieties of rice, corn, legumes, sugar cane, etc., and breeds of livestock and poultry representing over two decades of scientific work were completely lost. Likewise, in the School of Forestry, war left nothing but ashes and rubble, and a school deprived of its equipment and facilities. The faculty houses, administration building, library, dormitory, mess 82
  9. 9. The Schools Begun Rising From the Ashes “S alvaging staff” for the College of Agriculture and School of Forestry were organized. Undaunted and determined, the groups started salvaging and rebuilding the schools from the ravages of war. They needed a lot of help. With or without permission from Manila, the College of Agriculture and the School of Forestry were the first to open in the University. On July 19, 1945, 29 faculty members or 39 percent of the total number before the war attended the first faculty meeting of the College of Agriculture. Only 125 or 16 percent of the old students returned to enroll, but there were 58 new students.1 The situation in the School of Forestry was no better. There were only four faculty members, and in the beginning, only five students enrolled. But by mid-August, there were nine students: four freshmen, one sophomore, two juniors, and two seniors. In the second semester, the enrolment increased to 16.6 83
  10. 10. Log pond at Nagoya, Japan with logs imported from the Philippines, circa 1948
  11. 11. Chapter7 Changes and Challenges in Forestry Under Tamesis, Amos and Mabesa 1945-1957
  12. 12. R ight after the war, Florencio Tamesis was preoccupied with the establishment of the Nasipit The Bureau of Forestry reopened in February 1945 with Forester Carlos Sulit as Officer-in-Charge. In Lumber Co. in Surigao because of a great demand for September 1946, Tamesis was recalled to duty as lumber for the reconstruction of Manila and other Director of the Bureau of Forestry and ex-officio Dean cities and towns destroyed during the war. In fact, the of the School of Forestry. Prof. Harold Cuzner also demand for lumber increased from less than 80 million returned to his position as Professor of Silviculture board feet in 1946 to 573 million board feet in 1948.16 and Forester-in-Charge of the School. UP TEACHING STAFF IN THE COLLEGE OF FORESTRY Harold Cuzner, B.S.F. (Minnesota) Professor, Silviculture and Physiography Forester-in-Charge of the College of Forestry Gregorio Zamuco, B.S.F., M.F. Acting Secretary and Associate Professor, Forest Utilization Florencio Tamesis Director of Forestry and Dean, Jose B. Blando A.B. (Washington) College of Forestry (1937-1953) Assistant Professor of English and Spanish 86
  13. 13. The UP and Bureau of Forestry Teaching Staff T he faculty members of the School of Forestry in school year 1946-1947 consisted of six UP personnel including Professor The faculty temporarily held classes under the trees while awaiting the reconstruction of some buildings of the Harold Cuzner, Prof. Gregorio Zamuco and Prof. Jose Blando. On the School destroyed during the war. This was made possible other hand, there were ten Bureau of Forestry teaching staff, including through the allocation of P 59,300 by the Philippine Dir. Florencio Tamesis (the ex-officio Dean), Eugenio de la Cruz, government and the US War Damage Commission.15 Calixto Mabesa, Emiliano Roldan, Felix Chinte, Francisco Tamolang, Artemio Manza, Doroteo Soriano and Francisco Rola.1 BUREAU OF FORESTRY TEACHING STAFF Eugenio de la Cruz B.S.F. (Idaho); M.F. (Yale) Calixto Mabesa, B.S., M.F. Doroteo Soriano B.S.F. (U.P.) Professor of Forestry Policy and History Associate Professor of Forest Products Associate Professor of Forest Wood Technologist, Bureau of Forestry Surveying Emiliano F. Roldan B. Agr., B.S.A., M.S.A. Artemio V. Manza B. Agr., B.S.A. (U.P.) Felix O. Chinte B.S.F. (U.P.) Assistant Professor of Forest Pathology Assistant Professor of Botany Instructor in Forest Management and Dendrology Francisco N. Tamolang B.S.F. (U.P.) Francisco M. Salvosa Sc B. (Syracuse) Teodoro Deliza B.S.F. (U.P.) Instructor in Dendrology Sc M & Sc D. (Harvard) Asst. Professor of Silviculture Dendrologist, Forest Products Laboratory 87
  14. 14. Local Training with International Programs T raining of forest rangers was phased out in 1936 and since then, all students graduated with the Bachelor of Science in Forestry degree. Students had more training in biophysical sciences as well as in the practical aspects of forest management. Training in forest utilization and wood technology was also important. Moreover, the College gained more international recognition and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations supported international training programs of the College. Measuring trees In Forest Management, each student learns how to measure a standing tree and estimate the number of cubic feet. With a calipher, he gets the diameter, and with the hypsometer, the height, then follows the simple computation. FAO mechanical logging trainees on the campus. Forestry Leaves 88
  15. 15. Identifying wood samples With the aid of a 20-power lens, each student has to learn to identify different samples of wood…and must do it fast…and accurately. Dendrology Class ‘38 Forestry Plebes have to identify trees by their leaves. The Ranger Course was phased out in 1936. Beginning 1938, all graduated with the Bachelor of Science in Forestry degree. Golden Book-Bureau of Forestry 89
  16. 16. Women’s Invasion of Forestry Begun N icolas P. Lansigan, a Forestry graduate, wrote: “In my time (in the 1930s), life in the forestry school was dull. It was strictly not a coed institution as it is now. The opposite gender we saw on campus were lavanderas, maids of professors, kaingineras living upland, and some few pretty daughters and even prettier wives of faculty members. On weekends, to break the dullness, my girl-hungry classmates used to bust their pensions in the Copio cabaret in Los Baños.” For four decades, the School of Forestry remained traditionally a school of men. But in June 1951, this school – now a college – was invaded by two brave women who enrolled for the BSF degree. These were Ramona Gille from Miagao, Iloilo, and Manila-born Generosa Cañeda. Generosa’s father was the Chief Clerk of the Division of Forest Investigation.3 Prof. Eugenio de la Cruz, the Adviser of the Forestry Student Body, said, “Our forbidden territory The Forestry Swimming Pool is invaded. Now, young men, it will be a shame if you quit ahead of them!” Foresters, out in the woods most of the time, are surprisingly up-to-date in social affairs and dance steps 90
  17. 17. Fore Candidates for stry Leav es Forestry Circle Muse in 1950 Coronation of Forestry Circle Queen At the right, Mr. Felipe R. Amos, Dean of the College of Forestry, delivering his speech. Forestry Leaves 91
  18. 18. Honoring Those Who Gave Their Lives to the Cause of Forestry T he activities of forest rangers in the wild and in protecting forest natural resources posed many dangers and They are not dead! They have passed Beyond the mists that blind us here risks to life and limbs. Every now and then, the College would Into the new and larger life hear about the untimely death of an alumnus in the service of Of that serener sphere. the Bureau in remote mountainous areas. In memory of those who had given their lives to the They have but dropped their robe of clay cause of forestry, the College put up a Cenotaph. To put their shining raiment on; They have now wandered far away – They are not “lost” nor “gone.” Though disenthralled and glorified They still are here and love us yet; The dear ones they have left behind They never can forget. – J.L. McCreery Forestry Leaves Mrs. Tamesis, assisted by Junior Forester M. Reyes, lays a wreath on the cenotaph. The Cenotaph Makiling Echo 92
  19. 19. Construction of the Forest Products Laboratory, the Largest and Best Equipped in the Eastern Hemisphere T he need for state-of-the-art research facilities in forest products was long felt in the College.2, 4 A proposal for the construction of a Forest Products Laboratory was prepared and submitted for funding under the US Economic Cooperation Agency (ECA) – later known as the International Cooperation Administration (ICA). E. J. Bell and five other technical men from Washington, DC visited the College, studied the plan and proposed the site. The plan, which was patterned after the world-renowned Forest Products Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin, was approved. The cost was $239,552.00, plus P 518,000.00 as a counterpart fund from the Philippine government. It was the largest and best equipped in the Eastern Hemisphere.5, 10 But this was under the Bureau, not under UP. Mr. Ermerson of FAO and Ms. Jacobo Gonzales unveiling the plaque of Forest Products Laboratory dedication as Congressman Gonzales, UP President Vital Tan, and Agriculture Secretary Salvador Araneta look on. Forest Products Laboratory 93
  20. 20. Tamesis Retired and Amos Took Over A fter 47 years of government service, Tamesis retired in 1953. Acting Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources Placido Mapa extolled the enviable record of Tamesis, particularly his “outstanding contributions to the science of forestry, the management and conservation of forest, and the development of the lumber industry of the country.”11 Felipe Amos was appointed Bureau Director to succeed Tamesis.6, 12 He was previously the Assistant Director of the Bureau and a Professor in the School of Forestry. Unfortunately, the increasing responsibilities of Mr. Amos as Bureau Director required his full-time attention to forestry matters throughout the country. The School of Forestry needed most some support for the reconstruction of war-damaged facilities but received little attention from the Bureau and the University. When Prof. Cuzner retired in 1953, Prof. Calixto Mabesa was designated Forester-in-Charge of the College of Forestry. Mabesa had been serving the School as Professor of Forest Products, being the Wood Technologist of the Bureau. He obtained the BSF degree (cum laude) in 1923 and the MF degree in 1942 from Syracuse University in New York. CHANGING OF THE SCHOOL’S NAME BUT KEEPING IT UNDER TWO MASTERS On March 16, 1924, Act. No. 3095 amended Act No. 2578 by changing the name of the school from Felipe Amos “Forest School” to “School of Forestry.” However, the Bureau Director and Dean, College of Forestry 1953-1957 Director of the Bureau of Forestry continued to serve as ex-officio Dean. In 1949, Republic Act. 352 changed the name of the School to College of Forestry, but there were no provisions regarding maintenance of the College and the entity responsible for providing the cost of maintenance. Thus, the College had to continue under uncertain terms with two masters: the Bureau of Forestry and the University of the Philippines.17 94
  21. 21. Successful Lobbying for a New College of Forestry Building I CA allotted P 167,500.00 for the rehabilitation and expansion of the College of Forestry building and $54,000.00 for laboratory equipment. But these amounts required counterpart funds from UP, which the University did not have.13 When Mabesa was appointed Assistant Dean, he mobilized the faculty, alumni, students, and friends of the College in lobbying for support. A bill was approved as Republic Act No. 989 on January 25, 1954 which appropriated the sum of P200,000.00.7, 17 When constructed, the new two-storey College building stood where the small old building was. The D-shaped edifice had eight classrooms, with a capacity of 50-60 students each. It had a spacious auditorium, a roomy library, and a beautiful roof garden.8 Back of the new College building Forestry Leaves The new College of Forestry building 95
  22. 22. The College of Forestry Separated from the Bureau F or almost five decades, the School/College of Forestry was serving two masters: the Bureau of Forestry and the University. The Bureau had the upper hand because the Bureau Director served as the ex-officio Dean.17 The 1957 Reorganization Plan No. 30-A of the Government Survey and Reorganization Commission provided among other things the separation of the College of Forestry from the Bureau. This reorganization solved two problems: (1) experienced professors would not be pulled out of their teaching positions when needed by the Bureau elsewhere, and (2) the University would no longer “wash its hands” for its failure to support the College. Under this reorganization, the UP Board of Regents for the first time in history had to appoint the Dean of the College of Calixto Mabesa, Forestry. The BOR appointed Mabesa who had to resign from the Dean of the College of Forestry Bureau to accept the UP appointment as full-time Dean. after the separation of the College from the Bureau of Forestry Massive Staff Development Program Under the ICA-NEC Training Grants I n 1954, the UPCF requested assistance from ICA similar to that enjoyed by the College of Agriculture. This led to the signing of Visiting Professors under the UP-Cornell Contract helped in improving instruction and research the UPCF-Cornell University contract in 1957, which provided programs in Forestry assistance in the form of visiting professors from the USA, in the fields of forestry economics, forest products, and silviculture. The coming of the first visiting professors – Dr. C. Eugene Farnsworth and Dr. R. E. Pentoney – from the State University of New York College of Forestry (Syracuse) under the ICA- sponsored UP - Cornell contract, partly relieved the shortage of teaching staff when the College was divorced from the Bureau of Forestry.4 Under the UPCF-Cornell program, there were ICA-NEC scholarships for Masteral degree in US universities.14 Many young but very promising instructors received ICA-NEC study grants. The UPCF-Cornell University contract also provided for ICA dollar R.E. Pentoney C.E. Farnsworth allocations for the purchase of special research equipment, and funds Visiting Professor Visiting Professor for forestry research came from the National Economic Council (NEC).2 of Forest Products of Silviculture 96
  23. 23. SOME OF THE YOUNG FACULTY MEMBERS SENT TO US UNIVERSITIES FOR MS DEGREE IN FORESTRY. Mario Eusebio Domingo Lantican Faustino C. Francia Romulo del Castillo M.S. in Lumber Waste M.S in Kiln Drying M.S. in Entomology M.S. in Forest Management (Wisconsin) (Syracuse) (Syracuse) (Duke University) Florentino O. Tesoro Feliberto S. Pollisco Lucio Quimbo Osiris Valderrama M.S. in Forest Utilization M.S. in Wood Mechanics M.S. in Wood Technology M.S. in Forest Engineering (Syracuse) (Wisconsin) (Syracuse) (Michigan) Napoleon T. Vergara Manuel R. Monsalud Adolfo V. Revilla, Jr. Neptale Q. Zabala M.S. in Forest Economics M.S. in Pulp and Paper Production M.S. in Forest Management M.S. in Forest Management (Syracuse) (Wisconsin) (Yale) (Colorado State) 97
  24. 24. Monthly Bulletin Farmers’ field day
  25. 25. Milestones on the 8 Chapter Lower Campus During the Uichanco Years 1945-1959 Monthly Bulletin IRRI Ranchers’ Club Rodeo
  26. 26. Reconstruction and Rehabilitation After the War W ith limited funds at its disposal, the College houses leading to St. Therese Chapel became known as the reconstruction projects initially consisted mainly of restoring “Poultry Avenue.” partitions, repairing damaged walls, doors and windows as well as constructing benches, desks, tables, chairs and shelves.1,19 With the release of the Philippine-US War Damage Funds to the University in 1947, the College’s share of P470,546.00 enabled The housing problem was acute because 22 houses of the it to reconstruct the academic and research buildings, the Infirmary, faculty and employees were completely destroyed. Rows of poultry student dormitories, and bungalows.13 breeding houses were converted into residences of the faculty, employees and students, and the dirt road or path between the poultry Dean Uichanco reconstituted eight academic departments of the College with long-term department heads to ensure stability. Graduation of the First Summa Cum Laudes F or the first time in UPCA’s history, a student – Obdulia In the following year, 1947, another woman – Clare R. Baltazar Fronda-Sison – graduated summa cum laude. She was joined in – graduated summa cum laude, and Jesus Moran Sison (husband UP’s commencement exercise held on June 4, 1946 by five other of Obdulia) graduated magna cum laude.11 The graduation of many honor graduates of the College: Rosy R. Baltazar, Luisa R. students with high honors after the war was no less than phenomenal. Mondeñedo, and Celso R. Santos who graduated magna cum laude, and Nathaniel B. Tablante and Fe K. Villegas who graduated cum laude.10 Junior-Senior Prom Of Culture and Social Graces T o the general public, the agriculture students were nothing more than farmers and to many in UP Manila who could not beat the Speech and Dramatics Club athletes from Los Baños, this bunch from the College of Agriculture that sponsored oratorical was nothing more than muscles that dealt with dirt and carabaos. contests and theatrical presentations But the College organized several student associations such as the Associated Women Students of the College and the Rural High School, Ranchers’ Club, Speech and Dramatics Club, and the Philippine Country Life Association. The Junior- Senior Prom and Loyalty Day Ball graced by invited ladies from the UP College of Nursing and the Philippine Women’s University were opportunities for agriculture students to demonstrate their culture and social graces. 100 Aggie Green and Gold
  27. 27. Senior and junior women students of the College held their traditional Sampaguita Monthly Bulletin Garland Festival every year. The floral rites, sponsored by the Associated Women Students, symbolized the transfer of responsibilities from the seniors to the juniors When formally dressed-up with lady partners, who Aggie Green and Gold would say agriculture students were less handsome and dignified than those in UP Manila? 101
  28. 28. Meteoric Rise in Enrolment T he US Agricultural Survey Mission to the Philippines in 1950, headed by Dr. Edward J. Bell – known as the Bell Mission 3500 3000 for short – highlighted the importance of agriculture and the vital role 2500 of UPCA in human resource development and research to increase Total No. of Students Number of Students agricultural productivity. 2000 In 1951, the UPCA started the BS Home Technology curriculum which attracted more women to the predominantly male 1500 campus.19 The College witnessed a dramatic increase in enrolment 1000 starting in 1950 until 1956 when the total enrolment of undergraduate Freshmen students reached 3,453.2, 3, 4, 14, 15, 17, 18 This phenomenal increase in 500 enrolment put a lot of pressure on the College administration to solve the serious shortage of classrooms and laboratories, and to increase 0 the number of faculty from 40 in 1946 to 214 in 1957.18, 22 1946 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Enrolment in the College of Agriculture from 1946 to 1958 (Excluding cross-registrants from Forestry and graduate students) The opening of the Home Technology curriculum in 1951 attracted more female students to the College of Agriculture. Below, a baptismal party at the HT Practice House. 102 Monthly Bulletin
  29. 29. Twelve students from Vietnam were sponsored by FAO in 1955 to study agriculture in Los Baños. They would serve as the pioneer staff of a prospective agricultural college in Blao, South Vietnam. Rockefeller Foundation Supported the Construction of an International House The International House, with the former social hall now converted into the UPLB Graduate School. 103
  30. 30. Reliable But Aging Professors Had to Train Over A Hundred Young Assistant Instructors and Research Assistants A s enrolments began increasing in 1950, the old reliable professors of UPCA needed help in handling many laboratory exercises and in conducting research projects. The bright among the recent graduates of the College were absorbed as assistant instructors and research assistants. The meteoric rise in enrolment up to 3,453 undergraduate Leopoldo Bancain Uichanco students in 1956 necessitated a five-fold increase in the number Dean and Head, Department of Entomology of the faculty. As a consequence, aging professors had many bright but very young staff members serving as their apprentices. RELIABLE PROFESSORS OF UPCA AFTER WORLD WAR II Asst. Dean F. O. Santos Dr. F. M. Sacay Ag. Chemistry Ag. Education Dr. V. Calma Dr. N. L. Galvez Prof. A. Catambay Dr. R. Espino Dr. J. Capinpin Agronomy Soil Science Ag. Engineering Ag. Botany Ag. Botany Dr. G. O. Ocfemia Dr. S. M. Cendaña Dr. V. Villegas Dr. F. Fronda Dr. L. G. Gonzales Plant Pathology Entomology Animal Husbandry Poultry Science Horticulture 104
  31. 31. YOUNGER FACULTY MEMBERS (INSTRUCTORS) IN THE LATE 1940s* Fausto Menzalvas Jose Mondeñedo Dioscoro L. Umali Jose R. Velasco Animal Husbandry Agronomy Plant Breeding Plant Physiology Faustino T. Orillo Julian Banzon Nathaniel B. Tablante Amado Campos Bernardino Ballesteros Plant Pathology Chemistry Ag. Economics Poultry Science Ag. Botany Burton Oñate Pablo Alfonso Leonardo Paulino William Fernandez Albino Varona Statistics Zoology Ag. Economics Plant Pathology Accounting Melanio Gapud Marcela Sevilla Nelly Dumlao Gregorio Gascon Psychology English English Physical Education *Pictures of Getulio Viado (Entomology), Andres Aglibut (Engineering), Leopoldo Villanueva (Chemistry), etc. not available. 105
  32. 32. Physical Facilities Development T he Philippine Council of USAid (PHILCUSA) and the Mutual Security Agency (MSA) grants made possible a program of Soil Science Department building, now the home of the Department of important facilities development in the College, which included the Agricultural Education and Rural construction of the Main Agronomy building; research laboratories Studies (DAERS) in agricultural engineering, botany, horticulture, soil science, entomology; agricultural economics annex, Home Technology practice house, library, women’s dormitory; and staff houses. UPCA Library building (now the Administration building of the College of Arts and Sciences) 106
  33. 33. Main Agronomy building, now the home of the Crop Science Cluster Agricultural Economics Annex building, now a part of the College of Economics and Management Women’s Dormitory, converted into the Rural High School in 1968. At present, it is the Mathematics building of the College of Arts and Sciences 107
  34. 34. ICA-NEC and Rockefeller Scholarship Grants Resulted in Massive Staff Development M ost meaningful and far-reaching of all is the massive staff development of UPCA under the International Cooperation Training Grants; 26 or 18% were Rockefeller Foundation Scholarships; 16 or 11% were UP Fellowships; 8 or 5% were Administration (ICA)-National Economic Council (NEC) and Fulbright Scholarships; and the others were supported by other Rockefeller Foundation Scholarship grants. 18, 21, 22 sources. From 1947 to 1958, a total of 146 faculty members were Of the 72 faculty members under the ICA-NEC Training recipients of scholarship/fellowship grants for MS and PhD degrees Grants from 1952 to 1960, 62 or 86% of the awardees obtained the in US universities. Of this number, 72 or 49% were ICA-NEC MS degree within the one-year time limit of the grant. In 1958, the Rockefeller Foundation scholarship awardees for PhD studies in US universities were (left to right): Mario San Juan, Concordia Borja, Ricardo M. Lantican, Emerita de Guzman, and Leopoldo S. Castillo. Not in the picture is Teodoro Cadiz. The 1958 batch of ICA-NEC grantees from Los Baños consisted of (front row, left to right), R. Bautista, A. Goseco, Dr. E. Palmquist of the Cornell group, E. Novero, and N.T. Vergara (2nd row) B. Peredo, J. Eusebio, B. Felizardo, and R. de la Fuente; (3rd row) L. Quimbo, D .A. Cruz, W. Novero and S. Santos. Monthly Bulletin 108
  35. 35. From 1953 to 1956, many instructors left for US universities to pursue the MS degree under NEC-ICA scholarships. From top row, left to right, Mario San Juan, Obdulia-Fronda Sison, Leopoldo S. Castillo, Ibarra S. Santos, Genaro O. Ranit, Amado C. Campos, Martin Raymundo, Basilio N. delos Reyes, Jorge G. Davide, Gonzalo V. Garcia, Agustin N. Pordesimo, Martin V. Jarmin, Pablo Alfonso, Teodoro Cadiz, and Laureano Bondoc. Fulbright Scholarship grantees were the last three: Thomas G. Flores, Leonardo Paulino, and Concepcion Valera. 109
  36. 36. Colorful Mussaenda Varieties Bloomed and Beautified Ornamental Gardens D r. Dioscoro L. Umali, while recuperating from a bout with tuberculosis in 1949 -50, began a Mussaenda breeding project in Doña Alicia his backyard. He crossed M. philippica (female) and M. erythrophylla (Doña Trining) and produced a hybrid (later named Doña Alicia) with single pink petaloid. He also crossed M. philippica (female) and Doña Aurora to get a female Doña Aurora. What started as Umali’s personal project in his backyard was continued in the Division of Plant Breeding under his leadership. Crossing the female Doña Aurora with Doña Trining, and backcrossing Ginang Imelda the progeny to Doña Trining and to Doña Aurora gave rise to different plants with an assortment of colors and variations in number and size of petaloids. Three of the most famous segregants were Doña Luz, Queen Sirikit, and Doña Eva. Mussaenda erythrophylla, Doña Trining Diwata Mussaenda philippica, Doña Aurora Doña Luz Doña Eva Queen Sirikit All photos are from IPB Bulletin No. 6 110
  37. 37. UPCA-Cornell University Contract Accelerated Improvements in Instruction, Research and Extension SOME OF THE VISITING PROFESSORS T UNDER THE UP-CORNELL CONTRACT he UPCA-Cornell University Contract, signed on July 1, 1952, engaged the services of top US university professors “to assist in the postwar rehabilitation of the College of Agriculture, the development of the College Central Experiment Station, the training of agricultural personnel in research, teaching, and extension, and the development of educational materials.”19, 22 The achievements of the UPCA-Cornell contract from 1952 to 1960 may be summarized as follows:9, 22 M. E. Robinson M. G. Cline Project Leader Soil Science • Many buildings constructed and properly equipped. • Fifty-one highly qualified visiting professors (35 from Cornell and 16 from other universities) worked closely with Filipino partners to enrich undergraduate instruction, and to strengthen research and extension programs. • Eighty-three faculty members of UPCA sent to the USA and other countries for further academic advancement. Numerous significant research projects undertaken jointly by D. M. Proud H. V. Oppenfeld visiting professors and the local staff are worth recording. Home Economics Ag. Economics A. J. Sims T. L. York Ag. Extension Vegetable Crops Two Deans L.B.Uichanco of Los Baños and W.I.Myers of Cornell shake hands on a partnership between two colleges 10,000 miles apart. K. L. Turk J. Brewbaker Animal Nutrition Plant Breeding 111
  38. 38. The College promoted the use of artificial insemination using modern techniques to breed superior livestock at the barrio level. Abaca, source of Manila hemp, is being bred for varieties that give high yields in quality fiber and are resistant to mosaic disease. Canlubang rancher Luis Yulo donated this superior bull to the Monthly Bulletin College. Philippine cows almost doubled returns in beef with offspring “fathered” by this superior bull through artificial insemination. 112
  39. 39. J. R. Deanon holds a handful of pods of the Los Baños bush sitao developed at the College. The high-yielding new hybrid does not need trellises and grows anytime throughout the Philippines. T.D. Cadiz examines a broccoli variety at the Central Experiment Station. Also known as dwarf cabbage, broccoli can be grown where cabbage is planted. A high-yielding variety of eggplant A high-yielding variety of bush snap beans 113
  40. 40. A Breakthrough in Inter-Agency Collaboration Increased National Rice and Corn Production T he year 1952 marked the beginning of an exciting new period of rice and corn research and extension, with the launching of the National Cooperative Rice and Corn Improvement Program involving the UPCA, the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI), the Bureau of Agricultural Extension (BAEx), far-flung experiment stations, private farms, and agricultural schools and colleges throughout the country, which participated in varietal adaptability tests. Through the leadership of Dr. Dioscoro L. Umali, grants-in-aid poured in to support the cooperative program. Support from PHILCUSA and MSA, and later from NEC-ICA, and the National Rice and Corn Improvement Corporation (NARIC) enabled the leaders in UPCA to undertake interdepartmental and inter-agency research and extension activities on rice and corn.8, 24 Among the many achievements under this program were: • Multiplication and distribution of certified seeds of high- yielding and disease-resistant upland and lowland rice varieties, including glutinous rice varieties24 • Popularization of high-yielding and disease-resistant hybrids of yellow and white corn, including sweet corn, and synthetic varieties of glutinous corn and pop corn.8 • Dramatic increases in rice and corn productivity greatly helped in feeding an ever growing population that increased at the rate of 3.2 percent per annum in the 1950s. Professor Catambay shows Dean Uichanco his experiment with this dryer to find effective methods of drying rice and corn, a major problem in the Philippines. BPI Director Cruz (left), BAE Director Paguirigan and College Asst. Dean Santos (right) represent three main agencies in the Cooperative Rice Improvement Program. Monthly Bulletin 114
  41. 41. The exhibit above shows that without fertilization, corn yielded 40 cavans per hectare. With ammonium sulphate and super phosphate, the yield increased to 68 cavans. Gunny sack (left) must be treated with Onofre Ballesteros, a plant Monthly Bulletin DDT to protect the corn seeds breeder, inspects hybrid corn from weevils. Cotton sack (right) does grown at the College of not need DDT treatment. Agriculture. The use of hybrid corn seeds doubles the yield of corn. Grains from the DDT-treated sacks (left) and the control or untreated gunny sacks (right) at the end of the test. In DDT-treated gunny sacks, During dry season, all the nitrogen fertilizer should be applied to corn plants shelled corn can be stored for as before or at planting time for better utilization. Photo shows E.T. Corpuz long as 18 months. comparing the heights of corn plants fertilized with nitrogen at planting, (left), and those fertilized five weeks after planting ( right). 115
  42. 42. Expansion and Strengthening of Extension Programs R ecords showed that over 80 percent of agricultural research in the Philippines was done in the College and at its Central Experiment Station, but there was a need to have a more efficient and effective dissemination of useful scientific information and Farmers observe a demonstration of mushroom culture on technologies to end-users. To address this need, the College well-organized and well-managed beds of rice straws. created the Office of Extension and Publications in 1954 which was later headed by Dr. Thomas G. Flores who served exceedingly well. This Office did much in disseminating research information useful to farmers through the Bureau of Agricultural Extension by means of newspapers, magazines, leaflets, bulletins, radio, field days, exhibits, and other communication media. Linkages with over 80 provincial newspapers, regional radio stations, and many agricultural schools and provincial agriculturists throughout the country were established to ensure a nationwide system of information dissemination.5, 6 Farmers came to view field demonstrations of high-yielding, pest resistant rice varieties, such as Peta and Tjeremas. Monthly Bulletin 116
  43. 43. SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS WERE WRITTEN AND DISSEMINATED IN POPULARIZED STYLE: Fertilizer tests in both wet and dry seasons on several soil types in Laguna, Batangas and Rizal showed higher yields with the application of more ammonium sulphate. A small investment on fertilizer gave a 262% increase in yield. Two copper fungicides – Bordeaux mixture and yellow cuprocide – have proven effective in controlling coffee rust disease. The Department of Agricultural Education developed student manuals on crop and livestock production. Shown (right side) is Dionesio Caday, Principal of Bulacan National Agricultural School, appreciating a manual on swine production, as Wilhemina Dancel, College Research Assistant, looks on. Extension workers from 12 Asian countries came for a six-week extension training course in Los Baños in 1957. Shown in the picture with Dean Uichanco at the center are Professors Valentin Cedillo, Obdulia F. Sison, Martin Jarmin, and Nora C. Quebral. Monthly Bulletin 117
  44. 44. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT TRAINING CENTER The College also established a strong cooperation with the Presidential Assistant for Community Development (PACD). To easily access existing expertise in the College, the Community Development Training Center was constructed in the College. The in-service training for extension and community development workers was undertaken by the College Department of Agricultural Education Barangay Development Workers taking and the Bureau of Agricultural Extension. their oath of office after graduation in 1955 Monthly Bulletin Mrs. Luz Magsaysay cuts the ribbon at the Community Development Barangay Development Workers practicing Bayanihan: Center inauguration on October 8, 1953. Others in the photo are gathering river stones for a construction project Prof. V. Cedillo, Mrs. L.B. Uichanco, Atty. and Mrs. R. Binamira. Community Development Training Center, now the Local Government Development Academy 118
  45. 45. Novel Approach in Farm and Home Development I nitiation of research on effective and efficient system of farm development was undertaken by the Department of Agricultural Economics. This research project expanded to become the Farm and Home Dr. A. B. Lewis (second from left) of the Council on Economic and Cultural Affairs of New York interviews a farmer-cooperator in the farm Development Office (FHDO) in 1962. The novel and home development project in Batangas. Left of Dr. Lewis are approach demonstrated how a four-man team, each project team members Romeo Dizon and Basilio de los Reyes. representing a field of specialization, can efficiently introduce innovations in farming and home management in four pilot communities. The project also undertook training of supervised credit technicians for the Central Bank and DBP, as well as extension agents of Albay, Batangas and Laguna provinces. An external evaluation of the FHDO program in 1966 showed very positive results that demonstrated the right team approach in extension work for the Bureau of Agricultural Extension to follow. Batangas Governor Feliciano Leviste (left) congratulating Dean Uichanco (center) for the success of the College Farm and Home Development Project in Tanauan, Batangas. Third from left is Professor Leopoldo de Guzman, Project Leader and Head of the FHD Office. Monthly Bulletin 119
  46. 46. Establishment of the Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives Institute (ACCI) to Serve Southeast Asian Countries • Training for the Agricultural Credit Administration (ACA), I the predecessor of the Land Bank of the Philippines • Training for Samahang Nayon during Martial Law years and until 1989 n general, farmers in the Philippines and in Asia are • Training for the Credit Development Authority after the predominantly small-scale farmers without capital. They badly need EDSA Revolution credit. Thus, there is a need for farmers to organize themselves into cooperatives to solve their common problems. 2. International training programs • Third Country Training Program for Asia and the Pacific In 1957, the ICA gave the College a grant of $175,000.00 to Region, with financial support from USAID establish the Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives Institute (ACCI), • Training for the International Coop Alliance (ICA) a training center for Southeast Asia. The Institute held regional seminars and workshops on operation of credit and cooperatives Obviously, ACCI’s long-term impact in the development of organizations. Courses taught included agricultural banking, credit extremely important human resources and leaders in agricultural unions, agricultural prices, farm and loan appraisal, and cooperatives credit and cooperatives in the Philippines and in Asia and the management. ACCI and the Department of Agricultural Economics Pacific Region is no less than outstanding. also undertook field research in credit and cooperatives.20 ACCI Through the years, ACCI developed several major training Dormitory programs, namely: 1. Local training programs • Training for the Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives Farmers’ Association (ACCFA) and Farmers’ Coop Marketing Association (FACOMA) in rice, sugarcane, tobacco, and abaca • Training for rural bankers and officers, with emphasis on “supervised credit scheme.” 120
  47. 47. Third Country Training Program: Practicum raining for rural bankers in Bangladeshi trainees in rural banking (1964) “Supervised Credit” (1961) Training for the Farmers’ Coop Marketing Association (FACOMA) (1963) DIRECTORS OF ACCI THROUGH THE YEARS Dr. Pedro R. Sandoval Dr. Nathaniel B. Tablante Dr. Vicente U. Quintana Dr. Ernesto P. Abarrientos Prof. Jesus Sta. Iglesia (1959-1960) (1960-1967) (1969-1970) (1974-1975) (1976-1977) Dr. Arnold M. Naldoza Dr. Rodolfo M. Matienzo Dr. Leandro R. Rola Dr. Leodegario M. Ilag Dr. Eulogio T. Castillo Prof. Severino I. Medina Jr. 1978-1982) (1982-1985) (1986-1989) (1992-1995) (1989-1992) (1966-1997) (2004-2007t) (1998-2003) (2007-present) 121