World War II
Leopoldo B. Uichanco Appointed Dean
W hen Dr. Gonzalez assumed his duties as University
President, many expected Dr. Nemesio Mendiola to succeed him as
Dean of the College of Agriculture because Dr. Gonzalez and Dr.
Mendiola were close friends. Mendiola was the most senior among
the faculty members, and was a hard-working, productive scientist
and a very competent administrator. But his wife, Filomena Alvarez,
a Spanish mestiza and sister of Governor Agustin Alvarez of
Zamboanga, was hard to get along with. President Gonzalez was
smart; he tasked the College of Agriculture Executive Committee
(composed of department heads) to nominate the next dean. The
Executive Committee, in a secret balloting, voted for Dr. Leopoldo
B. Uichanco who had a modest but charming wife.7
Dr. Uichanco, an accomplished entomologist, a prolific writer,
and the editor-in-chief of the Philippine Agriculturist, was highly
qualified for the position of dean. On April 26, 1939 or less than a
week after he received his appointment as University President, Dr.
Gonzalez announced to the faculty and students the appointment of
Dr. Uichanco as Acting Dean. The BOR later approved and
confirmed his appointment as Dean. Dr. Leopoldo B. Uichanco
Pre-war military parade along the Royal Palm Drive
World War II Broke Out
W orld War II reached the Philippine shores on December
8, 1941. On Christmas Day, at about one o’clock in the afternoon,
and wounding several more. The wounded were rushed to
nearby hospitals, including the College Infirmary. For the
three Japanese bombers attacked the campus. One of the bombs first time, many in Los Baños witnessed the gory spectacle
made a direct hit on Molawin Hall, and completely destroyed the of war.2
student mess hall. There were no casualties on the campus except
for the death of a civilian who left Manila to take refuge in Los Baños. By the end of December and early January, the ROTC
cadets had gone to the war front in Bataan. The College of
Evacuees on a train from Manila were less fortunate. Japanese Agriculture and School of Forestry faculty and employees
planes bombed and strafed the train at Los Baños killing hundreds had fled the campus together with their families.2
Japanese fighter plane
ROTC graduates UPCA ROTC parade of colors, circa 1939
I n February 1942, both the College of Agriculture and School
of Forestry had to reopen and remain open despite the ongoing war.
Crops had to be taken care of, animals had to be fed, and ongoing
experiments in the laboratories or fields had to be tended, other-
wise, valuable investments would go to waste.
On April 9, 1942, Bataan fell. Thousands of Filipinos died in
their youth either in the battle front or in the infamous “Death March”
to Camp O’Donnell in Capas, Tarlac.
The College of Agriculture and School of Forestry remained
open throughout the war years, but “owing to reduced faculty, lack
of materials, widespread feeling of insecurity and fear, instruction
and scholarship was seriously hampered, and research work
practically stopped.”5 Manila and Corregidor surrendered
Under the Scorching Rising Sun
I n May 1943, a great part of the lower campus was The next day, all of those in the Makiling School were taken to
transformed into an internment camp for over 2,000 Allied nationals, a military garrison in Sta. Cruz for special indoctrination on the
most of whom were Americans. To house all the prisoners, several supposed merits of the “Southeast Asia Co-prosperity Sphere.”
temporary barracks made of light materials – sawali walls and nipa
roofings – were constructed in a large strongly fenced-area south of Toward the end of September, the prisoners were released,
the athletic field up to the animal husbandry compound. except for Dean Uichanco and Dr. David who were sentenced to
death on charges of hiding Americans and firearms, and supporting
In the middle of 1943, the Japanese with the help of guerrillas. However, with the intercession of high ranking Filipino
Sakdalistas (Filipino collaborators) heard about the existence of a officials in the puppet government of the Philippines, they were
College guerrilla unit called “Home Guard.” The Japanese took eventually pardoned, but dismissed from service. Because of the
immediate action by rounding up all male members of the faculty, “untoward happenings” in the College, President B. M. Gonzalez
employees, and student body. They were all “concentrated” in the resigned from his position.
Chemistry lecture hall from August 19 to August 23 without food.2, 8
Dr. Francisco O. Santos was designated Dean of the College
On the fifth day of incarceration, a Japanese military officer of Agriculture, effective September 30, 1943. As the Dean, he had
with the help of a Filipino interpreter called the names of eight faculty to constantly walk a tight rope. To give in to all the “requests” of the
members and about thirty students identified as members of the Japanese would not be good in the suspicious eyes of local guerrillas.
“Home Guard.” All were made to fall in line and were herded to the On the other hand, to be suspected of assisting and protecting
Makiling School where Dean Uichanco and Dr. Pedro David, guerrillas would lead to disaster in the hands of the Japanese
Supervisor of Students and In-charge of security, were suffering from Imperial Army.
“third-degree treatment” to extract guerilla information.8
Map of the internment camp which practically covers the areas around Baker Hall and the Animal Science compound.
War Prisoners Liberated
I n 1944, the Japanese expected the return of General
Douglas MacArthur whose forces were already gaining territories in
The abandoned campus consisted of distorted ruins
of galvanized iron roofings, ugly stumps of charred beams
the Pacific Ocean. True enough, General MacArthur returned with and rafters, and smoldering heaps. In no time, looters had
full force in Leyte on October 20, 1944, and crushed the Japanese a holiday, resulting in almost total loss of valuable livestock,
fleet in the great “Battle of Leyte Gulf.” But it was not until December automobile and truck engines, refrigerators, laboratory
31, 1944 that Los Baños and its vicinity were raided by American equipment, etc.
It took two months more before the American army
In the dark night of February 22, 1945, guerrillas quietly returned and finally liberated Los Baños on March 24, 1945.
surrounded the internment camp to protect it. They also guarded a
predetermined drop zone for paratroopers in the College farm near
Boot Creek at Tuntungin Hill. At dawn on February 23, nine big
Allied forces dropping paratroopers.
low-flying American planes dropped the Eleventh Airborne Division
paratroopers at the drop zone, and numerous amphibian tractors
came roaring from Laguna de Bay. The amphibian tractors of the
First Calvary Division of General MacArthur forces carried ROTC
Hunters and American infantry men who made a major thrust
northwest of the internment camp, while the paratroopers and local
guerrillas advanced southeast of the internment camp. The timing of
the northeast-southwest thrusts was perfect. Also, American fighter
planes came flying over the areas to provide aerial protection.4
The firefight started with the sound of rifles and machineguns
near Baker Hall. Suffering only two guerilla casualties, US and
Filipino forces killed several Japanese soldiers and dispersed the
250-man guard force. Obviously caught by surprise, most of the
Japanese soldiers retreated and sought protection along Molawin
Creek and in the upper forested areas.
With the local guerrillas protecting the rescue operations, 2,147
Allied prisoners were loaded on the amphibian tractors that roared
back to the Laguna de Bay. Thus, all the Allied prisoners – Americans,
British, Canadians, Australians, Dutchmen, etc. – were saved without
any casualties among them.
On the night of February 26, the Japanese solders retaliated.
They burned almost all residential and school buildings, and massacred
men, women and children on the campus. Many sought sanctuary at
the St. Therese Chapel. But the Japanese burned the chapel, and
used their bayonets on those attempting to escape through the doors.
Hundreds of civilians, including women and children, were massacred
at the Chapel.5
The internment camp marker
at Baker Memorial Hall
Liberated internee couple
The new Los Baños Internment Camp Memorial at the back of Baker Memorial Hall
Decades of Setback
I n the College of Agriculture, 23 buildings were completely
destroyed or reduced to ashes. Twelve buildings, including the
hall, museum, herbaria, clubhouse, and even the seedhouse had
been reduced to ashes. Only the school building, the coop, the
administration and departments of entomology, agronomy, and sawmill, and the pavilion were spared.6 The Forest Products
agricultural botany, were partially damaged. Only the agricultural building and the wood shop of the Division of Forest Investigation,
engineering building was spared. Bureau of Forestry, were spared.3
Of the residences on campus, four student dormitories, nine The damage to the Forest Nursery and Arboretum was
student bungalows, all houses of self-supporting students on extensive. Large parts of the Makiling Forest Reserve were
Copeland Heights, and 22 houses of the faculty and employees were denuded. Protected trees such as molave, camagon, tindalo, etc.
destroyed or burned. were destroyed.3
All botanical and insect collections were lost, scientific Clearly, scientific work in agriculture and forestry suffered
equipment were burned or looted, and over 26,000 volumes of books several decades of setback.
and pamphlets, 1,400 thesis manuscripts and over 500 scientific
journals and serials were reduced to ashes.1
Seeds and planting materials of extremely valuable breeding
lines or improved varieties of rice, corn, legumes, sugar cane, etc.,
and breeds of livestock and poultry representing over two decades
of scientific work were completely lost.
Likewise, in the School of Forestry, war left nothing but ashes
and rubble, and a school deprived of its equipment and facilities.
The faculty houses, administration building, library, dormitory, mess
The Schools Begun Rising From the Ashes
“S alvaging staff” for the College of Agriculture and School
of Forestry were organized. Undaunted and determined, the groups
started salvaging and rebuilding the schools from the ravages of war.
They needed a lot of help.
With or without permission from Manila, the College of
Agriculture and the School of Forestry were the first to open in the
University. On July 19, 1945, 29 faculty members or 39 percent of
the total number before the war attended the first faculty meeting of
the College of Agriculture. Only 125 or 16 percent of the old
students returned to enroll, but there were 58 new students.1
The situation in the School of Forestry was no better. There
were only four faculty members, and in the beginning, only five
students enrolled. But by mid-August, there were nine students:
four freshmen, one sophomore, two juniors, and two seniors. In the
second semester, the enrolment increased to 16.6
Log pond at Nagoya, Japan with logs imported from the Philippines, circa 1948
Changes and Challenges
in Forestry Under Tamesis,
Amos and Mabesa
R ight after the war, Florencio Tamesis was
preoccupied with the establishment of the Nasipit
The Bureau of Forestry reopened in February 1945
with Forester Carlos Sulit as Officer-in-Charge. In
Lumber Co. in Surigao because of a great demand for September 1946, Tamesis was recalled to duty as
lumber for the reconstruction of Manila and other Director of the Bureau of Forestry and ex-officio Dean
cities and towns destroyed during the war. In fact, the of the School of Forestry. Prof. Harold Cuzner also
demand for lumber increased from less than 80 million returned to his position as Professor of Silviculture
board feet in 1946 to 573 million board feet in 1948.16 and Forester-in-Charge of the School.
UP TEACHING STAFF
IN THE COLLEGE OF
Harold Cuzner, B.S.F. (Minnesota)
Professor, Silviculture and Physiography
Forester-in-Charge of the College of Forestry
Gregorio Zamuco, B.S.F., M.F.
Acting Secretary and
Associate Professor, Forest Utilization
Director of Forestry and Dean, Jose B. Blando A.B. (Washington)
College of Forestry (1937-1953) Assistant Professor of English and Spanish
The UP and Bureau of Forestry Teaching Staff
T he faculty members of the School of Forestry in school
year 1946-1947 consisted of six UP personnel including Professor
The faculty temporarily held classes under the trees
while awaiting the reconstruction of some buildings of the
Harold Cuzner, Prof. Gregorio Zamuco and Prof. Jose Blando. On the School destroyed during the war. This was made possible
other hand, there were ten Bureau of Forestry teaching staff, including through the allocation of P 59,300 by the Philippine
Dir. Florencio Tamesis (the ex-officio Dean), Eugenio de la Cruz, government and the US War Damage Commission.15
Calixto Mabesa, Emiliano Roldan, Felix Chinte, Francisco Tamolang,
Artemio Manza, Doroteo Soriano and Francisco Rola.1
BUREAU OF FORESTRY TEACHING STAFF
Eugenio de la Cruz B.S.F. (Idaho); M.F. (Yale) Calixto Mabesa, B.S., M.F. Doroteo Soriano B.S.F. (U.P.)
Professor of Forestry Policy and History Associate Professor of Forest Products Associate Professor of Forest
Wood Technologist, Bureau of Forestry Surveying
Emiliano F. Roldan B. Agr., B.S.A., M.S.A. Artemio V. Manza B. Agr., B.S.A. (U.P.) Felix O. Chinte B.S.F. (U.P.)
Assistant Professor of Forest Pathology Assistant Professor of Botany Instructor in Forest Management
Francisco N. Tamolang B.S.F. (U.P.) Francisco M. Salvosa Sc B. (Syracuse) Teodoro Deliza B.S.F. (U.P.)
Instructor in Dendrology Sc M & Sc D. (Harvard) Asst. Professor of Silviculture
Dendrologist, Forest Products Laboratory
Local Training with International Programs
T raining of forest rangers was phased out in 1936 and
since then, all students graduated with the Bachelor of Science in
Students had more training in biophysical sciences as well
as in the practical aspects of forest management. Training in forest
utilization and wood technology was also important. Moreover, the
College gained more international recognition and the Food and
Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations supported
international training programs of the College.
In Forest Management, each student learns
how to measure a standing tree and estimate
the number of cubic feet. With a calipher, he
gets the diameter, and with the hypsometer,
the height, then follows the simple computation.
FAO mechanical logging trainees on the campus. Forestry Leaves
Identifying wood samples
With the aid of a 20-power lens, each student
has to learn to identify different samples
of wood…and must do it fast…and accurately.
Class ‘38 Forestry Plebes have to identify trees by their leaves.
The Ranger Course was phased out in 1936. Beginning 1938,
all graduated with the Bachelor of Science in Forestry degree.
Golden Book-Bureau of Forestry
Women’s Invasion of Forestry Begun
N icolas P. Lansigan, a Forestry graduate, wrote:
“In my time (in the 1930s), life in the forestry school
was dull. It was strictly not a coed institution as it is
now. The opposite gender we saw on campus were
lavanderas, maids of professors, kaingineras living
upland, and some few pretty daughters and even
prettier wives of faculty members. On weekends, to
break the dullness, my girl-hungry classmates used to
bust their pensions in the Copio cabaret in Los Baños.”
For four decades, the School of Forestry remained
traditionally a school of men. But in June 1951, this
school – now a college – was invaded by two brave
women who enrolled for the BSF degree. These were
Ramona Gille from Miagao, Iloilo, and Manila-born
Generosa Cañeda. Generosa’s father was the Chief
Clerk of the Division of Forest Investigation.3
Prof. Eugenio de la Cruz, the Adviser of the
Forestry Student Body, said, “Our forbidden territory
The Forestry Swimming Pool
is invaded. Now, young men, it will be a shame if you
quit ahead of them!”
Foresters, out in the woods most of the time,
are surprisingly up-to-date in social affairs and dance steps
Candidates for stry
Forestry Circle Muse in 1950
Coronation of Forestry Circle Queen
At the right, Mr. Felipe R. Amos, Dean of the
College of Forestry, delivering his speech.
Honoring Those Who Gave Their
Lives to the Cause of Forestry
T he activities of forest rangers in the wild and in
protecting forest natural resources posed many dangers and
They are not dead! They have passed
Beyond the mists that blind us here
risks to life and limbs. Every now and then, the College would Into the new and larger life
hear about the untimely death of an alumnus in the service of Of that serener sphere.
the Bureau in remote mountainous areas.
In memory of those who had given their lives to the
They have but dropped their robe of clay
cause of forestry, the College put up a Cenotaph. To put their shining raiment on;
They have now wandered far away –
They are not “lost” nor “gone.”
Though disenthralled and glorified
They still are here and love us yet;
The dear ones they have left behind
They never can forget.
– J.L. McCreery
Mrs. Tamesis, assisted by Junior Forester M. Reyes,
lays a wreath on the cenotaph.
The Cenotaph Makiling Echo
Construction of the Forest Products Laboratory,
the Largest and Best Equipped in the
T he need for state-of-the-art research facilities in forest
products was long felt in the College.2, 4 A proposal for the construction
of a Forest Products Laboratory was prepared and submitted for
funding under the US Economic Cooperation Agency (ECA) – later
known as the International Cooperation Administration (ICA). E. J.
Bell and five other technical men from Washington, DC visited the
College, studied the plan and proposed the site. The plan, which
was patterned after the world-renowned Forest Products Laboratory
of the University of Wisconsin, was approved. The cost was
$239,552.00, plus P 518,000.00 as a counterpart fund from the
Philippine government. It was the largest and best equipped in the
Eastern Hemisphere.5, 10 But this was under the Bureau, not under UP.
Mr. Ermerson of FAO and Ms. Jacobo Gonzales unveiling
the plaque of Forest Products Laboratory dedication as
Congressman Gonzales, UP President Vital Tan, and
Agriculture Secretary Salvador Araneta look on.
Tamesis Retired and Amos Took Over
A fter 47 years of government service, Tamesis retired in
1953. Acting Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources Placido
Mapa extolled the enviable record of Tamesis, particularly his
“outstanding contributions to the science of forestry, the management
and conservation of forest, and the development of the lumber
industry of the country.”11
Felipe Amos was appointed Bureau Director to succeed
Tamesis.6, 12 He was previously the Assistant Director of the Bureau
and a Professor in the School of Forestry.
Unfortunately, the increasing responsibilities of Mr. Amos as
Bureau Director required his full-time attention to forestry matters
throughout the country. The School of Forestry needed most some
support for the reconstruction of war-damaged facilities but received
little attention from the Bureau and the University.
When Prof. Cuzner retired in 1953, Prof. Calixto Mabesa
was designated Forester-in-Charge of the College of Forestry.
Mabesa had been serving the School as Professor of Forest
Products, being the Wood Technologist of the Bureau. He obtained
the BSF degree (cum laude) in 1923 and the MF degree in 1942
from Syracuse University in New York.
CHANGING OF THE SCHOOL’S NAME
BUT KEEPING IT UNDER TWO MASTERS
On March 16, 1924, Act. No. 3095 amended Act
No. 2578 by changing the name of the school from Felipe Amos
“Forest School” to “School of Forestry.” However, the Bureau Director and Dean, College of Forestry
Director of the Bureau of Forestry continued to
serve as ex-officio Dean.
In 1949, Republic Act. 352 changed the name of
the School to College of Forestry, but there were no
provisions regarding maintenance of the College
and the entity responsible for providing the cost of
maintenance. Thus, the College had to continue
under uncertain terms with two masters: the Bureau
of Forestry and the University of the Philippines.17
Successful Lobbying for a New
College of Forestry Building
I CA allotted P 167,500.00 for the rehabilitation and expansion
of the College of Forestry building and $54,000.00 for laboratory
equipment. But these amounts required counterpart funds from UP,
which the University did not have.13
When Mabesa was appointed Assistant Dean, he mobilized
the faculty, alumni, students, and friends of the College in lobbying
for support. A bill was approved as Republic Act No. 989 on
January 25, 1954 which appropriated the sum of P200,000.00.7, 17
When constructed, the new two-storey College building stood
where the small old building was. The D-shaped edifice had eight
classrooms, with a capacity of 50-60 students each. It had a
spacious auditorium, a roomy library, and a beautiful roof garden.8
Back of the new College building
The new College of Forestry building
The College of Forestry Separated from the Bureau
F or almost five decades, the School/College of Forestry
was serving two masters: the Bureau of Forestry and the University.
The Bureau had the upper hand because the Bureau Director served
as the ex-officio Dean.17
The 1957 Reorganization Plan No. 30-A of the Government
Survey and Reorganization Commission provided among other things
the separation of the College of Forestry from the Bureau. This
reorganization solved two problems: (1) experienced professors
would not be pulled out of their teaching positions when needed by
the Bureau elsewhere, and (2) the University would no longer “wash
its hands” for its failure to support the College.
Under this reorganization, the UP Board of Regents for the
first time in history had to appoint the Dean of the College of Calixto Mabesa,
Forestry. The BOR appointed Mabesa who had to resign from the Dean of the College of Forestry
Bureau to accept the UP appointment as full-time Dean. after the separation of the College from
the Bureau of Forestry
Massive Staff Development Program Under the
ICA-NEC Training Grants
I n 1954, the UPCF requested assistance from ICA similar to
that enjoyed by the College of Agriculture. This led to the signing of Visiting Professors under the UP-Cornell Contract
helped in improving instruction and research
the UPCF-Cornell University contract in 1957, which provided
programs in Forestry
assistance in the form of visiting professors from the USA, in the
fields of forestry economics, forest products, and silviculture.
The coming of the first visiting professors – Dr. C. Eugene
Farnsworth and Dr. R. E. Pentoney – from the State University of New
York College of Forestry (Syracuse) under the ICA- sponsored UP -
Cornell contract, partly relieved the shortage of teaching staff when
the College was divorced from the Bureau of Forestry.4
Under the UPCF-Cornell program, there were ICA-NEC
scholarships for Masteral degree in US universities.14 Many young
but very promising instructors received ICA-NEC study grants.
The UPCF-Cornell University contract also provided for ICA dollar R.E. Pentoney C.E. Farnsworth
allocations for the purchase of special research equipment, and funds Visiting Professor Visiting Professor
for forestry research came from the National Economic Council (NEC).2 of Forest Products of Silviculture
SOME OF THE YOUNG FACULTY MEMBERS SENT TO US
UNIVERSITIES FOR MS DEGREE IN FORESTRY.
Mario Eusebio Domingo Lantican Faustino C. Francia Romulo del Castillo
M.S. in Lumber Waste M.S in Kiln Drying M.S. in Entomology M.S. in Forest Management
(Wisconsin) (Syracuse) (Syracuse) (Duke University)
Florentino O. Tesoro Feliberto S. Pollisco Lucio Quimbo Osiris Valderrama
M.S. in Forest Utilization M.S. in Wood Mechanics M.S. in Wood Technology M.S. in Forest Engineering
(Syracuse) (Wisconsin) (Syracuse) (Michigan)
Napoleon T. Vergara Manuel R. Monsalud Adolfo V. Revilla, Jr. Neptale Q. Zabala
M.S. in Forest Economics M.S. in Pulp and Paper Production M.S. in Forest Management M.S. in Forest Management
(Syracuse) (Wisconsin) (Yale) (Colorado State)
Farmers’ field day
Milestones on the
Lower Campus During
the Uichanco Years
Monthly Bulletin IRRI
Ranchers’ Club Rodeo
Reconstruction and Rehabilitation After the War
W ith limited funds at its disposal, the College houses leading to St. Therese Chapel became known as the
reconstruction projects initially consisted mainly of restoring “Poultry Avenue.”
partitions, repairing damaged walls, doors and windows as well as
constructing benches, desks, tables, chairs and shelves.1,19 With the release of the Philippine-US War Damage Funds to
the University in 1947, the College’s share of P470,546.00 enabled
The housing problem was acute because 22 houses of the it to reconstruct the academic and research buildings, the Infirmary,
faculty and employees were completely destroyed. Rows of poultry student dormitories, and bungalows.13
breeding houses were converted into residences of the faculty,
employees and students, and the dirt road or path between the poultry Dean Uichanco reconstituted eight academic departments of
the College with long-term department heads to ensure stability.
Graduation of the First Summa Cum Laudes
F or the first time in UPCA’s history, a student – Obdulia In the following year, 1947, another woman – Clare R. Baltazar
Fronda-Sison – graduated summa cum laude. She was joined in – graduated summa cum laude, and Jesus Moran Sison (husband
UP’s commencement exercise held on June 4, 1946 by five other of Obdulia) graduated magna cum laude.11 The graduation of many
honor graduates of the College: Rosy R. Baltazar, Luisa R. students with high honors after the war was no less than phenomenal.
Mondeñedo, and Celso R. Santos who graduated magna cum laude,
and Nathaniel B. Tablante and Fe K. Villegas who graduated cum
Of Culture and
T o the general public, the agriculture students were nothing
more than farmers and to many in UP Manila who could not beat the
Speech and Dramatics Club
athletes from Los Baños, this bunch from the College of Agriculture that sponsored oratorical
was nothing more than muscles that dealt with dirt and carabaos. contests and theatrical
But the College organized several student associations such as
the Associated Women Students of the College and the Rural High
School, Ranchers’ Club, Speech and Dramatics Club, and the
Philippine Country Life Association.
The Junior- Senior Prom and Loyalty Day Ball graced by
invited ladies from the UP College of Nursing and the Philippine
Women’s University were opportunities for agriculture students to
demonstrate their culture and social graces.
100 Aggie Green and Gold
Senior and junior women students of the College held their traditional Sampaguita Monthly Bulletin
Garland Festival every year. The floral rites, sponsored by the Associated Women
Students, symbolized the transfer of responsibilities from the seniors to the juniors
When formally dressed-up with lady partners, who Aggie Green and Gold
would say agriculture students were less handsome
and dignified than those in UP Manila?
Meteoric Rise in Enrolment
T he US Agricultural Survey Mission to the Philippines
in 1950, headed by Dr. Edward J. Bell – known as the Bell Mission
for short – highlighted the importance of agriculture and the vital role
of UPCA in human resource development and research to increase
Total No. of Students
Number of Students
In 1951, the UPCA started the BS Home Technology
curriculum which attracted more women to the predominantly male 1500
The College witnessed a dramatic increase in enrolment 1000
starting in 1950 until 1956 when the total enrolment of undergraduate Freshmen
students reached 3,453.2, 3, 4, 14, 15, 17, 18 This phenomenal increase in 500
enrolment put a lot of pressure on the College administration to solve
the serious shortage of classrooms and laboratories, and to increase 0
the number of faculty from 40 in 1946 to 214 in 1957.18, 22 1946 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58
Enrolment in the College of Agriculture from 1946 to 1958
(Excluding cross-registrants from Forestry and graduate students)
The opening of the Home Technology curriculum in 1951
attracted more female students to the College of Agriculture.
Below, a baptismal party at the HT Practice House.
102 Monthly Bulletin
Twelve students from Vietnam were sponsored
by FAO in 1955 to study agriculture in Los Baños.
They would serve as the pioneer staff of a prospective
agricultural college in Blao, South Vietnam.
Rockefeller Foundation Supported
the Construction of an International House
The International House, with the former social hall now converted into the UPLB Graduate School.
Reliable But Aging Professors Had to Train
Over A Hundred Young Assistant Instructors
and Research Assistants
A s enrolments began increasing in 1950, the old reliable
professors of UPCA needed help in handling many laboratory
exercises and in conducting research projects. The bright among
the recent graduates of the College were absorbed as assistant
instructors and research assistants.
The meteoric rise in enrolment up to 3,453 undergraduate
Leopoldo Bancain Uichanco
students in 1956 necessitated a five-fold increase in the number Dean and Head, Department of Entomology
of the faculty. As a consequence, aging professors had many bright
but very young staff members serving as their apprentices.
RELIABLE PROFESSORS OF
UPCA AFTER WORLD WAR II
Asst. Dean F. O. Santos Dr. F. M. Sacay
Ag. Chemistry Ag. Education
Dr. V. Calma Dr. N. L. Galvez Prof. A. Catambay Dr. R. Espino Dr. J. Capinpin
Agronomy Soil Science Ag. Engineering Ag. Botany Ag. Botany
Dr. G. O. Ocfemia Dr. S. M. Cendaña Dr. V. Villegas Dr. F. Fronda Dr. L. G. Gonzales
Plant Pathology Entomology Animal Husbandry Poultry Science Horticulture
YOUNGER FACULTY MEMBERS
(INSTRUCTORS) IN THE LATE 1940s*
Fausto Menzalvas Jose Mondeñedo Dioscoro L. Umali Jose R. Velasco
Animal Husbandry Agronomy Plant Breeding Plant Physiology
Faustino T. Orillo Julian Banzon Nathaniel B. Tablante Amado Campos Bernardino Ballesteros
Plant Pathology Chemistry Ag. Economics Poultry Science Ag. Botany
Burton Oñate Pablo Alfonso Leonardo Paulino William Fernandez Albino Varona
Statistics Zoology Ag. Economics Plant Pathology Accounting
Melanio Gapud Marcela Sevilla Nelly Dumlao Gregorio Gascon
Psychology English English Physical Education
*Pictures of Getulio Viado (Entomology), Andres Aglibut (Engineering), Leopoldo Villanueva (Chemistry), etc. not available.
Physical Facilities Development
T he Philippine Council of USAid (PHILCUSA) and the
Mutual Security Agency (MSA) grants made possible a program of Soil Science Department building,
now the home of the Department of
important facilities development in the College, which included the Agricultural Education and Rural
construction of the Main Agronomy building; research laboratories Studies (DAERS)
in agricultural engineering, botany, horticulture, soil science,
entomology; agricultural economics annex, Home Technology
practice house, library, women’s dormitory; and staff houses.
UPCA Library building (now the Administration building
of the College of Arts and Sciences)
Main Agronomy building, now the home of the Crop Science Cluster
Agricultural Economics Annex building,
now a part of the College of
Economics and Management
Women’s Dormitory, converted
into the Rural High School in
1968. At present, it is the
Mathematics building of the
College of Arts and Sciences
ICA-NEC and Rockefeller Scholarship Grants
Resulted in Massive Staff Development
M ost meaningful and far-reaching of all is the massive
staff development of UPCA under the International Cooperation
Training Grants; 26 or 18% were Rockefeller Foundation
Scholarships; 16 or 11% were UP Fellowships; 8 or 5% were
Administration (ICA)-National Economic Council (NEC) and Fulbright Scholarships; and the others were supported by other
Rockefeller Foundation Scholarship grants. 18, 21, 22 sources.
From 1947 to 1958, a total of 146 faculty members were Of the 72 faculty members under the ICA-NEC Training
recipients of scholarship/fellowship grants for MS and PhD degrees Grants from 1952 to 1960, 62 or 86% of the awardees obtained the
in US universities. Of this number, 72 or 49% were ICA-NEC MS degree within the one-year time limit of the grant.
In 1958, the Rockefeller Foundation scholarship
awardees for PhD studies in US universities were
(left to right): Mario San Juan, Concordia Borja,
Ricardo M. Lantican, Emerita de Guzman,
and Leopoldo S. Castillo. Not in the picture is
The 1958 batch of ICA-NEC grantees from Los Baños
consisted of (front row, left to right), R. Bautista, A.
Goseco, Dr. E. Palmquist of the Cornell group, E.
Novero, and N.T. Vergara (2nd row) B. Peredo, J.
Eusebio, B. Felizardo, and R. de la Fuente; (3rd row)
L. Quimbo, D .A. Cruz, W. Novero and S. Santos.
From 1953 to 1956, many instructors left for US universities to pursue
the MS degree under NEC-ICA scholarships. From top row, left
to right, Mario San Juan, Obdulia-Fronda Sison, Leopoldo S. Castillo,
Ibarra S. Santos, Genaro O. Ranit, Amado C. Campos,
Martin Raymundo, Basilio N. delos Reyes, Jorge G. Davide,
Gonzalo V. Garcia, Agustin N. Pordesimo, Martin V. Jarmin,
Pablo Alfonso, Teodoro Cadiz, and Laureano Bondoc. Fulbright
Scholarship grantees were the last three: Thomas G. Flores,
Leonardo Paulino, and Concepcion Valera.
Colorful Mussaenda Varieties Bloomed and
Beautified Ornamental Gardens
D r. Dioscoro L. Umali, while recuperating from a bout with
tuberculosis in 1949 -50, began a Mussaenda breeding project in Doña Alicia
his backyard. He crossed M. philippica (female) and M.
erythrophylla (Doña Trining) and produced a hybrid (later named
Doña Alicia) with single pink petaloid. He also crossed M. philippica
(female) and Doña Aurora to get a female Doña Aurora.
What started as Umali’s personal project in his backyard was
continued in the Division of Plant Breeding under his leadership.
Crossing the female Doña Aurora with Doña Trining, and backcrossing
the progeny to Doña Trining and to Doña Aurora gave rise to different
plants with an assortment of colors and variations in number and size
of petaloids. Three of the most famous segregants were Doña Luz,
Queen Sirikit, and Doña Eva.
Doña Luz Doña Eva Queen Sirikit
All photos are from IPB Bulletin No. 6
UPCA-Cornell University Contract
Accelerated Improvements in Instruction,
Research and Extension SOME OF THE VISITING PROFESSORS
UNDER THE UP-CORNELL CONTRACT
he UPCA-Cornell University Contract, signed on July 1,
1952, engaged the services of top US university professors “to
assist in the postwar rehabilitation of the College of Agriculture, the
development of the College Central Experiment Station, the training
of agricultural personnel in research, teaching, and extension, and
the development of educational materials.”19, 22
The achievements of the UPCA-Cornell contract from 1952
to 1960 may be summarized as follows:9, 22 M. E. Robinson M. G. Cline
Project Leader Soil Science
• Many buildings constructed and properly equipped.
• Fifty-one highly qualified visiting professors (35 from
Cornell and 16 from other universities) worked closely
with Filipino partners to enrich undergraduate instruction,
and to strengthen research and extension programs.
• Eighty-three faculty members of UPCA sent to the USA
and other countries for further academic advancement.
Numerous significant research projects undertaken jointly by
D. M. Proud H. V. Oppenfeld
visiting professors and the local staff are worth recording. Home Economics Ag. Economics
A. J. Sims T. L. York
Ag. Extension Vegetable Crops
Two Deans L.B.Uichanco of Los Baños and W.I.Myers of Cornell
shake hands on a partnership between two colleges 10,000 miles apart. K. L. Turk J. Brewbaker
Animal Nutrition Plant Breeding
The College promoted the use of artificial insemination using
modern techniques to breed superior livestock at the barrio level.
Abaca, source of Manila hemp, is being bred for varieties that
give high yields in quality fiber and are resistant to mosaic disease.
Canlubang rancher Luis Yulo donated this superior bull to the Monthly Bulletin
College. Philippine cows almost doubled returns in beef with
offspring “fathered” by this superior bull through artificial insemination.
J. R. Deanon holds a handful of
pods of the Los Baños bush sitao
developed at the College. The
high-yielding new hybrid does
not need trellises and grows
anytime throughout the Philippines.
T.D. Cadiz examines a broccoli variety at the Central Experiment Station. Also
known as dwarf cabbage, broccoli can be grown where cabbage is planted.
A high-yielding variety of eggplant A high-yielding variety of bush snap beans
A Breakthrough in Inter-Agency Collaboration
Increased National Rice and Corn Production
T he year 1952 marked the beginning of an exciting new
period of rice and corn research and extension, with the launching of
the National Cooperative Rice and Corn Improvement Program
involving the UPCA, the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI), the Bureau
of Agricultural Extension (BAEx), far-flung experiment stations,
private farms, and agricultural schools and colleges throughout the
country, which participated in varietal adaptability tests. Through
the leadership of Dr. Dioscoro L. Umali, grants-in-aid poured in to
support the cooperative program. Support from PHILCUSA and
MSA, and later from NEC-ICA, and the National Rice and Corn
Improvement Corporation (NARIC) enabled the leaders in UPCA
to undertake interdepartmental and inter-agency research and
extension activities on rice and corn.8, 24
Among the many achievements under this program were:
• Multiplication and distribution of certified seeds of high-
yielding and disease-resistant upland and lowland rice
varieties, including glutinous rice varieties24
• Popularization of high-yielding and disease-resistant
hybrids of yellow and white corn, including sweet corn,
and synthetic varieties of glutinous corn and pop corn.8
• Dramatic increases in rice and corn productivity greatly
helped in feeding an ever growing population that increased
at the rate of 3.2 percent per annum in the 1950s.
Professor Catambay shows Dean Uichanco his experiment with
this dryer to find effective methods of drying rice and corn, a major
problem in the Philippines.
BPI Director Cruz (left), BAE Director Paguirigan
and College Asst. Dean Santos (right) represent
three main agencies in the Cooperative Rice
The exhibit above shows that without
fertilization, corn yielded 40 cavans per
hectare. With ammonium sulphate
and super phosphate, the yield
increased to 68 cavans.
Gunny sack (left) must be treated with Onofre Ballesteros, a plant Monthly Bulletin
DDT to protect the corn seeds breeder, inspects hybrid corn
from weevils. Cotton sack (right) does grown at the College of
not need DDT treatment. Agriculture. The use of hybrid
corn seeds doubles the yield
Grains from the DDT-treated sacks
(left) and the control or untreated
gunny sacks (right) at the end of the
test. In DDT-treated gunny sacks, During dry season, all the nitrogen fertilizer should be applied to corn plants
shelled corn can be stored for as before or at planting time for better utilization. Photo shows E.T. Corpuz
long as 18 months. comparing the heights of corn plants fertilized with nitrogen at planting,
(left), and those fertilized five weeks after planting ( right).
Expansion and Strengthening of Extension Programs
R ecords showed that over 80 percent of agricultural
research in the Philippines was done in the College and at its Central
Experiment Station, but there was a need to have a more efficient
and effective dissemination of useful scientific information and Farmers observe a demonstration of mushroom culture on
technologies to end-users. To address this need, the College well-organized and well-managed beds of rice straws.
created the Office of Extension and Publications in 1954 which was
later headed by Dr. Thomas G. Flores who served exceedingly well.
This Office did much in disseminating research information useful to
farmers through the Bureau of Agricultural Extension by means of
newspapers, magazines, leaflets, bulletins, radio, field days, exhibits,
and other communication media. Linkages with over 80 provincial
newspapers, regional radio stations, and many agricultural schools
and provincial agriculturists throughout the country were established
to ensure a nationwide system of information dissemination.5, 6
Farmers came to view field demonstrations of high-yielding,
pest resistant rice varieties, such as Peta and Tjeremas.
SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS WERE WRITTEN AND DISSEMINATED IN POPULARIZED STYLE:
Fertilizer tests in both wet
and dry seasons on
several soil types in
Laguna, Batangas and
Rizal showed higher
yields with the application
of more ammonium
sulphate. A small
investment on fertilizer
gave a 262% increase
Two copper fungicides – Bordeaux mixture and
yellow cuprocide – have proven effective in
controlling coffee rust disease.
The Department of Agricultural Education
developed student manuals on crop and livestock
production. Shown (right side) is Dionesio
Caday, Principal of Bulacan National Agricultural
School, appreciating a manual on swine
production, as Wilhemina Dancel, College
Research Assistant, looks on.
Extension workers from 12 Asian countries came for a six-week extension training course in Los Baños in 1957.
Shown in the picture with Dean Uichanco at the center are Professors Valentin Cedillo, Obdulia F. Sison, Martin Jarmin, and Nora C. Quebral.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT TRAINING CENTER
The College also established a strong cooperation with the
Presidential Assistant for Community Development (PACD). To
easily access existing expertise in the College, the Community
Development Training Center was constructed in the College. The
in-service training for extension and community development workers
was undertaken by the College Department of Agricultural Education Barangay Development Workers taking
and the Bureau of Agricultural Extension. their oath of office after graduation in 1955
Mrs. Luz Magsaysay cuts the ribbon at the Community Development Barangay Development Workers practicing Bayanihan:
Center inauguration on October 8, 1953. Others in the photo are gathering river stones for a construction project
Prof. V. Cedillo, Mrs. L.B. Uichanco, Atty. and Mrs. R. Binamira.
Community Development Training Center, now the Local Government Development Academy
Novel Approach in Farm and Home Development
I nitiation of research on effective and efficient
system of farm development was undertaken by the
Department of Agricultural Economics. This research
project expanded to become the Farm and Home Dr. A. B. Lewis (second from left) of the Council on Economic and
Cultural Affairs of New York interviews a farmer-cooperator in the farm
Development Office (FHDO) in 1962. The novel and home development project in Batangas. Left of Dr. Lewis are
approach demonstrated how a four-man team, each project team members Romeo Dizon and Basilio de los Reyes.
representing a field of specialization, can efficiently
introduce innovations in farming and home management
in four pilot communities. The project also undertook
training of supervised credit technicians for the Central
Bank and DBP, as well as extension agents of Albay,
Batangas and Laguna provinces.
An external evaluation of the FHDO program in
1966 showed very positive results that demonstrated
the right team approach in extension work for the
Bureau of Agricultural Extension to follow.
Batangas Governor Feliciano
Leviste (left) congratulating
Dean Uichanco (center) for the
success of the College Farm and
Home Development Project in
Tanauan, Batangas. Third from
left is Professor Leopoldo de
Guzman, Project Leader and
Head of the FHD Office.
Establishment of the Agricultural Credit and
Cooperatives Institute (ACCI) to Serve
Southeast Asian Countries • Training for the Agricultural Credit Administration (ACA),
the predecessor of the Land Bank of the Philippines
• Training for Samahang Nayon during Martial Law years
and until 1989
n general, farmers in the Philippines and in Asia are • Training for the Credit Development Authority after the
predominantly small-scale farmers without capital. They badly need EDSA Revolution
credit. Thus, there is a need for farmers to organize themselves into
cooperatives to solve their common problems. 2. International training programs
• Third Country Training Program for Asia and the Pacific
In 1957, the ICA gave the College a grant of $175,000.00 to Region, with financial support from USAID
establish the Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives Institute (ACCI), • Training for the International Coop Alliance (ICA)
a training center for Southeast Asia. The Institute held regional
seminars and workshops on operation of credit and cooperatives Obviously, ACCI’s long-term impact in the development of
organizations. Courses taught included agricultural banking, credit extremely important human resources and leaders in agricultural
unions, agricultural prices, farm and loan appraisal, and cooperatives credit and cooperatives in the Philippines and in Asia and the
management. ACCI and the Department of Agricultural Economics Pacific Region is no less than outstanding.
also undertook field research in credit and cooperatives.20
Through the years, ACCI developed several major training Dormitory
1. Local training programs
• Training for the Agricultural Credit and Cooperatives
Farmers’ Association (ACCFA) and Farmers’ Coop
Marketing Association (FACOMA) in rice, sugarcane,
tobacco, and abaca
• Training for rural bankers and officers, with emphasis on
“supervised credit scheme.”
Third Country Training Program: Practicum raining for rural bankers in
Bangladeshi trainees in rural banking (1964) “Supervised Credit” (1961)
Training for the Farmers’ Coop Marketing Association (FACOMA) (1963)
Dr. Pedro R. Sandoval Dr. Nathaniel B. Tablante Dr. Vicente U. Quintana Dr. Ernesto P. Abarrientos Prof. Jesus Sta. Iglesia
(1959-1960) (1960-1967) (1969-1970) (1974-1975) (1976-1977)
Dr. Arnold M. Naldoza Dr. Rodolfo M. Matienzo Dr. Leandro R. Rola Dr. Leodegario M. Ilag Dr. Eulogio T. Castillo Prof. Severino I. Medina Jr.
1978-1982) (1982-1985) (1986-1989) (1992-1995) (1989-1992) (1966-1997)