World War Ii Part 2 For Web


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World War Ii Part 2 For Web

  1. 1. The World at War: World War II Part 2
  2. 2. Turning Points <ul><li>In early 1943 the Allies had begun the final push to defeat the Axis Powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Victories during the winter of 1942-43 brought the Allies closer to their goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Stalingrad -a fierce struggle between German and Soviet forces. Soviet forces surrounded and cut off supplies to German troops who in the center of the city. </li></ul><ul><li>The Axis Powers lost some 200,000 troops in the battle of Stalingrad; they </li></ul><ul><li>surrendered in Jan. 1943. </li></ul>
  3. 3. D-Day <ul><li>Operation Overlord, called for a massive landing on the beaches of Normandy, in northwestern France. </li></ul><ul><li>On the morning of June 6, 1944, known as D-Day , Allied soldiers finally landed in Normandy. </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of warships off the coast tried to protect them by providing a cover of artillery fire. </li></ul><ul><li>D-Day was the largest sea-and-land invasion in history. </li></ul>Eisenhower and Paratroopers
  4. 4. D-Day [6-6-44] <ul><li>The Americans and British faced fierce German resistance on the beaches of France. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of D-day, the Allies had gained a foothold and landed more than 155,000 troops. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Turning Points <ul><li>Omar Bradley and George S. Patton help lead the Allies to liberate France. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Battle of the Bulge <ul><li>The Allies began to push through Belgium and France toward Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler refused to surrender. </li></ul><ul><li>In Dec. 1944, he made a desperate attempt to split the advancing Allied armies. </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans launched an offensive in the Ardennes, a forest region defended by just a few U.S. divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler hoped to recapture Antwerp, Belgium, the Allies major supply port. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Battle of the Bulge <ul><li>On Dec. 16, some 25 divisions of the German army attacked in the heavy snow. </li></ul><ul><li>Surprised, outnumbered, and without air support, the Americans fought bravely in the Battle of the Bulge . </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. losses were heavy-some 77,000 casualties, but the Americans slowed the German offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>As 1945 began, the Soviet armies were pushing toward Berlin, Germany’s capital from the east. U.S. and British troops were preparing to cross the Rhine into </li></ul><ul><li>Germany from the west. </li></ul>
  8. 8. War in the Pacific <ul><li>Japan had rapidly advanced across the Pacific following the attack on Pearl Harbor. </li></ul><ul><li>Under General Hideki Tojo , Japan conquered Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Burma, and Indonesia. </li></ul><ul><li>After Pearl Harbor, Japan took U.S. landholdings of Guam, Wake Island, Aleutian Islands (Kiska and Attu) and the Philippines. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Japan Advances across the Pacific <ul><li>When the Japanese captured the capital of the Philippines, Manila, they forced their enemy troops on the Bataan Death March . </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese marched more than 70,000 Americans and Filipinos, many of whom were sick and wounded, to prison camps. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese treated the prisoners harshly during their 65-mile forced march up the peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 400 and 1,000 Americans died and about 10,000 Filipinos died. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Halting Japan’s Advance <ul><li>Admiral Chester Nimitz , commander of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific, had an important, top secret advantage against the Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>Navy experts cracked the Japanese naval code and could read secret Japanese messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Nimitz knew that the Japanese were </li></ul><ul><li>planning to invade Port Moresby, </li></ul><ul><li>New Guinea. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Halting Japan’s Advance <ul><li>In May 1942, Nimitz sent an Allied fleet to attack the Japanese invasion force. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of the Coral Sea , U.S. planes sank one Japanese carrier and damaged another. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. carrier Lexington was sunk; Yorktown was damaged. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies for the first time had turned back the Japanese advance. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Halting Japan’s Advance <ul><li>Japanese forces hoped to seize the Midway Islands, located northwest of Hawaii. </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Midway took place June 3 - 6, 1942. It was a battle of carrier-based airplanes. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese and U.S. warplanes fought in the air, trying to sink each other’s aircraft carriers. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Navy had crippled the Japanese navy by sinking four of its carriers, while only losing one. </li></ul><ul><li>After Midway, the Japanese navy was on the defensive for the rest of the war. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Halting Japan’s Advance <ul><li>The Allies turned to Guadalcanal, one of the Solomon Islands in the southwest Pacific. </li></ul><ul><li>From this island, Japanese forces could threaten the important sea link b/w Australia and the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>The fighting took place on land, sea, and in the air. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies won control of the island in early 1943. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Taking the Offensive <ul><li>The Allies planned to conquer one Pacific island after another, landing only on the most important islands. </li></ul><ul><li>This strategy, called island-hopping , would help the Allies gain new bases. </li></ul><ul><li>From these bases, the Allies could bomb and later invade Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>This campaign began in late 1943. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. planes began bombing the main islands of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. submarines were attacking Japanese cargo ships, cutting off the flow of raw materials to Japan. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Taking the Offensive <ul><li>General MacArthur planned to take back the Philippines. </li></ul><ul><li>In Oct. 1944, Japanese and U.S. forces met at the Battle of Leyte Gulf , the largest naval battle in history. </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides suffered heavy losses; however, the Allies came out victorious. </li></ul><ul><li>This greatly reduced the strength of the Japanese fleet. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Closer to Japan <ul><li>U.S. bombers hit targets in Japan during massive nighttime raids. </li></ul><ul><li>These attacks caused great damage; </li></ul><ul><li>fire storm in Tokyo. </li></ul><ul><li>As Allied forces got closer to Japan, they faced some of the fiercest fighting of WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>Incredibly heavy losses </li></ul><ul><li>were suffered at Iwo Jima . </li></ul>
  17. 19. Closer to Japan <ul><li>In the battle of Okinawa, the Japanese airforce used a deadly tactic involving crashing piloted planes into Allied ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these kamikaze planes found their targets. </li></ul><ul><li>With the fall of Okinawa, Allied leaders looked to attack Japan for final victory. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Final Victory and Consequences <ul><li>Victory in Europe came 11 months after D-Day. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies had bombed Germany heavily during the final months of WWII. </li></ul><ul><li>These bombing raids were intended to destroy Germany’s ability to make weapons but also killed many civilians. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Victory in Europe <ul><li>By mid-March 1945, British and U.S. forces had crossed the Rhine and were advancing east toward Berlin. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviets pushed west toward the city. </li></ul><ul><li>On April 12, 1945, President Roosevelt died of a stroke and vice-president Harry S. Truman took over as the new president. </li></ul><ul><li>On April 30, Hitler committed suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>On May 8, 1945 was declared V-E day. </li></ul><ul><li>The war was officially over in Europe. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Victory in the Pacific <ul><li>The war with Japan was coming to a close. </li></ul><ul><li>Allied leaders feared that the final invasion of Japan would result in great loss of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1942, scientists had been working to develop an atomic bomb , a weapon the produced great destructive power by releasing the force of splitting atoms. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Victory in the Pacific <ul><li>The Manhattan Project was a huge effort to develop an atomic bomb. The project employed some 600,000 people; it was headed by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer. </li></ul><ul><li>World-class scientists worked at a top-secret facility in Los Alamos, New Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>The project cost some $2 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 16, 1945, scientists exploded </li></ul><ul><li>the world’s first atomic bomb in </li></ul><ul><li>New Mexico. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Victory in the Pacific <ul><li>When Japan did not surrender after the demand of the Potsdam Conference, President Harry Truman gave the order to use the atomic bomb. </li></ul><ul><li>On August 6, 1945, the B-29 bomber Enola Gay flew over the Japanese city of Hiroshima and dropped the first atomic bomb used in warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>In an instant, the atomic bomb blast killed between70,000 and 80,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands more died later from </li></ul><ul><li>serious burns and radiation poisoning. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Hiroshima August 6, 1945
  24. 26. Victory in the Pacific <ul><li>Japanese leaders still did not surrender. </li></ul><ul><li>On Aug. 9, U.S. forces dropped a second atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki. </li></ul><ul><li>On Aug. 15, 1945, Japan surrendered unconditionally. </li></ul>
  25. 27. The Costs of the War <ul><li>WWII finally came to an end after nearly six years of fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Some 50 million people had died, more than half civilians. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions more were injured or left suffering from disease or lack of food. </li></ul><ul><li>The war ruined national economies. Food production, industry, and transportation networks were destroyed in many areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of people found themselves homeless, lacking even the basic needs of food, fuel, shelter, and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Large cities lay in ruins. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the world’s great art and architecture was lost forever. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. escaped the physical destruction the Europe and Asia suffered. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. economy emerged from the war more powerful than ever. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the cost of the rebuilding efforts after the war would fall to the U.S. </li></ul>
  26. 28. The Holocaust <ul><li>The Holocaust was the attempt by Hitler and the Nazis to murder the Jews of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon after taking power in Germany in 1933, the Nazis had written new laws for German Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>They were stripped of their civil rights, jobs, and property. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Jews were imprisoned in concentration camps, such as Auschwitz and Dachau. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazis looked for ways to eliminate the Jewish population. </li></ul>
  27. 29. The Holocaust <ul><li>Nazis forced Jews to live in isolated urban areas known as ghettos. </li></ul>
  28. 30. The Holocaust <ul><li>The Nazis decided on a “final solution” to the Jewish problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide is the deliberate murder of an entire people. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazis planned to kill the Jews in specially built death camps across Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>These camps were equipped with gas chambers designed to kill great numbers of people cheaply and efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>The camps also had special furnaces to burn the remains of the dead. </li></ul>
  29. 33. The Holocaust <ul><li>People were packed shoulder-to-shoulder in railroad boxcars on the forced trip to labor camps. </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi officers sorted the arriving Jews by age, sex, and health, often tearing families apart. </li></ul><ul><li>The physically fit Jews went to work as slave laborers in camp factories. </li></ul><ul><li>Other prisoners went directly to the gas chambers. These victims were often women, children, elderly, sick, and weak. </li></ul><ul><li>Some 6 million Jews had been murdered or had died from the conditions in the camps. </li></ul><ul><li>This number equaled about 2/3 of all Jews living in Europe before the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Most surviving European Jews emigrated from Europe after the Nazi defeat. </li></ul>