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Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>Formation   </li></ul><ul><li>Secreted by  choroid   plexuses  into each ventricle </li></ul><...
 
Choroid Plexus
 
 
Force of circulation <ul><li>Movement of the CSF is by pulsating blood vessels, respiration and changes of posture </li></...
Applied Anatomy <ul><li>TB meningitis – block of aqueduct of Sylvius - hydrocephalus </li></ul>
Normal Brain
Normal Ventricles
Hydrocephalus
Hydrocephalus
Normal ventricles and hydrocephalus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Normally within the brain there are some cavities named ventricles, where a liquid known as Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is p...
Cerebral circulation
Features of cerebral vessels <ul><li>Choroid plexus; </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps are present between endothelial cells of the c...
<ul><li>Few vesicles in endothelial cytoplasm and little vesicular transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain capillaries are surr...
Innervation <ul><li>Three systems of nerves innervate the cerebral blood vessels: </li></ul><ul><li>Postganglionic sympath...
Cerebrospinal fluid  <ul><li>This is an illustration (midline view) showing the anatomical structures involved in the prod...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) <ul><li>CSF fills ventricles and subarachnoid space. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume = 150 ml </li></ul...
<ul><li>CSF is formed in: </li></ul><ul><li>Choroid plexus. </li></ul><ul><li>Around blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Alon...
Composition of the CSF <ul><li>The composition of CSF is essentially the same as brain ECF </li></ul>Substance CSF Plasma ...
Functions of the CSF <ul><li>1. Protective function: The brain is supported within the arachnoid by the blood vessels , ne...
Functions of CSF, continued,… <ul><li>2.  Facilitation of pulsatile cerebral blood flow, </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of...
Blood brain Barrier (BBB) <ul><li>It is formed by the tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells of the brain and...
Penetration of substances into the brain <ul><li>Molecules pass easily:H2O, CO2, O2, lipid-soluble free forms of steroid h...
Functions of BBB <ul><li>Maintanins the constancy of the environment of the neurons in the CNS. </li></ul><ul><li>Protecti...
Development of BBB <ul><li>Premature infants with hyperbilirubinemia, free bilirubin pass BBB, and may stain basal ganglia...
Clinical implications <ul><li>Some drugs penetrate BBB with difficulty e.g. antibiotics and dopamine. </li></ul><ul><li>BB...
Circumventricular organs <ul><li>Posterior pituitary. </li></ul><ul><li>Area postrema. </li></ul><ul><li>Organum vasculosu...
Circumventricular organs
Cerebral blood flow <ul><li>756 ml/min. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be calculated by the equation: </li></ul><ul><li>Q/(A-V) </l...
Regulation of cerebral circulation <ul><li>Constant total cerebral blood flow is maintained under varying conditions. </li...
Regulation of cerebral circulation, continued… <ul><li>Role of intracranial pressure; </li></ul>
Regulation of cerebral circulation, continued,…. <ul><li>Autoregulation: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability of tissue to regulate t...
Regulation of cerebral circulation, continued,…. <ul><li>Effect of ICP changes on systemic blood pressure; </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Role of vasomotor and sensory nerves </li></ul>
 
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Cerebral circulation & csf formation

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Transcript of "Cerebral circulation & csf formation"

  1. 2. Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Secreted by choroid plexuses into each ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Choroid plexus are areas where the lining wall of the ventricle is very thin and has a profusion of capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>From the roof of the 4 th ventricle CSF flows through foramina into the subarachnoid space and completely surrounds the brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>When CSF pressure is higher than venous pressure CSF passes into the blood and when the venous pressure is higher the arachnoid villi collapse, preventing the passage of blood constituents into the CSF </li></ul><ul><li>The CSF passes back into blood through tiny diverticula of arachnoid mater called arachnoid villi (arachnoid granulations), which project into the venous sinuses </li></ul><ul><li>Some reabsorption of CSF by cells in the walls of the ventricles occurs </li></ul>
  2. 4. Choroid Plexus
  3. 7. Force of circulation <ul><li>Movement of the CSF is by pulsating blood vessels, respiration and changes of posture </li></ul><ul><li>CSF is secreted continuously at a rate of about 0.5ml per minute i.e. 720 ml per day </li></ul><ul><li>Total CSF in the brain 120 ml </li></ul><ul><li>CSF pressure can be measured by attaching a vertical tube to the lumbar puncture needle – 10 cm water </li></ul>
  4. 8. Applied Anatomy <ul><li>TB meningitis – block of aqueduct of Sylvius - hydrocephalus </li></ul>
  5. 9. Normal Brain
  6. 10. Normal Ventricles
  7. 11. Hydrocephalus
  8. 12. Hydrocephalus
  9. 13. Normal ventricles and hydrocephalus
  10. 21. Normally within the brain there are some cavities named ventricles, where a liquid known as Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is produced. The purpose of this is to protect the brain and spinal cord, acting as a shock absorber. It also carries away disposed materials. The CSF circulates from the ventricles towards a space that exists between the brain and the membranes (meninges) that surround it, from where it is &quot;eliminated&quot;, into the blood stream .
  11. 22. Cerebral circulation
  12. 23. Features of cerebral vessels <ul><li>Choroid plexus; </li></ul><ul><li>Gaps are present between endothelial cells of the capillary wall, while choroid epithelial cells that separate them from CSF are connected by tight junctions. </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries in the brain substance are non-fenestrated and there are tight junctions between endothelial cells to limit passage of substances through the junctions. </li></ul>
  13. 24. <ul><li>Few vesicles in endothelial cytoplasm and little vesicular transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain capillaries are surrounded by the endfeets of the astrocytes. There are gaps of 20 nm between the endfeet. </li></ul>
  14. 25. Innervation <ul><li>Three systems of nerves innervate the cerebral blood vessels: </li></ul><ul><li>Postganglionic sympathetic neurons have their bodies in the superior cervical ganglia (NE & neuropeptide Y). </li></ul><ul><li>Cholinergic neuron originate in sphenopalatine ganglia (Ach, VIP).End on large arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory nerves(Substance P, VIP, cause VD, neuropeptide Y causes VC). </li></ul>
  15. 26. Cerebrospinal fluid <ul><li>This is an illustration (midline view) showing the anatomical structures involved in the production and flow of cerebrospinal fluid through the ventricular system, brain and spinal cord, and finally absorption into the bloodstream. You'll also see the difference between a &quot;normal&quot; cerebellum and the cerebellum of an ACM patient with the cerebellar tonsils protruding through the foramen magnum . </li></ul>
  16. 27. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) <ul><li>CSF fills ventricles and subarachnoid space. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume = 150 ml </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of production =550 ml/d, so it turns 3.7 times/day. </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbar CSF pressure = 70-180 mm CSF </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption of CSF occurs by bulk flow is proportionate to CSF pressure.: </li></ul><ul><li>At pressure of 112 mm (normal average): filtration and absorption are equal. </li></ul><ul><li>Below pressure of 68 mm CSF, absorption stops. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocephallus: </li></ul><ul><li>External hydrocephallus: Large amounts of CSF accumulates when the reabsorptive capacity of arachnoid villi decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal hydrocephallus: occurs when foramina of Luschka & Magendie are blocked or obstruction within ventricular system, resulting in distention of the ventricles. </li></ul>
  17. 28. <ul><li>CSF is formed in: </li></ul><ul><li>Choroid plexus. </li></ul><ul><li>Around blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Along ventricular walls. </li></ul><ul><li>CSF is absorbed by: </li></ul><ul><li>Arachnoid villi </li></ul>
  18. 29. Composition of the CSF <ul><li>The composition of CSF is essentially the same as brain ECF </li></ul>Substance CSF Plasma Na+ 147 150 K+ 2.9 4.6 HCO3- 25 24.8 PCO2 50 39.5 pH 7.33 7.4 Osmolality Glucose 289 64 289 100
  19. 30. Functions of the CSF <ul><li>1. Protective function: The brain is supported within the arachnoid by the blood vessels , nerve roots and the arcahnoid trabiculae. In air brain weight =1400 g, but in its water bath of CSF , brain weight = 50 g, making it suspended effectively. When the head receives a blow, the arachnoid slides on the dura and the brain moves, but its motion is gently checked by the CSF cushion and by the arachnoid trabiculae. Removal of CSF during lumbar puncture can cause severe headache </li></ul>
  20. 31. Functions of CSF, continued,… <ul><li>2. Facilitation of pulsatile cerebral blood flow, </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of peptides, hormones, neuroendocrine factors and other nutrients and essential substances to cells of the body, </li></ul><ul><li>Wash away waste products. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular dynamics are also affected by CSF pressure, as the flow of blood must be tightly regulated within the brain to assure consistent brain oxygenation . </li></ul>
  21. 32. Blood brain Barrier (BBB) <ul><li>It is formed by the tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells of the brain and between epithelial cells in the choroid plexus. This effectively prevents proteins from entering the brain in adults and slow the penetration of smaller molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisms of transport: </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier mediated transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicular transport. </li></ul>
  22. 33. Penetration of substances into the brain <ul><li>Molecules pass easily:H2O, CO2, O2, lipid-soluble free forms of steroid hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules not pass: proteins, polypeptides. </li></ul><ul><li>Slow penetration: H+, HCO3- </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose : its passive penetration is slow, but is transported across brain capillaries by GLUT1 </li></ul>
  23. 34. Functions of BBB <ul><li>Maintanins the constancy of the environment of the neurons in the CNS. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of the brain from endogenous and exogenous toxins. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent escape of the neurotransmitters into the general circulation. </li></ul>
  24. 35. Development of BBB <ul><li>Premature infants with hyperbilirubinemia, free bilirubin pass BBB, and may stain basal ganglia causing damage (Kernicterus). </li></ul>
  25. 36. Clinical implications <ul><li>Some drugs penetrate BBB with difficulty e.g. antibiotics and dopamine. </li></ul><ul><li>BBB breaks down in areas of infection, injury, tumors, sudden increase in blood pressure, and I.V injection of hypertonic fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>Injection of radiolabeled materials help diagnose tumors as BBB is broken down at tumor site because of increased vascularity by abnormal vessels. </li></ul>
  26. 37. Circumventricular organs <ul><li>Posterior pituitary. </li></ul><ul><li>Area postrema. </li></ul><ul><li>Organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). </li></ul><ul><li>Subfornical organ (SFO). </li></ul><ul><li>These areas are outside the blood brain barrier. They have fenestrated capillaries . </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Chemoreceptor trigger zone. As area postrema that trigger vomiting & cardiovascular control. </li></ul><ul><li>Ang II acts on SFO and OVLT to increase H2O intake. </li></ul><ul><li>IL2 induce fever by (+) circumventricular organs. </li></ul>
  27. 38. Circumventricular organs
  28. 39. Cerebral blood flow <ul><li>756 ml/min. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be calculated by the equation: </li></ul><ul><li>Q/(A-V) </li></ul><ul><li>Q= amount of given substance. </li></ul><ul><li>A = arterial conc of the substance. </li></ul><ul><li>V= venous concentration of the substance </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide is used. </li></ul>
  29. 40. Regulation of cerebral circulation <ul><li>Constant total cerebral blood flow is maintained under varying conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>ABP at brain level. </li></ul><ul><li>Venous pressure at brain level. </li></ul><ul><li>Intracranial pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood viscosity. </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of active constriction or dilation of cerebral vessels. </li></ul>
  30. 41. Regulation of cerebral circulation, continued… <ul><li>Role of intracranial pressure; </li></ul>
  31. 42. Regulation of cerebral circulation, continued,…. <ul><li>Autoregulation: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability of tissue to regulate their blood flow according to their activity. </li></ul>
  32. 43. Regulation of cerebral circulation, continued,…. <ul><li>Effect of ICP changes on systemic blood pressure; </li></ul><ul><li>Cushing reflex: </li></ul><ul><li>If ICP > 33 mmHg over a short period of time, CBF will drop markedly, leading to ischemia of vasomotor area. Then blood pressure rises. </li></ul>
  33. 44. <ul><li>Role of vasomotor and sensory nerves </li></ul>
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