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  2. 2. Consists of five layers• S : Skin• C : Connective tissue• A : Aponeurosis• L : Loose areolar connective tissue• P : Pericranium
  3. 3. SKINThick & hair-bearing andcontains numeroussebaceous glands
  4. 4. CONNECTIVE TISSUE• The superficial fascia is a fibro fatty layer• Connects skin to the underlying aponeurosis of the occipitofrontalis muscle• Provides a passageway for nerves and blood vessels.CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: If the vessels are cut, this attachment prevents vasospasm, which could lead to profuse bleeding after injury.
  5. 5. APONEUROSIS• A thin, tendinous sheet that unites the occipital and frontal bellies of the OCCIPITOFRONTALIS muscle.• Lateral margins are attached to the temporal fascia.• the sub-aponeurotic space is the potential space beneath the epicranial aponeurosis
  6. 6. The clinically important layer is theaponeurosis. Scalp lacerations through thislayer mean that the "anchoring" of thesuperficial layers is lost and gaping of thewound occurs and this requires suturing.
  7. 7. • Loosely connects the epicranial aponeurosis to thepericranium & allows the superficial 3 layers of the scalpto move over the pericranium.• Contains Emissary veins which connects the superficialscalp veins to the Diploic veins of skull and withintracranial venous sinuses.
  8. 8. • is the periosteum covering the outer surface ofskull bones.• at the sutures between individual skullbones, the pericranium become continuous withperiosteum (endosteum) on the inner surface ofskull bones.
  9. 9. OCCIPITOFRONTALIS:• consists of four bellies two Occipital & two Frontal connected byan aponeurosis.• the Occipital belly is supplied by Posterior Auricular branch &Frontal belly is supplied by temporal branch of facial nerve.ACTION:• The loose areolar tissue (4th layer) allowing the aponeurosis tomove on the pericranium.• frontal bellies can raise the eyebrows in expression of surprise orhorror.
  10. 10. SENSORY NERVE SUPPLY Six sensory nerve branches of either the trigeminal nerve or the cervical nerve supply the scalp. Can be remembered by Z-GLASS” Zygomaticotemporal nerve Greater occipital nerve Lesser occipital nerve Auriculotemporal nerve Supratrochlear nerve Supraorbital nerve
  11. 11. The SUPRATROCHLEAR NERVE , branch of the ophthalmicdivision of the trigeminal nerve & supplies the medial plane at thefrontal region up to the vertex.The SUPRAORBITAL NERVE , a branch of the ophthalmicdivision of the trigeminal nerve supplies the scalp at thefront, lateral to the supratrochlear nerve distribution up to thevertex.The ZYGOMATICOTEMPORAL NERVE, branch of the maxillarydivision of the trigeminal nerve supplies the hairless temple .The AURICULOTEMPORAL NERVE, branch of the mandibulardivision of the trigeminal nerve supplies the skin over the temporalregion of the scalp.The LESSER OCCIPITAL NERVE, branch of the cervical plexus(C2), supplies behind ear.The GREATER OCCIPITAL NERVE, branch of the posteriorramus of the second cervical nerve & supplies posteriorly upto the
  13. 13. The veins of the scalp accompany the arteries and have similarnames.• The Supratrochlear & Supraorbital Veins• Superficial Temporal Vein• The Posterior Auricular Vein• Occipital Vein
  14. 14. LYMPHATIC DRAINAGEAnterior part of scalp & forehead drains into submandibular lymph nodes. Lateral part of scalp drains into superficial parotid lymph nodes. Lymph vessels above & behind the ear drain into mastoid lymph nodes Vessels in back drain into occipital lymph nodes.