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Triangles of the neck ppt year 1


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Triangles of the neck ppt year 1

  2. 2. <ul><li>The side of the neck presents a somewhat quadrilateral outline . </li></ul><ul><li>It is limited above by the lower border of the body of the mandible ,and an imaginary line drawn from the angle of the mandible to the mastoid process. </li></ul><ul><li>Below ,it is limited by the upper border of the clavicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Medially ,by the midline of the neck. </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriorly , by the anterior border of the Trapezius muscle . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quadrilateral outline in the neck
  4. 4. The Sternocleidomastoid muscle
  5. 5. <ul><li>This quadrilateral space is divided by the Sternocleidomastoid muscle into two main triangles . </li></ul><ul><li>The Sternocleidomastoid muscle passes obliquely upwards and backwards from its site of origin at the clavicle and sternum to its point of insertion on the mastoid process and the occipital bone . </li></ul><ul><li>The triangle in front of this muscle is the anterior triangle and the one behind it is the posterior triangle . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Anterior and posterior triangles
  7. 7. Anterior Triangle
  8. 8. Posterior triangle
  9. 9. Posterior triangle <ul><li>This is formed by : </li></ul><ul><li>The Sternocleidomastoid musc .,anteriorly. </li></ul><ul><li>The Trapezius muscle, posteriorly. </li></ul><ul><li>The Clavicle ,inferiorly. </li></ul><ul><li>The apex of the triangle is formed by the occipital bone . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The ROOF of the posterior triangle is formed by: </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial fascia </li></ul><ul><li>Platysma muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Investing layer of the deep cervical fascia </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The FLOOR of the triangle is formed by the following muscles from above downwards: </li></ul><ul><li>Splenius Capitis </li></ul><ul><li>Levator scapulae </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior scalene </li></ul><ul><li>Middle scalene </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior scalene </li></ul>
  12. 12. Subdivisions of the posterior triangle <ul><li>The posterior triangle is further divided into two smaller triangles by the Inferior belly of the Omohyoid muscle . </li></ul><ul><li>These are the : </li></ul><ul><li>Supraclavicular triangle </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital triangle </li></ul>
  13. 13. Supraclavicular triangle <ul><li>It is formed by the </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior belly of the Omohyoid , </li></ul><ul><li>the Clavicle , </li></ul><ul><li>Sternocleidomastoid muscle. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Occipital triangle <ul><li>The Occipital triangle is formed by the </li></ul><ul><li> Inferior belly of the Omohyoid </li></ul><ul><li> The Trapezius muscle Sternocleidomastoid muscle. </li></ul>
  15. 15. CONTENTS OF THE POSTERIOR TRIANGLE <ul><li>NERVES and PLEXUSES : </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal acessory nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>Branches of Cervical plexus </li></ul><ul><li>Roots and trunks of brachial plexus. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Contents of the posterior triangle
  17. 18. <ul><li>VESSELS : </li></ul><ul><li>Subclavian artery </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse Cervical artery </li></ul><ul><li>Suprascapular artery </li></ul><ul><li>External jugular vein (terminal part) </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>LYMPH NODES: </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul><ul><li>Supraclavicular </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCLES: </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior belly of Omohyoid muscle </li></ul>
  19. 20. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE POSTERIOR TRIANGLE <ul><li>The Accessory Nerve may be damaged ,while taking lymph node biopsy. </li></ul><ul><li>The External Jugular Vein is present in a superficial location here and this makes it vulnerable to injury. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>THE ANTERIOR </li></ul><ul><li> TRIANGLE </li></ul>
  21. 22. ANTERIOR TRIANGLE <ul><li>BOUNDARIES: </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior border of the SCM muscle </li></ul><ul><li>midline of the neck </li></ul><ul><li>inferior border of the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>ROOF: </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Superfacial fascia and platysma muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Investing layer of deep cervical fascia </li></ul>
  23. 24. SUBDIVISIONS OF THE ANTERIOR TRIANGLE <ul><li>The anterior triangle is divided into four smaller triangles: </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMENTAL TRIANGLE </li></ul><ul><li>SUBMANDIBULAR TRIANGLE </li></ul><ul><li>CAROTID TRIANGLE </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCULAR TRIANGLE </li></ul>
  24. 25. SUBMENTAL TRIANGLE <ul><li>Formed by the : </li></ul><ul><li>anterior midline of neck </li></ul><ul><li>hyoid bone </li></ul><ul><li>anterior belly of digastric muscle </li></ul>
  25. 26. SUBMANDIBULAR TRIANGLE <ul><li>Formed by: </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior border of the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior belly of the digastric muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior belly of the digastric muscle </li></ul>
  26. 27. CAROTID TRIANGLE <ul><li>FORMED BY : </li></ul><ul><li>Superior belly of the Omohyoid muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Sternocleidomastoid muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior belly of the digastric muscle </li></ul>
  27. 28. MUSCULAR TRIANGLE <ul><li>Formed by : </li></ul><ul><li>midline of the neck </li></ul><ul><li>superior belly of the Omohyoid </li></ul><ul><li>sternocleidomastoid muscle </li></ul>
  28. 29. Contents of the anterior triangle
  29. 30. CONTENTS OF THE ANTERIOR TRIANGLE <ul><li>VESSELS: </li></ul><ul><li>carotid system(CCA,ICA, ECA) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Jugular vein </li></ul><ul><li>NERVES: </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial nerves 7,9,10,11,12 </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical plexus </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>MUSCLES: </li></ul><ul><li>Suprahyoid muscles : (Digastric , Mylohyoid,Stylohyoid,Geniohyoid )These elevate the hyoid bone , and the floor of the mouth ,and depress the mandible . </li></ul><ul><li>Infrahyoid muscles : (Sternohyoid,Sternothyroid,Thyrohyoid, Omohyoid ) </li></ul><ul><li>These depress the hyoid bone and the larynx. </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>That’s it! </li></ul>