Fix up strategies sample problems and solutions

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  • 1. Fix-Up Strategies Sample Problems and Solutions Cueing System Sample Problem Sample Solutions Grapho-Phonic System : recognizing that letters have associated sounds and knowing how to pronounce and blend those sounds to decipher unknown words Difficulty pronouncing words  Teaching children to sound the word out by identifying beginning and ending sounds, attempting a word, then checking to see if the sounds heard as the word was pronounced match the letters in the text  Point and slide – a technique where children use a finger to gradually reveal the letters in a word, saying the sound that is associated with each letter as it is revealed until the word is pronounced  Children become independent by attempting a pronunciation of a word and asking themselves, Do the letters match the sounds? Lexical or Orthographic System: Instantaneous word recognition  Difficulty recognizing a word when it is seen in a text other than the one in which it was originally learned  Difficulty recognizing a different form of a word, e.g., a contraction, root word with an affix, or a compound word  Demonstrating the various graphic word representations of a single word, showing children how a single word may look quite different in their own writing and in various books  Helping children to look for words in the surrounding text they do recognize – do those words give clues as to what an unknown word might be?  Word analysis: What does the prefix, suffix, root word mean? Is it a compound word? Do you recognize the words that combine to make the longer word?  Children become independent by recognizing different forms of the same word and dissecting word parts to support recognition of a new form of the word Syntactic System: Understanding the correct structure or architecture of written or spoken language; the ability to recognize when language is not structured correctly Substituting a word that disrupts the meaning of the passage, e.g., horse for house in the sentence “My family is building a new house.”  The teacher models how she recognizes correct syntactic arrangement of words. She asks herself, Does this sound like language?  Children are encouraged to read aloud and ask themselves, Does this sound like language?  Children are taught how to stop reading when something doesn’t sound right, adjust their rate of reading, and reread asking themselves, Does it make better sense if I read faster or slower?  Children are taught to use language conventions like periods, commas, quotation marks, semicolons as markers of meaning. When they read, they are encouraged to exaggerate the pause for a comma or period, for example, to support clearer meaning  Children study different syntactic styles used by authors to achieve different effects, e.g., when does an author use short, syncopated sentences vs. longer sentences? What type of effect is achieved with each?
  • 2. Semantic System: The recognition that words and longer pieces of text have associated meanings and concepts, and that those meanings vary slightly from reader to reader; the conceptual meanings can vary from concrete to abstract Reading words fluently, but experiencing difficulty defining what is meant by a word, sentence, or text  Children are encouraged to stop, consider a word that would make sense in the context, insert that word, and ask themselves, Does it make sense?  Children are encouraged to stop, reread, read ahead, and otherwise use the context to confirm the meaning of passage; stop yourself when it doesn’t make sense: try to ask questions of the book, the author, synthesize or retell what is happening so far, what the author’s major points are Schematic System: The reader’s prior knowledge used to comprehend text. Schema is built and/or activated from long-term memory stores when relevant in a reading experience. Schema also refers to the ways – the categories and classification – in which information is stored and retrieved from memory Inadequate background knowledge or difficulty in activating background knowledge  Children are encouraged to stop, ask themselves what they already know that is like what this author is trying to communicate  They are encouraged to create a visual image in their minds and ask themselves, What is happening here? How can I draw conclusions, make judgments, assume a critical stance to try to understand subtle points?  Children are encouraged to imagine the author and consider what he or she had in mind when writing  Children are encouraged to ask themselves what they know about this author that might help them comprehend  Children are encouraged to ask themselves what they know about the text format itself, what is often true of social studies or science text formats Pragmatic System: provides information about the purposes and needs the reader has while reading; governs what the reader needs to understand  Lack of purpose for reading, perception that text is not interesting or useful  A setting that prohibits interaction with other readers to construct meaning collectively  Children are asked to consider what they need to know in order to understand the text  Children are encouraged to ask what is most important from the text in relation to their purpose for reading  Children are encouraged to consider working with another person to discuss, write about, sketch, or act out pieces of the text in order to better comprehend it Mosaic of Thought p. 201-204