Helping Kids Read FluentlyNational Resource Center for Paraprofessionals Conference                    San Antonio, TX    ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009   Norms for Helping Kids Read Fluently                Sessions Commit to two...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Two Sessions: Helping Kids Read Fluently Session 1:                         ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Group Activity: Researching Our Own             ExperiencesDirections:15 minu...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                            Group Discussion:How do your own experiences impac...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009       Individual Activity: Checking Your Own         Knowledge of Terms and C...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                      Fluency – A Definition Fluency is the ability to read: ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                                     Story Time                               ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009   Characteristics of Fluent Readers Fluent Readers:     Rely on the letters...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                  Lack of Reading Fluency Not-so-Fluent Readers…    Have a s...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009Activity: Putting this Information in Real               Life Context Divide ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                            The Matthew Effect           (The rich get richer,...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009Differences in Amount of Independent               Reading     Percentile Rank...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009So, what do we do to help kids          read more?
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Lecture: Independent Silent Reading Many names for it:         SSR – Sustai...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009As a Paraeducator, What Can You Do To Make Silent Reading More Productive?
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                             Discussion About                          Anderso...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                          End of Session 1      Session 2 starts in 30 minutes...
Session 2Helping Kids Read     Fluently
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009         Accurate and Automatic Word         Recognition in Fluent ReadingFlu...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                                     Automaticity When we do something with a...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009         Students who read with automaticity Read with no noticeable cognitiv...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                      Reading Unfamiliar TextSilently read the passage below a...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                              The TranslationThe doctrine behind “res ipsa loq...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009               Activity: Debriefing Reading                      Unfamiliar Te...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009          Let‟s see if this Summarizes it You couldn‟t read the legal passage...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009           Individual Activity: Reflection Directions: Using the sheet called...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009  Lecture: Automaticity and Working               MemoryWorking memory is a p...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                Overlearning: The Path to                      Automaticity1. ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                  Overlearning in ReadingStudents can only practice reading w...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009  Activity: Calculating Words Correct           Per Minute (WCPM) Directions:...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                                           Activity1. Student reads the passag...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                                           ScoringWork together on this part1....
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009     Next – Comprehension QuestionsFive questions – each worth 20%  Write th...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                    Passage Accuracy and                       ComprehensionLe...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009             Do We Need More Practice?Student A reads a total of 87 words in ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                                       Still More?Student B reads a total of ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                                     Even More?Student C reads a total of 119...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                                  One last try…Student D reads a total of 92 ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                            If There‟s Time…. Let‟s see if we can become more...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                       Some Strange WordsSpumy = having foam, a mass of fine ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                    Some Background InfoWhere in the world is this?What is t...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                      Now Let‟s Read AloudI read a little sectionYou repeat ...
© Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009                                       Thank YouToday you experienced part of...
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Fluency

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Fluency

  1. 1. Helping Kids Read FluentlyNational Resource Center for Paraprofessionals Conference San Antonio, TX March 1, 2012 Nancy K. French, Ph.D., President Paraeducator Training Resources PO Box 234 Silverthorne, CO 80498 970-468-4800 FAX 303-871-0838 Email: nancy@paraeduatortraining.com Internet: www.paraeducatortraining.com
  2. 2. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Norms for Helping Kids Read Fluently Sessions Commit to two sessions (1-2:30 ) and (3-4:30) 1st pre-requisite for 2nd – they hang together Break from 2:30 – 3:00 – return on time Raffle drawing at precisely 3:00 pm – you must be present to win Everyone participates in all activities Ask questions as they arise – don‟t wait! If question will (for sure) be answered later, I may defer my answer Respect everyone‟s opinion Limit side discussions during lecture and directions
  3. 3. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Two Sessions: Helping Kids Read Fluently Session 1:  Session 2:  Our experience Automaticity with reading orally Reading Unfamiliar Fluency concepts Text and terms Calculating reading Characteristics of difficulty of text fluent and not-so- Techniques: fluent readers buddy-reading Effect of Practice choral reading.
  4. 4. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Group Activity: Researching Our Own ExperiencesDirections:15 minutes time limit – I‟ll announce passage of time every 5 minutes1. Conduct research about the experience class participants have with oral reading.2. Stand and walk around the room looking for someone who can answer an item affirmatively3. Write that person‟s name on the line next to the statement4. Ask them to tell you a little bit about that experience – but briefly – 1 minute or less, then move on to another person and repeat the process.5. When all 10 items have a name return to your seat.
  5. 5. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Group Discussion:How do your own experiences impact your work with children who are learning to read?
  6. 6. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Individual Activity: Checking Your Own Knowledge of Terms and Concepts • Try to complete all the items on the Survey of Fluency Terms • If you don‟t know, leave it blank - you will fill it in later as we review it (it‟s not cheating to do that, I promise) • When you finish as many as you can, look up at me.Directions: • Later, after the session, review this page to remind yourself of how much you learned.
  7. 7. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Fluency – A Definition Fluency is the ability to read:  Smoothly  Easily  Readily  Accurately  Quickly  With freedom from word recognition problemsWe know:Fluency is necessary for good comprehension and enjoyable reading – and it sounds natural!
  8. 8. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Story Time (Listen while I read to you) Mrs. Oshiro‟s story  Students who do not develop fluency are likely to remain poor readers throughout their lives.  In traditional classrooms, fluency has been neglected  It has relied heavily on the ineffective method called “round robin” reading  The result:  44% of American students cannot read fluently, even when they read grade-level materials aloud under supportive testing conditions
  9. 9. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Characteristics of Fluent Readers Fluent Readers:  Rely on the letters in the words (rather than context or pictures to identify familiar and unfamiliar words)  Look at and process every letter  Use letter-sound correspondence to identify words  Have a reliable strategy for decoding words  Read words a sufficient number of times for them to become automatic
  10. 10. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Lack of Reading Fluency Not-so-Fluent Readers…  Have a slow, halting pace, word-by-word reading  Tend to have poor comprehension  Make frequent mistakes  Use poor phrasing  Tend not to enjoy reading  May have poor or weak word recognition skills  Have choppy and plodding oral reading skills
  11. 11. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009Activity: Putting this Information in Real Life Context Divide into four groups  Each group designates one person to take notes for the group and be ready to report out at the end We will do the first one together as a model for you, then your group will do it‟s assigned bullet point I‟ll assign each group one bullet point to discuss You have 5 minutes Use the lead-in sentence:  What does it look like when a student cannot or does not…
  12. 12. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 The Matthew Effect (The rich get richer, the poor get poorer) How the Matthew Effect Works in reading: Good Readers: Enjoy reading, feel successful with reading, and Develop more vocabulary and greater comprehension, so They read more – because they can, and thus become “richer” in reading because they practice more Struggling Readers: Have difficulty reading, and Don‟t enjoy it, and Practice less, so They have less vocabulary and weaker comprehension
  13. 13. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009Differences in Amount of Independent Reading Percentile Rank of Minutes of book Words read in Reading reading per day books per year Achievement 98 65 4,358,000 90 21.1 1,823,000 70 9.6 622,000 50 4.6 282,000 30 1.3 106,000 10 0.1 8,000 2 0.0 0
  14. 14. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009So, what do we do to help kids read more?
  15. 15. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Lecture: Independent Silent Reading Many names for it:  SSR – Sustained Silent Reading  USSR – Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading  DEAR - Drop Everything And Read Limitations:  Research shows pretty small gains from silent reading programs  Students are not held responsible for what they read  May be daydreaming, talking, engaging in other off-task activities  No way teachers can evaluate the rate, accuracy and prosody of their reading, therefore, no way to provide constructive feedback  Students often choose their own materials – maybe inappropriate for them for appearances‟ sake – pretense of reading
  16. 16. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009As a Paraeducator, What Can You Do To Make Silent Reading More Productive?
  17. 17. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Discussion About Anderson‟s Suggestions1. Help students select books at appropriate reading levels and related to their interests. Make book selection part of the regular reading group activity.  How do you calculate the level of reading difficulty for each student?2. After silent reading time, set aside time for students to discuss what they read. Have students recommend books to each other.  How might this suggestion work in your situation?3. Involve parents and other family members by giving them tips on how to read with their children.  What would you have to be cautious of if you were to do this?
  18. 18. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 End of Session 1 Session 2 starts in 30 minutesAt exactly 3:00 pm, we will have the drawing for the prize! You must be present to win!Then, we will learn about :1. Automaticity2. Reading Unfamiliar text3. Calculating the reading difficulty of text
  19. 19. Session 2Helping Kids Read Fluently
  20. 20. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Accurate and Automatic Word Recognition in Fluent ReadingFluency is the bridge between word recognition and comprehension  Fluent readers recognize words and comprehend at the same time  Less fluent readers focus a lot of attention on word recognition, thus they can‟t focus as much energy on comprehension  Automaticity is a critical skill because it allows readers to spend their energy comprehending instead of decoding words.
  21. 21. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Automaticity When we do something with automaticity, we do it without conscious attention.  Examples:  Driving a standard transmission car  Playing a sport – e.g. golf, skiing, diving  Knitting or crocheting  Playing a musical instrument It takes a lot of practice to get to that point.
  22. 22. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Students who read with automaticity Read with no noticeable cognitive or mental effort Have mastered work recognition to the point of over learning Do not have to expend conscious attention with the fundamental skills Simultaneously decode and comprehend a passage that they read or listen to Pace their reading rate depending on the structure of the text they are reading Read text orally using appropriate phrasing and expression.
  23. 23. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Reading Unfamiliar TextSilently read the passage below and write a brief summary. The doctrine of “res ipsa loquitor” is inapposite, and the appellee‟s reliance thereon is misplaced and disingenuous.
  24. 24. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 The TranslationThe doctrine behind “res ipsa loquitor” assumes that a person must be to blame because it couldn‟t be anyone else, it doesn‟t fit these facts, and the person using this argument is wrong and insincere.
  25. 25. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Activity: Debriefing Reading Unfamiliar TextPair up with someone near you and discuss each of the questions below:1. Did you know all of the words in the passage? Did you know at least half of them? Was that enough?2. Did you know how to pronounce all of the words?3. Did you hesitate trying to make meaning of the reading? If ‘yes’, why?4. Would you have been tense about reading it out loud? If ‘yes’, why?5. Would you have been sure of yourself when reading it? If ‘no’, why?
  26. 26. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Let‟s see if this Summarizes it You couldn‟t read the legal passage fluently You struggled with decoding the words (figuring out how you would pronounce them) Even if you could can pronounce the words, you really don‟t for sure know what they mean If there had been a test over this material, you would have failed even though you “read” it.
  27. 27. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Individual Activity: Reflection Directions: Using the sheet called Reflections: “This is really hard” maintain silence while you… 1. Write your thoughts about what you learned from the previous activity 2. Write some ideas about how you might apply what you now know about your own reading to the struggling readers you know
  28. 28. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Lecture: Automaticity and Working MemoryWorking memory is a process, occurring in the brain, that stores short-term information while we are using it, and (main feature is that it goes away quickly when stop using it)  recalls stored memories from long-term „storage‟ by thinking about how that information relates to our current situation
  29. 29. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Overlearning: The Path to Automaticity1. Overlearning is the key to automaticity2. How do you overlearn something?  Remember ?  driving the stick shift?  Throwing a basketball?  Holding knitting needles?  Playing your first piano piece?3. We practice.4. But we can practice only what is physically and mentally do-able. (I can‟t practice handstands if I can‟t do a handstand)
  30. 30. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Overlearning in ReadingStudents can only practice reading what they can read So they have to practice reading materials of an appropriate level – either easy, or just moderately difficultHow do you know what is an appropriate level?  You can test the appropriateness of reading material by calculating WCPM (Words Correct Per Minute)
  31. 31. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Activity: Calculating Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM) Directions: Pair up – one person is the paraeducator , the other is the student ƒ Each uses the appropriate form from your handout (paraeducator copy p. 60-61, student copy p. 62)  “Students”: leave your copy face down for a couple of minutes while the “Paraeducator” reviews their handouts  Silence please: 1. Paraeducators: Read the four bullet-point directions at top of your handout – ask questions now, before we start the activity
  32. 32. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Activity1. Student reads the passage orally!  you will notice that there are errors in your passage so that the “paraeducator” has something to record  just read it as it is written2. Paraeducator marks sheet as student reads aloud3. When “time” is called, remove the student‟s sheet from her4. Ask 5 comprehension questions – marking + for correct or – for incorrect answers5. Without showing the answers, switch roles6. Do the activity again
  33. 33. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 ScoringWork together on this part1. Establish a reading level … • Count the number of words read (up to the /) • Subtract the number of “incorrect” words from that (this = # of words read correctly) • This gives you the student‟s WCPM – words correctly read per minute (write this in the first blank – WCPM) • Now, divide the number of words read correctly by the total number of words read to get % of accuracy (write this is the second blank) • Example 165÷197 = .837563 , then round it off to .84 or 84%
  34. 34. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Next – Comprehension QuestionsFive questions – each worth 20% Write this in the third blank – Example: 4 questions answered right would be 80%Now use the table on Handout B H8 (p. 63) to determine whether the reading level of difficulty is Independent, Instructional, or Frustration
  35. 35. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Passage Accuracy and ComprehensionLevel of Difficulty Word Recognition Comprehension Accuracy Independent 95% or > > 90% Instructional >85% grades 1-2 > 75% < 90% grades 3-12 Frustration < 85% grades 1-2 < 50% < 90% grades 3-12
  36. 36. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Do We Need More Practice?Student A reads a total of 87 words in one minute and makes 12 errors. Calculate the WCPM and accuracy.
  37. 37. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Still More?Student B reads a total of 153 words in one minutes and makes 5 errors. WCPS? Accuracy?
  38. 38. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Even More?Student C reads a total of 119 words in one minute and makes 8 errors. WCPM? Accuracy?
  39. 39. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 One last try…Student D reads a total of 92 words and makes 11 errors. WCPM? Accuracy?
  40. 40. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 If There‟s Time…. Let‟s see if we can become more fluent reading the passage from the “Paraeducator” Copy (B H6 p. 60) Handouts p. 123-126 contain lots of ways that you can help students read more fluently Let‟s try Teacher-Student Assisted Reading I‟m the teacher – you are all my students I read aloud, one section at a time, you repeat after me We do it again and again until you are as fluent as I amBut First, let‟s discuss some things….
  41. 41. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Some Strange WordsSpumy = having foam, a mass of fine bubbles on the surface of a liquid, especially on the oceanPotlatch = among Native American peoples of the coast of northwestern North America, a ceremony of feasting in which the host gains prestige by giving gifts or, sometimes, destroying wealth
  42. 42. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Some Background InfoWhere in the world is this?What is the geography like?What is the weather like?Who are these people?When is this?
  43. 43. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Now Let‟s Read AloudI read a little sectionYou repeat after meAgain, and againUntil you sound good!
  44. 44. © Paraeducator Training Resources, Inc. 2009 Thank YouToday you experienced part of the CO-TOP Assisting with Fluency Academy Normally it would take 15 hours to cover all the content Today, I picked certain parts that we could do in just 3 hours You didn‟t get it all, but you did get some of it For more information about CO-TOP Academies go to www.paraeducatortraining.com

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