Picutres : Oskar Schindler: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/schindler.html Irena Sendler: http://www.dzieciholocaustu.org.pl/szab61.php?s=en_sendlerowa.php Chiune Sugihara: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/sugihara.html
To set the mood. It shows a very quick idea of what happened. Hitler comes to power, gets support. After he finds his followers he is able to imprison the people and create concentration camps. Because of the inhumane conditions shown in some of these pictures it lead to people risking their lives to help those suffering Picture 1: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/sgt_stryker/hitler.gif Picture 2: http://www.denktag.de/homes/71/nazis.jpg Picture 3: http://www.coe.fau.edu/main/holocaust/images/81165.JPG Picture 4: http://history.grand-forks.k12.nd.us/ndhistory/LessonImages/Sources/Pictures/holocaust%202.jpg Picture 5: http://img.radio.cz/pictures/ctk0501/osvetim1945_2.jpg Music: "Theme From Schindler's List"" By John Williams. Rec. 1993. Schindler's List .
He was very influential but he did not use this at first to help the Jews. He spoke out against the Italian racial laws in 1938 the same year as Kristallnacht which was the “night of broken glass”. The Nazis destroyed Jewish property (November 9-10) Picture : http://www.saint-mike.org/Library/Papal_Library/PiusXII/PiusXII.html
At the time of the signing of the concordat, Hitler was the German chancellor. The deal didn’t help the Jews or the other people being discriminated against. It only furthered both Hitler and the Nazis’ power in Germany.
The visas were issued only to Jews that had converted to Catholicism. It allowed them to travel to Brazil. Some Jews began practicing Judaism once there and had their visas revoked. Even though he refused publicly he did support the Jews privately, even though it often was not enough
Germany invaded Italy, making the Jews come up with 50,000 Kg of gold, and Pope Pius XII gave them 15Kg to help their cause. Despite remaining neutral on the issue of Zionism, he still helped those 6000 kids get to Palestine.
The town was located in Vichy France, therefore they were not under German control. Many people in the town did not have enough money and were living in poverty like conditions yet they still helped the Jews. Picture : http://www.auschwitz.dk/Trocme.htm
After hiding the Jews Andre Trocme, with the help of other Protestants brought the Jews to safety in Switzerland with the help of Edouard Theis.
The church asked Trocme to stop aiding Jews because they felt it could harm their followers in France. The Vichy government knew about Trocme aiding Jews and wanted to avoid problems.
These are some of the Jews that Trocme and the town were able to save. That is a quote in response to the Vichy government after they asked Trocme and the village to stop aiding the Jews Picture and quote : Bulow, Louis. "Remember." Auschwitz . United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 5 June 2006 <http://www.auschwitz.dk/Trocme.htm>.
Trocme went into hiding after his arrest and his wife, Magda, took over the leadership and continued to hide the Jews.
Helped save thousands of Jews from concentration camps. The Polish government funded Zegota from exile in London. The founders of Zegota were liberal, conservative and Jewish and non-Jewish it was a group of people that wanted to help humanity.
By giving the Jews the forged documents they were able to obtain Kennkarte (which allowed the Jews certain privileges such as food and jobs). Some of the forged documents came from priests. After a person died the priest would destroy the death certificate and give the birth certificate to Zegota. Zegota would then match the age with a Jew, which then gave that person a Christian identity. The Children’s Bureau saved about 600 children by the end of 1943.
The places where he hid the Jewish children include orphanages, foster homes, and convents.
Irena Sendler, also known as Irena Sendlerowa. This quote shows some of Irena’s motives as of why she decided to help the Jews. Picture : http://auschwitz.dk/rescuers/id17.htm Quote : Attoun, Marti. "The Schindler No One Knew." Natural Women's History Project . 7 June 2006 <http://www.nwhp.org/whm/irena_sendler.html>.
Irena was able to get into the Warsaw Ghetto by disguising herself as a nurse (as seen to the left). With the help of others she was able to sneak children out in ambulances, body bags, and other extreme methods. She then taught the children Christian ideas so they would fit in in the orphanages as Aryans. She made records of the children and hid them by a tree in her friends backyard.
She was not killed because Zegota bribed a guard. She was then virtually invisible to the Nazis and she went into hiding. For a long time no one knew about Irena even though she saved 2,500 Jewish children. After the holocaust Irena got the records and tried to find the children she had helped to reunite them with their families
Along with the 300 Jews he had under his care, he let one stay permanently at his home as a nurse/maid. His code name was Rozycki.
The ways he gave aid to the Jews include false documents, sheltering, medical care, and taking care of children. This gave the Jews safety, even though Rek was putting himself, his wife, and their family and friends in danger.
This quotation expresses why she joined, even though she was originally anti-Semitic Quote : Tomaszewski, Irene, and Tecia Werbowski. "ZEGOTA – the Rescue of Jews in Wartime Poland." Citinet . 7 June 2006 <http://www.citinet.net/ak/polska_43_f2.html>.
Berman was the director of the children’s branch in 1939 when Poland was invaded by Germany. The ZOB was the main Jewish Fighting alliance.
He was freed from arrest because his friends paid the bail. He continued to help with Zegota and after the war he moved to Israel and became active in the government
Because he was the head of the legislative bureau, he was able to exercise his power of those who had denounced and blackmailed by executing their deaths.
By doing this he helped save the lives of many Jews in the ghettos in which conditions were usually inhumane.
The Righteous Among the Nations Award is Israel’s highest honor and he was one of the first Poles to receive it. The FOP was the Front for the Rebirth of Poland.
Got a lot of Jews to stay alive via the black market, bribing, and lying. Never was an honest man and always was womanizing, but he saved the lives of thousands of Jews.
His factory was an “oasis” because no one was ever harmed or killed there, unlike the camps such as Auschwitz. It gave the Jews a place to be other than the death camps. Quote (not primary source, just good phrasing in the article): http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/schindler.html
The Jews he protected were called the Schindlerjuden (Schindler’s children). The picture is of the Schindlerjuden hugging Schindler (second from right). In 1944 he created a bracn of his factory the he would need 900 Jews for. He put their names in a list and he protected them. The list of the 900 Jews he would need is referred to as “Schindler’s List.” Picture : "Oskar Schindler." Jewish Virtual Library . 2006. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 5 June 2006 <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/schindler.html>.
This helps show why Schindler did it even though those he helped may not know. Survivor’s Quote : Bülow, Louis. "Schindler." The Holocaust: Crimes, Heroes and Villains . 5 June 2006 <http://www.auschwitz.dk/why/why.htm>. Schindler Quote: "Oskar Schindler." Jewish Virtual Library . 2006. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 5 June 2006 <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/schindler.html>
When he started to disagree with the Nazi policies, the local Darmstadt Nazi leadership removed him from a position of high authority. Picture: http://isurvived.org/Rightheous_Folder/Plagge_Karl_MajGerman.html
Of the 1,200 Jews he rescued from the mass-killing places, 700 were men and the rest were women and children. At his own camp, the Jews were treated much nicer and the work was easier. They weren’t beaten or killed at HKP.
The work permits prevented them from being killed by the SS because they were being used to help the German economy and were no good to them dead.
Of the 1,000 Jews left at his camp when they were to be relocated, 750 of them were found by the SS and shot. 250 Jews survived however, the largest number of survivors in the killings of Vilnius (in Lithuania). In 2005 he received the “Righteous Among the Nations Award” – Israel’s highest honor given to those who have helped the Jews.
The picture to the left and on the bottom is of Chiune Sugihara.
The Dutch consul agreed to stamp all passports of Jews so that they could get into the two Dutch islands (Curacao and Dutch Guiana). If the Jews could receive Japanese travel papers so that they could go through Russia and Japan, they could get to those islands and escape from the holocaust in Europe.
For Sugihara to disobey his government was hard for him because of his strict Japanese upbringing which shows just how brave and courageous he was. The 300 daily visas he signed was roughly equivalent to a full month’s work.
This is a visa issued by Sugihara to Susan Bluman Picture: http://www.chgs.umn.edu/Visual___Artistic_Resources/Diplomat_Rescuers/Role_of_Diplomat_Rescuers/role_of_diplomat_rescuers.html
As the train pulled away Sugihara threw passports out the window in order to save as many Jews as possible before being taken away.
After being dishonorably dismissed from his government, he wasn’t able to get another high job in the government and his family wasn’t as rich or as well off as they were before. This was the sacrifice he was willing to make to ensure that 6,000 Jews were safe from the terrors of the holocaust. In 1985 he received Israel’s greatest honor, the “Righteous Among the Nations” award.
Visas were not needed to enter Shanghai but the Nazis created a law requiring Jews to have a visa to travel from one country to another. Feng-Shan Ho was the Chinese consul-general in Vienna from 1938-1940 Ho went against Chen Jie’s orders to stop issuing visas (because he wanted to have good relations between China and Germany and issuing the visas could harm it) Many of the Jews that obtained the visas from Ho did not go to Shanghai but went to Palestine and the Philippines Picture of Ho- http:// www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/ho.html
The visa to the left is the closed visa, to the right it is opened This is a photograph of a visa issued from Ho to a Jew Pictures: http://yad-vashem.org.il/righteous/bycountry/china.html
Ludmilla was able to escape because her mother bribed a guard with jewelry. Pan Jun Shun took care of her after his wife had died and his sons were drafted to fight in the war.
Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa is Polish for Jewish Fighting Organization. It was created during a meeting at the Ha-Shomer Club (Left-Zionist Club).
The “shops” were code names for German businesses. The Werkschutz were the guards of the “shops.”
Mordecai was one of the leaders of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising and a head of ZOB. During his time in the Warsaw Ghetto he created a radio station to inform the Jews of what was happening outside of the ghetto. He also wrote articles for one of the many underground journals, “Against the Stream” Picture: http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/gallery/p411.htm
January 1943 the Nazis gathered a few hundred Jews to send to the death camps. The attack by Mordecai and others allowed these captured Jews to flee. The attack scared the Nazis leading the deportations stopping for three months. During these three months Mordecai and others drew up maps and plans for the next attack.
The Nazis expected to win the battle quickly because they felt they would be weak. The Jews began to grow weak and were running out of weapons towards the end. When the Nazis found the fighters hiding they threw poison gas into the bunker. Those that came out were shot. It is unknown if the gas killed Mordecai or if he took the poison. This resistance however, lasted longer than the Poles resistance in September 1939, it lasted a total of four weeks (4/19-5/16) Quote: Stadtler, Bea. The Holocaust: a History of Courage and Resistance . Behrman House, Inc., 1994. 68.
The Guild Law of 1927 basically took all of the Jews out of their jobs. From his high position in the Warsaw Ghetto he was able to keep German influence to a minimum.
Worked as part head officer in Zionist Youth Movement. When Germany invaded Poland in 1939 Yitzhak moved to the Soviet Union. Picture: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWzuckerman.htm
The café in Cracow was used by Gestapo and SS soldiers. He fought with Gole Mire and Adolf Liebeskind (who were killed). Yitzhak survived the war and moved to Israel in 1947.
Even with all of the efforts of the rescuers and resisters approximately 11,000,000 people were killed. About 6,000,000 were Jews, of the remaining 5,000,000 many were those that attempted to help and save others from the inhumane acts of the Nazis.
HolocausHolocausttResistancResistanceeMovementMovementHolocausHolocausttResistancResistanceeMovementMovementBy Nick G and Elana hHGHS ChappaquaNY—ms PojerwxyBy Nick G and Elana hHGHS ChappaquaNY—ms Pojerwxy
Essential QuestionEssential QuestionWhat were the holocaustWhat were the holocaustresistance movements andresistance movements andto what extent did theyto what extent did theyhelp save lives?help save lives?
POPE PIUSPOPE PIUSXIIXII Began indifferentBegan indifferentand unhelpfuland unhelpfultowardstowardsthe Jewsthe Jews ExtremelyExtremelyinfluentialinfluentialHe could influenceHe could influenceabout 400 millionabout 400 millionCatholicsCatholics Spoke out againstSpoke out againstItalian racial lawsItalian racial lawspreventing mixedpreventing mixedmarriagesmarriages Did not condemnDid not condemnKristallnachtKristallnacht
Concordat with HitlerConcordat with Hitler 1933 Pope Pius signed a concordat1933 Pope Pius signed a concordatwith Adolf Hitlerwith Adolf Hitler Allowed Catholics to practiceAllowed Catholics to practicefreely in Germanyfreely in Germany Separated religion and politicsSeparated religion and politics It weakened the Catholic CenterIt weakened the Catholic CenterParty in Germany, giving Hitler aParty in Germany, giving Hitler apolitical advantage over thempolitical advantage over them
POPE PIUS XIIPOPE PIUS XII March 1939 Pope Pius XII issuedMarch 1939 Pope Pius XII issued3,000 visas to European Jews3,000 visas to European Jewsallowing them to flee persecutionallowing them to flee persecution When asked to publicly condemnWhen asked to publicly condemnthe death camps, Pope Pius XIIthe death camps, Pope Pius XIIrefused, wanting to remain neutralrefused, wanting to remain neutral He did however privately tellHe did however privately tellCatholic institutions to hide JewsCatholic institutions to hide Jews
POPE PIUS XIIPOPE PIUS XII Lent money to help the JewsLent money to help the Jews Protested in 1944 when GermanyProtested in 1944 when Germanyinvaded Hungary and deportedinvaded Hungary and deportedJews from thereJews from there Transferred 6,000 JewishTransferred 6,000 JewishBulgarian kids to PalestineBulgarian kids to Palestine Warned the Allies about OperationWarned the Allies about OperationYellow to blow up the British NavyYellow to blow up the British Navy
Le Chambon-Sur-Le Chambon-Sur-LignonLignon Protestant village in SouthernProtestant village in SouthernFranceFrance Sheltered 5,000 JewsSheltered 5,000 Jews The town hid Jews for four yearsThe town hid Jews for four years
They gave the Jews fake IDsThey gave the Jews fake IDsand ration cardsand ration cards The town educated the JewishThe town educated the Jewishchildrenchildren Not one Jew hid in the town wasNot one Jew hid in the town wastaken by Nazistaken by Nazis The Jews were taken from LeThe Jews were taken from LeChambon, through French townsChambon, through French townsand villages, to the Swiss borderand villages, to the Swiss borderto safetyto safetyLe Chambon-Sur-Le Chambon-Sur-LignonLignon
ANDRE TROCMEANDRE TROCME Pastor of Le Chambon-Sur-LignonPastor of Le Chambon-Sur-Lignon Trocmé hid the first Jew andTrocmé hid the first Jew andencouraged the town to aid theencouraged the town to aid theJews as wellJews as well The Reformed Church askedThe Reformed Church askedTrocmé to stop aiding Jews butTrocmé to stop aiding Jews buthe refusedhe refused Vichy government then requestedVichy government then requestedTrocmé and his followers to stopTrocmé and his followers to stopbut they also refusedbut they also refused
These people came here for help andThese people came here for help andfor shelter. I am their shepherd. Afor shelter. I am their shepherd. Ashepherd does not forsake his flock.shepherd does not forsake his flock.--Andre TrocméAndre Trocmé
Le Chambon-sur-Le Chambon-sur-lignonlignon In 1942 the Vichy governmentIn 1942 the Vichy governmentarrived in Le Chambon with a list ofarrived in Le Chambon with a list ofJewsJews Trocmé and the villagers refused toTrocmé and the villagers refused togive the government any of the Jewsgive the government any of the Jewson the liston the list Trocmé and the villagers were laterTrocmé and the villagers were laterarrested but released two weeksarrested but released two weeksafterwardsafterwards After this incident Trocmé wasAfter this incident Trocmé wasforced into hidingforced into hiding
ZEGOTAZEGOTA Created after German invasion ofCreated after German invasion ofPolandPoland Helped Jews in occupied Poland fromHelped Jews in occupied Poland from1942-19451942-1945 Founded by people of differentFounded by people of differentbackgroundsbackgrounds Saved Jews from the GhettosSaved Jews from the Ghettos Funded by the Polish governmentFunded by the Polish governmentthat was in exilethat was in exile
ZEGOTAZEGOTA Provided Jews with money, medicalProvided Jews with money, medicalattention, forged documents andattention, forged documents andfoster homes for Jewish childrenfoster homes for Jewish children Priest assisted Zegota by givingPriest assisted Zegota by givingbirth certificatesbirth certificates July 1943 Children’s Bureau wasJuly 1943 Children’s Bureau wasestablishedestablished Zegota relocated to MilanowekZegota relocated to Milanowekafter Warsaw Ghetto Uprisingafter Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Saved an estimated 400,000-Saved an estimated 400,000-500,000 Jews500,000 Jews
JULIAN GROBELNYJULIAN GROBELNY Alias was “Alias was “TrojanTrojan”” Part of the Polish Socialist PartyPart of the Polish Socialist Party Elected head of ZegotaElected head of Zegota Hid the Jews in the most dangerHid the Jews in the most dangerin his own homein his own home Hid Jewish children in differentHid Jewish children in differentinstitutionsinstitutions Worked closely with Irena SendlerWorked closely with Irena Sendler
IRENA SENDLERIRENA SENDLERI was taughtI was taughtthat if a man isthat if a man isdrowning, it isdrowning, it isirrelevant whatirrelevant whatis his religion oris his religion ornationality. Onenationality. Onemust help him.must help him.It is a need ofIt is a need ofthe heart.the heart.- Irena Sendler- Irena Sendler
IRENA SENDLERIRENA SENDLER Head of the children’s branch ofHead of the children’s branch ofZegotaZegota Rescued 2,500 Jewish childrenRescued 2,500 Jewish childrenfrom the Warsaw Ghettofrom the Warsaw Ghetto Alias was “Alias was “JolantaJolanta”” After she rescued the children sheAfter she rescued the children shetaught them Christian traditionstaught them Christian traditionsand behaviorsand behaviors She recorded the identity of everyShe recorded the identity of everyJewish child she savedJewish child she saved
IRENA SENDLERIRENA SENDLER October 20, 1943 Irena wasOctober 20, 1943 Irena wasarrestedarrested Taken to Pawiak prisonTaken to Pawiak prison She was tortured and thenShe was tortured and thensentenced to deathsentenced to death She however was not killed andShe however was not killed andwent into hidingwent into hiding
TADEUSZ REKTADEUSZ REK Lawyer who represented theLawyer who represented thePolish Popular Party in WarsawPolish Popular Party in Warsaw Joined Zegota in 1943 andJoined Zegota in 1943 andbecame the Vice Presidentbecame the Vice President He let many Jews stayHe let many Jews staytemporarily at his hometemporarily at his home His apartment was a frequentHis apartment was a frequentZegota meeting placeZegota meeting place
TADEUSZ REKTADEUSZ REK He gave various forms of aid toHe gave various forms of aid tobetween 40,000 and 50,000 Jewsbetween 40,000 and 50,000 Jews His wife encouraged family andHis wife encouraged family andfriends to take in Jews and keepfriends to take in Jews and keepthem secretly at their homesthem secretly at their homes Arrested and sent to PawiakArrested and sent to Pawiakprisonprison Then he was sent to AuschwitzThen he was sent to Auschwitz
ZOFIA KOSSAKZOFIA KOSSAK Before the war Zofia was anti-Before the war Zofia was anti-SemiticSemitic She joined Zegota because sheShe joined Zegota because shewas patriotic towards Polandwas patriotic towards Poland Her codename was “Her codename was “WeronikaWeronika”” She wrote “Protest”, a leafletShe wrote “Protest”, a leafletdefying the Nazis and the currentdefying the Nazis and the currentgovernment in Polandgovernment in PolandWhoever remains silent in theWhoever remains silent in theface of murder becomes anface of murder becomes anaccomplice of the murder. Heaccomplice of the murder. Hewho does not condemn,who does not condemn,condonescondones..–Zofia Kossak–Zofia Kossak
ADOLF BERMANADOLF BERMAN In 1939 he was the director ofIn 1939 he was the director ofthe Warsaw branch of thethe Warsaw branch of theFederation of Associations forFederation of Associations forthe Care of Orphansthe Care of Orphans He then found the AntifascistHe then found the AntifascistBloc which later became theBloc which later became theJewish Fighting OrganizationJewish Fighting Organization(ZOB)(ZOB) Berman was able to move out ofBerman was able to move out ofthe Warsaw Ghetto and pass asthe Warsaw Ghetto and pass asan Aryan Polean Aryan Pole
ADOLF BERMANADOLF BERMAN Berman was the secretary ofBerman was the secretary ofZegotaZegota He was a representative to theHe was a representative to theJewish National CommitteeJewish National Committee Berman was able to preserveBerman was able to preserverecords from the Warsaw Ghettorecords from the Warsaw Ghetto Berman involved Irena SendlerBerman involved Irena Sendlerwith Zegota by asking for herwith Zegota by asking for herhelp to save the childrenhelp to save the children January 1944 captured by theJanuary 1944 captured by thePoles but was later freedPoles but was later freed
REDINANDREDINANDARCZYNSKIARCZYNSKI He was a founding member ofHe was a founding member ofZegotaZegota His alias was “His alias was “MarekMarek”” He was the Zegota treasurerHe was the Zegota treasurerand the head of theand the head of thelegislative bureaulegislative bureau He brought a lot of theHe brought a lot of thepeople who harmed Jews topeople who harmed Jews tojusticejustice
REDINANDREDINANDARCZYNSKIARCZYNSKI Gave Jews help in various formsGave Jews help in various formssuch as shelter, medical care,such as shelter, medical care,and moneyand money He smuggled food and clothesHe smuggled food and clothesinto the ghettosinto the ghettos He also played a large part inHe also played a large part inthe founding of the Lvov andthe founding of the Lvov andCracow branches of ZegotaCracow branches of Zegota
WladyslawWladyslawBartoszewskiBartoszewski Born 1922 inBorn 1922 inWarsaw,Warsaw,PolandPoland FromFromSeptemberSeptember1940- April1940- April1941 he was in1941 he was inAuschwitzAuschwitz
WladyslawWladyslawBartoszewskiBartoszewski Co-founder of ZegotaCo-founder of Zegota He also worked with theHe also worked with theCatholic underground,Catholic underground,specifically with the FOP fromspecifically with the FOP from1942 to 19441942 to 1944 Received the Righteous AmongReceived the Righteous Amongthe Nations Awardthe Nations Award
OSKAR SCHINDLEROSKAR SCHINDLER German man, born in Austria-German man, born in Austria-HungaryHungary Generally a “sinful” manGenerally a “sinful” man Participated in black marketParticipated in black markettrading and was able to get his owntrading and was able to get his ownfactory of Jewish workers throughfactory of Jewish workers throughhis friendshis friends Numerous Jews invested in hisNumerous Jews invested in hisfactory in return for safety andfactory in return for safety andworkwork
OSKAR SCHINDLEROSKAR SCHINDLER His factory, where many JewsHis factory, where many Jewsworked was described as anworked was described as an“Oasis of humanity in a desert of“Oasis of humanity in a desert ofmoral torpor”moral torpor” In his factory, they madeIn his factory, they madedefective bullets and other wardefective bullets and other warmaterial for the German armymaterial for the German army He moved the factory to theHe moved the factory to theSudetenland to keep the JewsSudetenland to keep the Jewsworking there saferworking there safer
OSKAR AND THEOSKAR AND THESHINDLERJUDENSHINDLERJUDEN
OSKAROSKARSCHINDLERSCHINDLERA survivor stated: I dont knowwhat his motives were... But Idont give a damn. Whatsimportant is that he saved ourlives.Schindler answered this questionSchindler answered this questionhowever after the war:however after the war:If you saw a dog going tobe crushed under a car,wouldnt you help him?
KARL PLAGGEKARL PLAGGE Major inMajor inGerman armyGerman army Member of NaziMember of Nazipartyparty WWI veteranWWI veteran At first heAt first heagreed withagreed withHitler’s ideasHitler’s ideas
KARL PLAGGEKARL PLAGGE He took 1,200 Jews away fromHe took 1,200 Jews away fromthe mass-killing areas and usedthe mass-killing areas and usedthem for forced labor at his ownthem for forced labor at his owncampcamp Since he took them from theSince he took them from theghettos, they were less likely toghettos, they were less likely tobe moved to death campsbe moved to death camps Took over 1,000 families fromTook over 1,000 families fromthe Wilna Ghetto (which was soonthe Wilna Ghetto (which was soonafter liquidated) to his camp, HKPafter liquidated) to his camp, HKP
KARL PLAGGEKARL PLAGGE He gave the Jews work permitsHe gave the Jews work permitsthat protected them from the SSthat protected them from the SS However, when Plagge was onHowever, when Plagge was onleave, the Gestapo came into theleave, the Gestapo came into thecamp and killed all of the childrencamp and killed all of the children He was then told by the SS thatHe was then told by the SS thathe had to relocate his camp andhe had to relocate his camp andthat he couldn’t take the “skilledthat he couldn’t take the “skilledworkers” with himworkers” with him
KARL PLAGGEKARL PLAGGE When he was forced to beWhen he was forced to berelocated, he had time to warnrelocated, he had time to warnall the Jews at his campall the Jews at his camp The Jews were able to hide inThe Jews were able to hide invarious places and many of themvarious places and many of themsurvivedsurvived
CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA Chiune Sugihara was the JapaneseChiune Sugihara was the Japaneseconsul in Kaunas, Lithuania inconsul in Kaunas, Lithuania inMarch 1939March 1939 He saved more than 6,000 Jews –He saved more than 6,000 Jews –the second most saved during thethe second most saved during theholocaustholocaust Many Polish refugees had fled intoMany Polish refugees had fled intoLithuania after the GermanLithuania after the Germaninvasioninvasion Germany invaded Lithuania onGermany invaded Lithuania on6/15/406/15/40
CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA After Germany invaded bothAfter Germany invaded bothLithuania and Poland, the SovietLithuania and Poland, the SovietUnion said that they would let theUnion said that they would let theJews pass through if they couldJews pass through if they couldobtain certain travel documentsobtain certain travel documents In July 1940 all foreign embassiesIn July 1940 all foreign embassieshad to leave Lithuania but thehad to leave Lithuania but theDutch and Japanese consul gotDutch and Japanese consul gotextensionsextensions Two Dutch Caribbean Islands didn’tTwo Dutch Caribbean Islands didn’trequire formal entrance passesrequire formal entrance passes
CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA Thousands of Jews went to theThousands of Jews went to theJapanese consul asking for theJapanese consul asking for theJapanese transit visasJapanese transit visas Sugihara wired back to theSugihara wired back to thegovernment in Japan forgovernment in Japan forpermission to sign these visaspermission to sign these visas Three times they refused toThree times they refused togive him permissiongive him permission He disobeyed them and fromHe disobeyed them and from7/31/40 – 8/28/40 he signed7/31/40 – 8/28/40 he signed300 visas a day300 visas a day
Visa issued ByVisa issued ByChiune SugiharaChiune Sugihara
CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA On 9/1/40 his extension was upOn 9/1/40 his extension was upand he had to leave the countryand he had to leave the country Even as his train was pulling awayEven as his train was pulling awayhe still signed the visas throughhe still signed the visas throughthe windowthe window He then gave the stamper forHe then gave the stamper forthe passports to a Jew who thenthe passports to a Jew who thensigned and stamped many othersigned and stamped many otherpassportspassports
CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA The Jews who were able to getThe Jews who were able to getthe passports made their waythe passports made their wayvia trains through Russia andvia trains through Russia andJapan and arrived safely at theJapan and arrived safely at theDutch IslandsDutch Islands Despite his disobedience, theDespite his disobedience, theJapanese government still usedJapanese government still usedSugihara for the remainder ofSugihara for the remainder ofthe war but then dismissed himthe war but then dismissed himafterwardsafterwards
FENG SHAN HOFENG SHAN HO Issued visas toIssued visas toShanghai toShanghai toJews fromJews fromAustriaAustria Feng-Shan HoFeng-Shan Howas one of thewas one of thefirst diplomatsfirst diplomatsto help Jewsto help Jews Saved thousands of Jews fromSaved thousands of Jews from1938-19391938-1939
Visas Issued by FengVisas Issued by FengShan HoShan Ho
PAN JUN SHUNPAN JUN SHUN Took care of Ludmilla, a JewishTook care of Ludmilla, a Jewishchild who escaped while beingchild who escaped while beingtransported to a death camptransported to a death camp Alexandra and Mitrofan BabaevaAlexandra and Mitrofan Babaevaand Nadezhada helped in raisingand Nadezhada helped in raisingthe childthe child Continued to care for the girl evenContinued to care for the girl evenafter the warafter the war Was the first Chinese man toWas the first Chinese man toreceive the title Righteous Amongreceive the title Righteous Amongthe Nationsthe Nations
THE ZOBTHE ZOB Stood forStood for Zydowska OrganizacjaZydowska OrganizacjaBojowaBojowa Led by Mordecai AnielewiczLed by Mordecai Anielewicz Created October 1942 at aCreated October 1942 at aHa-Shomer Club meetingHa-Shomer Club meeting Made by occupants of the WarsawMade by occupants of the WarsawGhettoGhetto
GOALS OF THE ZOBGOALS OF THE ZOB1)1) To defend the Warsaw GhettoTo defend the Warsaw Ghetto2)2) To teach a lesson to the JewishTo teach a lesson to the Jewishpolice, the “shops,” thepolice, the “shops,” theWerkschutz and all informersWerkschutz and all informers3)3) To stop the deportation andTo stop the deportation andliquidation of the Jewish residentsliquidation of the Jewish residentsof the Warsaw Ghettoof the Warsaw Ghetto
MORDECAIMORDECAIANIELEWICZANIELEWICZ In 1942 he organized a fightingIn 1942 he organized a fightingunitunit January 1943 the Nazis roundedJanuary 1943 the Nazis roundedup a group of Jews to send toup a group of Jews to send tothe death campsthe death camps Mordecai and his fellow fightersMordecai and his fellow fightersattacked the Nazisattacked the Nazis
Warsaw GhettoWarsaw Ghettouprisinguprising--AprilApril 19,19,19431943 Nazis reported to headquarters:Nazis reported to headquarters:The Jewish resistance wasThe Jewish resistance wasunexpected, unusually strong, and aunexpected, unusually strong, and agreat surprise.great surprise. May 8May 8thththe Germans found the mainthe Germans found the mainbunker where the fighters werebunker where the fighters werehidinghiding The Nazis killed the Jews inside,The Nazis killed the Jews inside,including Mordecaiincluding Mordecai
ADAMADAMCZERNIAKOWCZERNIAKOW Spoke against the 1927 Guild LawSpoke against the 1927 Guild Law Represented Jewish artisans toRepresented Jewish artisans tothe Warsaw Municipal Councilthe Warsaw Municipal Council In the Warsaw Ghetto theIn the Warsaw Ghetto theGestapo appointed him “Gestapo appointed him “PresidentPresidentof the Jewish Religious Communityof the Jewish Religious Communityof Warsawof Warsaw”” Spoke avidly to the GermanSpoke avidly to the Germanofficers trying to convince themofficers trying to convince themnot to kill the Jewsnot to kill the Jews
YITZHAKYITZHAKZUCKERMANZUCKERMAN Born in Vilna,Born in Vilna,Lithuania inLithuania in19151915 1936 worked as1936 worked aspart of Zionistpart of ZionistYouth MovementYouth Movementin Warsaw,in Warsaw,PolandPoland
YITZHAKYITZHAKZUCKERMANZUCKERMAN He returned to Poland in 1940He returned to Poland in 1940 Promoted resistance to the NazisPromoted resistance to the Nazis December 22, 1942 participated inDecember 22, 1942 participated inattack against a Café in Cracowattack against a Café in Cracow Fought with Mordecai AnielewiczFought with Mordecai Anielewiczduring the Warsaw Ghetto Uprisingduring the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising August 1944 fought in the PolishAugust 1944 fought in the PolishUprisingUprising