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The holocaust


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The holocaust

  1. 1. JUDY FLORES MATERIALS1 The Holocaust was the Nazi policy to murder the Jews ofsystematic, bureaucratic, state- Europe. Although Jews, whom thesponsored persecution and Nazis deemed a priority dangermurder of approximately six to Germany, were the primarymillion Jews by the Nazi regime victims of Nazi racism, otherand its collaborators. "Holocaust" victims included some 200,000is a word of Greek origin meaning Roma (Gypsies). At least 200,000"sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who mentally or physically disabledcame to power in Germany in patients, mainly Germans, livingJanuary 1933, believed that in institutional settings, wereGermans were "racially superior" murdered in the so-calledand that the Jews, deemed Euthanasia1 Program."inferior," were an alien threat tothe so-called German racial 4 As Nazi tyranny spread acrosscommunity. Europe, the Germans and their collaborators persecuted and2 During the era of the Holocaust, murdered millions of otherGerman authorities also targeted people. Between two and threeother groups because of their million Soviet prisoners of warperceived "racial inferiority": were murdered or died ofRoma (Gypsies), the disabled, starvation, disease, neglect, orand some of the Slavic peoples maltreatment. The Germans(Poles, Russians, and others). targeted the non-Jewish PolishOther groups were persecuted on intelligentsia2 for killing, andpolitical, ideological, and deported millions of Polish andbehavioral grounds, among them Soviet civilians for forced labor inCommunists, Socialists, Jehovahs Germany or in occupied Poland,Witnesses, and homosexuals. where these individuals worked and often died under deplorableWHAT WAS THE conditions. From the earliest yearsHOLOCAUST? of the Nazi regime, German authorities persecuted3 In 1933, the Jewish population homosexuals and others whoseof Europe stood at over nine behavior did not match prescribedmillion. Most European Jews social norms. German policelived in countries that Nazi officials targeted thousands ofGermany would occupy or political opponents (includinginfluence during World War II. 1 The act or practice of ending the life ofBy 1945, the Germans and their an individual suffering from a terminalcollaborators killed nearly two out illness or an incurable condition, as byof every three European Jews as lethal injection or the suspension ofpart of the "Final Solution," the extraordinary medical treatment. 2 The intellectual elite of a society. 1
  2. 2. JUDY FLORES MATERIALSCommunists, Socialists, and trade 6 Following the invasion of theunionists) and religious dissidents Soviet Union in June 1941,(such as Jehovahs Witnesses). Einsatzgruppen (mobile killingMany of these individuals died as units) and, later, militarizeda result of incarceration and battalions of Order Policemaltreatment. officials, moved behind German lines to carry out mass-murderADMINISTRATION OF THE operations against Jews, Roma,"FINAL SOLUTION" and Soviet state and Communist Party officials. German SS and5 Inthe early years of the Nazi police units, supported by units ofregime, the National Socialist the Wehrmacht and the Waffengovernment established SS, murdered more than a millionconcentration camps to detain real Jewish men, women, and children,and imagined political and and hundreds of thousands ofideological opponents. others. Between 1941 and 1944,Increasingly in the years before Nazi German authorities deportedthe outbreak of war, SS and police millions of Jews from Germany,officials incarcerated Jews, Roma, from occupied territories, andand other victims of ethnic and from the countries of many of itsracial hatred in these camps. To Axis allies to ghettos and toconcentrate and monitor the killing centers, often calledJewish population as well as to extermination camps, where theyfacilitate later deportation of the were murdered in speciallyJews, the Germans and their developed gassing facilities.collaborators created ghettos3,transit camps4, and forced-labor THE END OF THEcamps for Jews during the war HOLOCAUSTyears. The German authoritiesalso established numerous forced- 7 In the final months of the war,labor camps, both in the so-called SS guards moved camp inmatesGreater German Reich and in by train or on forced marches,German-occupied territory, for often called “death marches,” innon-Jews whose labor the an attempt to prevent the AlliedGermans sought to exploit. liberation of large numbers of prisoners. As Allied forces moved across Europe in a series of3 a section of a city occupied by a offensives against Germany, theyminority group who live there especially began to encounter and liberatebecause of social, economic, or legal concentration camp prisoners, aspressure.4 well as prisoners en route by Transit camps were places to holdpeople until they could be shipped off to forced march from one camp toother camps such as execution or another. The marches continuedforced-labor camps. until May 7, 1945, the day the German armed forces surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. For the western Allies, World War II 2
  3. 3. JUDY FLORES MATERIALSofficially ended in Europe on the emigrated to Israel, includingnext day, May 8 (V-E Day), while 136,000 Jewish displaced personsSoviet forces announced their from Europe. Other Jewish DPs“Victory Day” on May 9, 1945. emigrated to the United States and other nations. The last DP camp8 Inthe aftermath of the closed in 1957. The crimesHolocaust, many of the survivors committed during the Holocaustfound shelter in displaced persons devastated most European Jewish(DP) camps administered by the communities and eliminatedAllied powers. Between 1948 and hundreds of Jewish communities1951, almost 700,000 Jews in occupied eastern Europe entirely.A. After Reading: Answer the Following Questions:1. When speaking about the "Holocaust," what time period are we referringto?2. What is the meaning of holocaust?3. Who are the Nazi and what were their believes?4. Name the groups involved in the holocaust.5. Why were the Jews singled out for extermination?6. How many Jews were able to escape from Europe prior to the Holocaust?7. What is death marches? The Thesis Statement is that sentence or two in your text that contains the focus of the story and tells the reader what the story is going to be aboutB. Finding the Thesis Statement:Write a sentence from the first paragraph that tells the reader what the storyis about.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3
  4. 4. JUDY FLORES MATERIALSC. Match: match column A with the correct answer in column B Column A Column B____1. grounds a. hunger____2. deemed b. main concern____3. Euthanasia c. dictatorship, oppression____4. Tyranny d. To provide a basis for (a theory, for example)____5. disabled e. relating to, or characteristic of race or races____6. starvation f. to establish as a objective or goal.____7. regime g. rules____8. racial h. Impaired, as in physical functioning____9. priority i. rebellious____10. targeted j. the intellectual elite of a society.____11. Intelligentsia k. think or believe____12. Dissidents l. ending the life of an individual suffering from a terminal illness or an incurable conditionD. Vocabulary Building: Read the word that is in bold or expression in itscontext and match it with the correct meaning. Use a dictionary ifnecessary____1. The Germans and their collaborators a. prisonercreated ghettos.____2. For non-Jews whose labor the b. an alliance of powers, such as nations, toGermans sought to exploit. promote mutual interests and policies.____3. The systematic, bureaucratic, state- c. way, roadsponsored persecution and murder ofapproximately six million Jews.____4. The Germans targeted the non-Jewish d. to take the greatest possible advantage, itPolish intelligentsia. could be in a job or intellectually.____5. The countries of many of its Axis allies e. a section of a city occupied by a minorityto ghettos and to killing centers, often called group who live there especially because of 4
  5. 5. JUDY FLORES MATERIALSextermination camps. social, economic, or legal pressure____6. SS guards moved camp inmates by f. harassment, maltreatmenttrain or on forced marches.____7. Concentration camp prisoners, as well g. intense hate or prisoners en route by forced march fromone camp to another.____8. Police officials incarcerated Jews, h. supportRoma, and other victims of ethnic and racialhatred in these camps.____9. The crimes committed during the i. An official who is rigidly devoted to theHolocaust devastated most European Jewish. details of administrative procedure____10. The Holocaust was the systematic, j. terrible, awfulbureaucratic, state-supported by abuse andmurder of approximately six million Jews ____11. My brother asked me to sponsor him; k. to overwhelmhes running a marathon for the charity childrenin need.____12. Most Jews worked and often died l. the intellectual elite of a society.under deplorable conditions.E. Cognates are words that have similar pronunciations and spellings inboth languages (English and Spanish), and frequently have the samemeaning. There are thousands of cognates shared by English and Spanish.Many of these are words with Latin or Greek origins and words that haveprefixes and suffixes derived from these ancient languagesExample: Destruction (English) Destrucción (Spanish)Look back at the stories and find 10 words that have similar meaning inSpanish1. ______________________6._______________________2._______________________7._______________________ 5
  6. 6. JUDY FLORES MATERIALS3._______________________8._______________________4________________________9._______________________5________________________10.______________________ 6
  7. 7. JUDY FLORES MATERIALSF. Scramble words: Look back at the vocabulary words and write downthe correct form.Unscramble each of the clue words.Take the letters that appear in boxes and unscramble them for the final 7
  8. 8. JUDY FLORES MATERIALSmessage. Clue for the phrase: look back at the text. It is the meaning of animportant word in the text.Until recently, the story of the children of the Holocaust was rarely told.Here are accounts of the the war-time experiences of three child survivors:5-year-old Lili, who was separated from her family and hidden in a convent;7-year-old Krystyna, who lived for 14 months in a sewer, never seeing thelight of day; and 14-year-old Alexander, who learned about death on afateful day in the ghetto. These survivors speak for their friends and siblings-- the one-and-a-half million children who were murdered during theHolocaust. Beyond Secret Tears I was 4 years old and my brother was 5-1/2 years old when we were first separated from our parents and placed in a Protestant orphanage in Belgium. I was a depressed and confused child, but with the passing of time, I began to believe that all children lived away from their parents. Krystynas Story When Daddy found out that there would be a liquidation of the Ghetto, we hid in the cellar. I was 7 years old then and I knew about everything. Later we headed for the sewer. It was very wet and dark. 8
  9. 9. JUDY FLORES MATERIALSMy First KaddishAt lunch time, I sat at the roadside with Willy, the otherJewish carpenter. A passing Ukrainian peasant warned,"They are killing the Jews in town. Why arent you boyshiding?" "Killing Jews? What are you saying?" I asked indisbelief. "Look, there," he said, "see for yourself." 9