The Woodwind Family• The woodwind family consists of piccolos, flutes,oboes, english horns, clarinets, bassoons, andsaxophones.• With the exception of the piccolo and flute, thesound is produced by a vibrating reed.• Different pitches are produced by opening andcovering holes along the instrument
The Brass Family• The brass family typically consists of trumpets, (french)horns, trombones, euphoniums, and tubas.• Sound is produced by forcing air through themouthpiece.• With the exception of the trombone, pitches are alteredby pressing or releasing valves.• All brass players also tighten or relax their lips to changepitch.
The Percussion Family• The percussion family contains the most instruments.Some of the standard instruments include the bassdrum, snare drum, timpani, bells, cymbals, and thetriangle.• Sound is produced by striking some part of theinstrument with a mallet, stick, or hands.• Not all percussion instruments can produce multiplepitches. In most cases the pitch of the instrument isdependent on the size of the instrument.
• The piccolo is the highestpitched instrument in theband.• The tuba is the lowestpitched instrumentcommonly found inbands.– The contrabassoon canactually produce lower tonesthan the tuba, but it is notcommonly found in bands.• The sound clip “shows”the difference in pitchbetween the piccolo andtuba. Listen carefully forthe tuba, it is particularlylow.
Sound Examples• Piccolo• Oboe• Clarinet• Bassoon• Saxophone• Flute• English HornCan you match the picture with the name/sound?
Sound Examples• French Horn• Trumpet• Tuba• Trombone• EuphoniumCan you match the picture with the name/sound?
How is the pitch of instrumentsdetermined?• As was mentioned earlier, the biggestdetermining factor in the pitch aninstrument produces is the size of theinstrument.• The distance that air travels in theinstrument also determines the pitch.
Generally…• The larger and longer an instrument is, thelower the pitch.• The smaller and shorter an instrument, thehigher the pitch.
One of the easiest ways to see thisis with the trombone.• The higher thenote is on thestaff, the higherthe pitch of thenote.• Notice how thetrombone slidegets longer asthe notes getlower?
Some things you can try on yourown:• Hold a rubber bandso that it is stretchedbetween two fingers.Pluck the rubberband.• Now, increase thedistance betweenyour fingers,stretching the rubberband. Pluck therubber band again.
• What do you noticeabout the sound?Does it sound loweror higher than before?• Try the same thingwith rubber bands ofdifferent widths. Whatdo you notice?
Music References• Beethoven, Ludwig Van. Horn Sonata, Op. 17. III. Allegro Moderato. Albert Linder, horn. Naxos: BIS-CD-47.Compact disc.• Donizetti, Gaetano. Concertino for Cor Anglais and Orchestra in G minor. Andante con Variationi. BudapestCamerata conducted by Laszlo Kovacs. Marco Polo: Donizetti: Instrumental Concertos. Compact disc.• Handel, George Frideric. Trumpet Concerto in D minor. II Furioso. Miroslav Kejmar, trumpet. Naxos: FamousTrumpet Concerti. Compact disc.• Holst, Gustav. Second Suite in F for Military Band. I. March, IV. Fantasia on the Dargason.. Edmonton WindEnsemble conducted by Harry Pinchin. CBC Records: Snake Fence Country. Compact disc.• Marcello, Benedetto. Cello Sonata in F major (arr. for tuba). II. Allegro. Michael Lind, tuba. Naxos: BIS-CD-95.Compact disc.• Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Bassoon Concerto in B flat major, K. 191. I. Allegro. Stephan Turnovsky, bassoon.Naxos: 8.550345. Compact disc.• Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Clarinet Concerto in A major, K. 622. III. Rondo: Allegro. Ernst Ottensamer, clarinet.Naxos: 8.550345. Compact disc.• Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Oboe Concerto in C major, K. 271k/ K. 314. I. Allegro aperto. Martin Gabriel, oboe.Naxos: 8.550345. Compact disc.• Taffanel, Paul. Fantasy on Der Freischutz. Robert Aitken, flute. Naxos: BIS-CD-166. Compact disc.• Tubin, Eduard. Alto Saxophone Sonata. III. Allegro vivace. Pekka Savijoki, alto saxophone. Compact disc.• Vivaldi, Antonio. Cello Sonata No. 1 in B flat major, RV 47 (arr. for trombone). IV. Allegro. Christer Torge,trombone. Naxos: BIS-CD-95. Compact disc.• Vivaldi, Antonio. Piccolo Concerto in C major, RV 445. Gunilla von Bahr, piccolo. Naxos: BIS-CD-21. Compact