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Ghettos, Death Squads and the Final Solution

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Ghettos, Death Squads and the Final Solution

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Ghettos, Death Squads and the Final Solution

  1. 1. Learning Objectives: • Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated? • Explain what was meant by the term ‘Final Solution’ and how was it organised? • Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp? • Evaluate whether the Final Solution was a success? Ghettos, Death Squads & The Final Solution
  2. 2. We should not forget! LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  3. 3. Starter: Persecution of the Jews In your group create a spider diagram on all the ways that the Jews had been persecuted up to 1939. Note down any key names, dates and events as you go.
  4. 4. The Jews 1940 - 1945 LO: Identify how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated? ‘The most horrible crime ever committed in the whole history of the world’ Who is this and what was he talking about? The Holocaust / Shoah
  5. 5. The Holocaust http://padlet.com/rossburrough/holocaust Write down as many things that you know about the Holocaust at this time on the Padlet page. This could be names, places, dates, events, etc. LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  6. 6. The Holocaust LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  7. 7. Escalating Persecution • The Nazis anti-Semitic ideas were clear in their 25 Point Programme. • Once Hitler took power in 1934, he began to act on his plans to eliminate Jews from German society. • As the Nazi dictatorship strengthened measures taken against the Jews would get more and more severe. • Ultimately they would solve the ‘Jewish problem’ with the ‘Final Solution’ LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  8. 8. • When Hitler seized power in 1933 he used his new powers under the ‘Enabling Law’ to begin his attack on the Jews. • In 1938, the Nazi attack on the Jews changed and became more violent with Himmler launching Kristallnacht on 11th November 1938. • By 1939, half of Germany’s 500,000 Jews had emigrated to escape Nazi persecution. Prelude to the Final Solution LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  9. 9. • In 1939, Germany invaded Poland which had a much larger population of 3 million Jews. • In 1941, Germany invaded Russia which had a population of 5 million Jews. Prelude to the Final Solution LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  10. 10. Change of Tactics: The Ghettos After the Second World War began in 1939, the Nazis swept across many countries in Eastern Europe. To deal with this problem the Nazi created ghettos, essentially sealing off entire cities by building walls around them. This was another way to kill off the Jews. The ghettos were crowded and thousands died of disease and starvation. The largest ghetto was the Warsaw Ghetto in Poland. LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  11. 11. Warsaw Ghetto LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  12. 12. The Warsaw Uprising : 1943 Overview : Jews fight back in the Warsaw Ghetto. Why: the Jews heard they were being taken away to death camps. Why: terrible conditions in the ghetto. What happened : 750 Jewish fighters fought the heavily armed and well-trained Germans. The ghetto fighters were able to hold out for nearly a month. Aftermath : The revolt was eventually crushed. 7,000 Jews were shot, and the rest were deported to camps. LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  13. 13. • With the invasion of Russia the treatment of Jews became worse. • Himmler sent four specially trained SS units called “Einsatzgruppen battalions” into German occupied territory and shot at least 1 million Jews. Change of Tactics: Einsatzgruppen LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  14. 14. Change of Tactics: Einsatzgruppen • Victims were taken to deserted areas where they were made to dig their own graves and shot. • When the SS ran out of bullets they sometimes killed their victims using flame throwers. LO: Describe how Nazi policies towards the Jews escalated?
  15. 15. • In January 1942, Himmler decided to change tactics once again and called a special conference at Wannsee. • At this conference it was decided that the existing methods were too inefficient and that a new ‘Final Solution’ was necessary. The ‘Final Solution’ LO: Explain what was meant by the term ‘Final Solution’ and how was it organised?
  16. 16. How was the Final Solution going to be organised? Shooting was too inefficient as the bullets were needed for the war effort Jews were to be rounded up and put into transit camps called Ghettoes The Jews living in these Ghettos were to be used as a cheap source of labour. Conditions in the Ghettos were designed to be so bad that many die whilst the rest would be willing to leave these areas in the hope of better conditions On arrival the Jews would go through a process called ‘selection.’ The remaining Jews were to be shipped to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. Women, children, the old & the sick were to be sent for ‘special treatment.’ The young and fit would go through a process called ‘destruction through work.’ Wannsee Conference LO: Explain what was meant by the term ‘Final Solution’ and how was it organised?
  17. 17. • At the Wannsee conference it was decided that if one of person’s parents was Jewish, then they were Jewish. • However, if only one of their grandparents had been Jewish then they could be classified as being German. • In 1940, all Jews had to have their passports stamped with the letter ‘J’ and had to wear the yellow Star of David on their jacket or coat. How did the Nazi decide who was Jewish? LO: Explain what was meant by the term ‘Final Solution’ and how was it organised?
  18. 18. Where were the Death Camps built? Camp Location Established Number Murdered (est.) Auschwitz Poland (near Krakow) May 1940 1,100,000 Belzec Belzec, Poland March 1942 600,000 Bergen-Belsen Germany (near Hanover) April 1943 35,000 Chelmno Chelmno, Poland Dec. 1941 320,000 Dachau Germany (near Munich) March 1933 32,000 Majdanek Lublin, Poland February 1943 360,000 Mauthausen Austria (near Linz) August 1938 120,000 Stutthof Poland (near Danzig) Sept. 1939 65,000 Treblinka Poland (near Warsaw) July 1942 n/a Westerbork Westerbork, Netherlands October 1939 n/a This chart lists just ten of more than two dozen known concentration and death camps created by the Nazis during the Holocaust. The chart lists the location of each camp, the date it was established, and the estimated number of people who were killed there. Use Google Maps to locate the below Death Camps on your blank map of Europe. LO: Explain what was meant by the term ‘Final Solution’ and how was it organised?
  19. 19. Why do you think that they located them here? The work of the Einsatzgruppen Where were the Death Camps built? LO: Explain what was meant by the term ‘Final Solution’ and how was it organised?
  20. 20. Tactics Starvation The Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto were only fed a 1000 calories a day . A Human being needs 2400 calories a day to maintain their weight Terror The SS publicly shot people for smuggling food or for any act of resistance Deception The Jews were told that they were going to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. In some Ghettos the Jews had to purchase their own train tickets. They were told to bring the tools of their trade and pots and pans. Hungry people are easier to control New arrivals at the Death camps were given postcards to send to their friends. What tactics did the Nazis use to get the Jews to leave the Ghettos? LO: Explain what was meant by the term ‘Final Solution’ and how was it organised?
  21. 21. • The SS guards who murdered the Jews were brainwashed with Anti-Semitic propaganda. • The Jews were transported in cattle cars in terrible conditions. • Naked, dirty and half starved people look like animals, which helped to reinforce the Nazi propaganda. • The SS used to train their new guards by encouraging them to set fire to a pit full of live victims – usually children. SS Tactics: Dehumanisation LO: Explain what was meant by the term ‘Final Solution’ and how was it organised?
  22. 22. SS Tactics: Dehumanisation LO: Explain what was meant by the term ‘Final Solution’ and how was it organised? The child below is about your age. Go to the website below and spend 10 minutes reading some of the profiles about children of the Holocaust. www.graceproducts.com/fmnc/main.htm
  23. 23. Deception & Selection At Auschwitz the trains pulled into a mock up of a normal station. The Jews were helped off the cattle trucks by Jews who were specially selected to help the Nazis At some death camps the Nazis would play records of classical music to help calm down the new arrivals. At Auschwitz the new arrivals were calmed down by a Jewish orchestra playing classical music. All new arrivals went through a process known as ‘selection.’ Mothers, children, the old & sick were sent straight to the ‘showers’ which were really the gas chambers. The able bodied were sent to work camp were they were killed through a process known as ‘destruction through work.’ Tactics: What happened to new arrivals? LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp? Read Source 3 on Pg.157
  24. 24. Notice how it has been built to resemble a railway station Entrance to Auschwitz LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  25. 25. Auschwitz Orchestra LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  26. 26. New Arrivals ‘Destruction Through Work’ ‘Showers’ Map of Auschwitz LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  27. 27. Notice how the Death camp is set out like a factory complex The Nazis used industrial methods to murder the Jews and process their dead bodies Auschwitz from the air LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  28. 28. • The Nazis would force large groups of prisoners into small cement rooms and drop canisters of Zyklon B, or prussic acid, in its crystal form through small holes in the roof. • These gas chambers were sometimes disguised as showers or bathing houses. The SS would try and pack up to 2000 people into this gas chamber The Gas Chambers LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  29. 29. Notice the Ovens easy located near the Gas Chambers The outside of the Gas Chamber LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  30. 30. • Specially selected Jews known as the Sonderkommando were used to remove the gold fillings and hair of people who had been gassed. • The Sonderkommando Jews were also forced to feed the dead bodies into the crematorium. Processing the bodies LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  31. 31. The Ovens at Dachau LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  32. 32. Dead bodies waiting to be processed LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  33. 33. Taken inside a huge glass case in the Auschwitz Museum. This represents one day's collection at the peak of the gassings, about twenty five thousand pairs. Shoes waiting to be processed by the sonderkommando LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  34. 34. This photo was taken by the Nazis to show just how you could quite literally work the fat of the Jews by feeding them 200 calories a day Destruction Through Work LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  35. 35. Same group of Jews 6 weeks later Destruction Through Work LO: Analyse the events of a Nazi Death Camp?
  36. 36. • The Nazis aimed to kill 11 million Jews at the Wannsee Conference in 1941 • Today there are only 2000 Jews living in Poland. • The Nazis managed to kill at least 6 million Jews. • Men like Schindler helped Jews escape the Final Solution. • Not all Jews went quietly into the gas cambers. • In 1943, the Warsaw Ghetto, like many others revolted against the Nazis when the Jews realised what was really happening. Was the Final Solution successful? LO: Evaluate whether the Final Solution was a success?
  37. 37. Why should we remember? LO: Evaluate whether the Final Solution was a success?

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