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Nick gandelanah holocaustresistancemovements


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Nick gandelanah holocaustresistancemovements

  1. 1. HolocausHolocausttResistancResistanceeMovementMovementHolocausHolocausttResistancResistanceeMovementMovementBy Nick G and Elana hHGHS ChappaquaNY—ms PojerwxyBy Nick G and Elana hHGHS ChappaquaNY—ms Pojerwxy
  2. 2. Essential QuestionEssential QuestionWhat were the holocaustWhat were the holocaustresistance movements andresistance movements andto what extent did theyto what extent did theyhelp save lives?help save lives?
  3. 3. ReligiousReligiousInstitutioInstitutionsns
  4. 4. POPE PIUSPOPE PIUSXIIXII Began indifferentBegan indifferentand unhelpfuland unhelpfultowardstowardsthe Jewsthe Jews ExtremelyExtremelyinfluentialinfluentialHe could influenceHe could influenceabout 400 millionabout 400 millionCatholicsCatholics Spoke out againstSpoke out againstItalian racial lawsItalian racial lawspreventing mixedpreventing mixedmarriagesmarriages Did not condemnDid not condemnKristallnachtKristallnacht
  5. 5. Concordat with HitlerConcordat with Hitler 1933 Pope Pius signed a concordat1933 Pope Pius signed a concordatwith Adolf Hitlerwith Adolf Hitler Allowed Catholics to practiceAllowed Catholics to practicefreely in Germanyfreely in Germany Separated religion and politicsSeparated religion and politics It weakened the Catholic CenterIt weakened the Catholic CenterParty in Germany, giving Hitler aParty in Germany, giving Hitler apolitical advantage over thempolitical advantage over them
  6. 6. POPE PIUS XIIPOPE PIUS XII March 1939 Pope Pius XII issuedMarch 1939 Pope Pius XII issued3,000 visas to European Jews3,000 visas to European Jewsallowing them to flee persecutionallowing them to flee persecution When asked to publicly condemnWhen asked to publicly condemnthe death camps, Pope Pius XIIthe death camps, Pope Pius XIIrefused, wanting to remain neutralrefused, wanting to remain neutral He did however privately tellHe did however privately tellCatholic institutions to hide JewsCatholic institutions to hide Jews
  7. 7. POPE PIUS XIIPOPE PIUS XII Lent money to help the JewsLent money to help the Jews Protested in 1944 when GermanyProtested in 1944 when Germanyinvaded Hungary and deportedinvaded Hungary and deportedJews from thereJews from there Transferred 6,000 JewishTransferred 6,000 JewishBulgarian kids to PalestineBulgarian kids to Palestine Warned the Allies about OperationWarned the Allies about OperationYellow to blow up the British NavyYellow to blow up the British Navy
  8. 8. Le Chambon-Sur-Le Chambon-Sur-LignonLignon Protestant village in SouthernProtestant village in SouthernFranceFrance Sheltered 5,000 JewsSheltered 5,000 Jews The town hid Jews for four yearsThe town hid Jews for four years
  9. 9.  They gave the Jews fake IDsThey gave the Jews fake IDsand ration cardsand ration cards The town educated the JewishThe town educated the Jewishchildrenchildren Not one Jew hid in the town wasNot one Jew hid in the town wastaken by Nazistaken by Nazis The Jews were taken from LeThe Jews were taken from LeChambon, through French townsChambon, through French townsand villages, to the Swiss borderand villages, to the Swiss borderto safetyto safetyLe Chambon-Sur-Le Chambon-Sur-LignonLignon
  10. 10. ANDRE TROCMEANDRE TROCME Pastor of Le Chambon-Sur-LignonPastor of Le Chambon-Sur-Lignon Trocmé hid the first Jew andTrocmé hid the first Jew andencouraged the town to aid theencouraged the town to aid theJews as wellJews as well The Reformed Church askedThe Reformed Church askedTrocmé to stop aiding Jews butTrocmé to stop aiding Jews buthe refusedhe refused Vichy government then requestedVichy government then requestedTrocmé and his followers to stopTrocmé and his followers to stopbut they also refusedbut they also refused
  11. 11. These people came here for help andThese people came here for help andfor shelter. I am their shepherd. Afor shelter. I am their shepherd. Ashepherd does not forsake his flock.shepherd does not forsake his flock.--Andre TrocméAndre Trocmé
  12. 12. Le Chambon-sur-Le Chambon-sur-lignonlignon In 1942 the Vichy governmentIn 1942 the Vichy governmentarrived in Le Chambon with a list ofarrived in Le Chambon with a list ofJewsJews Trocmé and the villagers refused toTrocmé and the villagers refused togive the government any of the Jewsgive the government any of the Jewson the liston the list Trocmé and the villagers were laterTrocmé and the villagers were laterarrested but released two weeksarrested but released two weeksafterwardsafterwards After this incident Trocmé wasAfter this incident Trocmé wasforced into hidingforced into hiding
  13. 13. ZegotaZegota
  14. 14. ZEGOTAZEGOTA Created after German invasion ofCreated after German invasion ofPolandPoland Helped Jews in occupied Poland fromHelped Jews in occupied Poland from1942-19451942-1945 Founded by people of differentFounded by people of differentbackgroundsbackgrounds Saved Jews from the GhettosSaved Jews from the Ghettos Funded by the Polish governmentFunded by the Polish governmentthat was in exilethat was in exile
  15. 15. ZEGOTAZEGOTA Provided Jews with money, medicalProvided Jews with money, medicalattention, forged documents andattention, forged documents andfoster homes for Jewish childrenfoster homes for Jewish children Priest assisted Zegota by givingPriest assisted Zegota by givingbirth certificatesbirth certificates July 1943 Children’s Bureau wasJuly 1943 Children’s Bureau wasestablishedestablished Zegota relocated to MilanowekZegota relocated to Milanowekafter Warsaw Ghetto Uprisingafter Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Saved an estimated 400,000-Saved an estimated 400,000-500,000 Jews500,000 Jews
  16. 16. JULIAN GROBELNYJULIAN GROBELNY Alias was “Alias was “TrojanTrojan”” Part of the Polish Socialist PartyPart of the Polish Socialist Party Elected head of ZegotaElected head of Zegota Hid the Jews in the most dangerHid the Jews in the most dangerin his own homein his own home Hid Jewish children in differentHid Jewish children in differentinstitutionsinstitutions Worked closely with Irena SendlerWorked closely with Irena Sendler
  17. 17. IRENA SENDLERIRENA SENDLERI was taughtI was taughtthat if a man isthat if a man isdrowning, it isdrowning, it isirrelevant whatirrelevant whatis his religion oris his religion ornationality. Onenationality. Onemust help him.must help him.It is a need ofIt is a need ofthe heart.the heart.- Irena Sendler- Irena Sendler
  18. 18. IRENA SENDLERIRENA SENDLER Head of the children’s branch ofHead of the children’s branch ofZegotaZegota Rescued 2,500 Jewish childrenRescued 2,500 Jewish childrenfrom the Warsaw Ghettofrom the Warsaw Ghetto Alias was “Alias was “JolantaJolanta”” After she rescued the children sheAfter she rescued the children shetaught them Christian traditionstaught them Christian traditionsand behaviorsand behaviors She recorded the identity of everyShe recorded the identity of everyJewish child she savedJewish child she saved
  19. 19. IRENA SENDLERIRENA SENDLER October 20, 1943 Irena wasOctober 20, 1943 Irena wasarrestedarrested Taken to Pawiak prisonTaken to Pawiak prison She was tortured and thenShe was tortured and thensentenced to deathsentenced to death She however was not killed andShe however was not killed andwent into hidingwent into hiding
  20. 20. TADEUSZ REKTADEUSZ REK Lawyer who represented theLawyer who represented thePolish Popular Party in WarsawPolish Popular Party in Warsaw Joined Zegota in 1943 andJoined Zegota in 1943 andbecame the Vice Presidentbecame the Vice President He let many Jews stayHe let many Jews staytemporarily at his hometemporarily at his home His apartment was a frequentHis apartment was a frequentZegota meeting placeZegota meeting place
  21. 21. TADEUSZ REKTADEUSZ REK He gave various forms of aid toHe gave various forms of aid tobetween 40,000 and 50,000 Jewsbetween 40,000 and 50,000 Jews His wife encouraged family andHis wife encouraged family andfriends to take in Jews and keepfriends to take in Jews and keepthem secretly at their homesthem secretly at their homes Arrested and sent to PawiakArrested and sent to Pawiakprisonprison Then he was sent to AuschwitzThen he was sent to Auschwitz
  22. 22. ZOFIA KOSSAKZOFIA KOSSAK Before the war Zofia was anti-Before the war Zofia was anti-SemiticSemitic She joined Zegota because sheShe joined Zegota because shewas patriotic towards Polandwas patriotic towards Poland Her codename was “Her codename was “WeronikaWeronika”” She wrote “Protest”, a leafletShe wrote “Protest”, a leafletdefying the Nazis and the currentdefying the Nazis and the currentgovernment in Polandgovernment in PolandWhoever remains silent in theWhoever remains silent in theface of murder becomes anface of murder becomes anaccomplice of the murder. Heaccomplice of the murder. Hewho does not condemn,who does not condemn,condonescondones..–Zofia Kossak–Zofia Kossak
  23. 23. ADOLF BERMANADOLF BERMAN In 1939 he was the director ofIn 1939 he was the director ofthe Warsaw branch of thethe Warsaw branch of theFederation of Associations forFederation of Associations forthe Care of Orphansthe Care of Orphans He then found the AntifascistHe then found the AntifascistBloc which later became theBloc which later became theJewish Fighting OrganizationJewish Fighting Organization(ZOB)(ZOB) Berman was able to move out ofBerman was able to move out ofthe Warsaw Ghetto and pass asthe Warsaw Ghetto and pass asan Aryan Polean Aryan Pole
  24. 24. ADOLF BERMANADOLF BERMAN Berman was the secretary ofBerman was the secretary ofZegotaZegota He was a representative to theHe was a representative to theJewish National CommitteeJewish National Committee Berman was able to preserveBerman was able to preserverecords from the Warsaw Ghettorecords from the Warsaw Ghetto Berman involved Irena SendlerBerman involved Irena Sendlerwith Zegota by asking for herwith Zegota by asking for herhelp to save the childrenhelp to save the children January 1944 captured by theJanuary 1944 captured by thePoles but was later freedPoles but was later freed
  25. 25. REDINANDREDINANDARCZYNSKIARCZYNSKI He was a founding member ofHe was a founding member ofZegotaZegota His alias was “His alias was “MarekMarek”” He was the Zegota treasurerHe was the Zegota treasurerand the head of theand the head of thelegislative bureaulegislative bureau He brought a lot of theHe brought a lot of thepeople who harmed Jews topeople who harmed Jews tojusticejustice
  26. 26. REDINANDREDINANDARCZYNSKIARCZYNSKI Gave Jews help in various formsGave Jews help in various formssuch as shelter, medical care,such as shelter, medical care,and moneyand money He smuggled food and clothesHe smuggled food and clothesinto the ghettosinto the ghettos He also played a large part inHe also played a large part inthe founding of the Lvov andthe founding of the Lvov andCracow branches of ZegotaCracow branches of Zegota
  27. 27. WladyslawWladyslawBartoszewskiBartoszewski Born 1922 inBorn 1922 inWarsaw,Warsaw,PolandPoland FromFromSeptemberSeptember1940- April1940- April1941 he was in1941 he was inAuschwitzAuschwitz
  28. 28. WladyslawWladyslawBartoszewskiBartoszewski Co-founder of ZegotaCo-founder of Zegota He also worked with theHe also worked with theCatholic underground,Catholic underground,specifically with the FOP fromspecifically with the FOP from1942 to 19441942 to 1944 Received the Righteous AmongReceived the Righteous Amongthe Nations Awardthe Nations Award
  29. 29. GermanGermanResistancResistancee
  30. 30. OSKAR SCHINDLEROSKAR SCHINDLER German man, born in Austria-German man, born in Austria-HungaryHungary Generally a “sinful” manGenerally a “sinful” man Participated in black marketParticipated in black markettrading and was able to get his owntrading and was able to get his ownfactory of Jewish workers throughfactory of Jewish workers throughhis friendshis friends Numerous Jews invested in hisNumerous Jews invested in hisfactory in return for safety andfactory in return for safety andworkwork
  31. 31. OSKAR SCHINDLEROSKAR SCHINDLER His factory, where many JewsHis factory, where many Jewsworked was described as anworked was described as an“Oasis of humanity in a desert of“Oasis of humanity in a desert ofmoral torpor”moral torpor” In his factory, they madeIn his factory, they madedefective bullets and other wardefective bullets and other warmaterial for the German armymaterial for the German army He moved the factory to theHe moved the factory to theSudetenland to keep the JewsSudetenland to keep the Jewsworking there saferworking there safer
  33. 33. OSKAROSKARSCHINDLERSCHINDLERA survivor stated: I dont knowwhat his motives were... But Idont give a damn. Whatsimportant is that he saved ourlives.Schindler answered this questionSchindler answered this questionhowever after the war:however after the war:If you saw a dog going tobe crushed under a car,wouldnt you help him?
  34. 34. KARL PLAGGEKARL PLAGGE Major inMajor inGerman armyGerman army Member of NaziMember of Nazipartyparty WWI veteranWWI veteran At first heAt first heagreed withagreed withHitler’s ideasHitler’s ideas
  35. 35. KARL PLAGGEKARL PLAGGE He took 1,200 Jews away fromHe took 1,200 Jews away fromthe mass-killing areas and usedthe mass-killing areas and usedthem for forced labor at his ownthem for forced labor at his owncampcamp Since he took them from theSince he took them from theghettos, they were less likely toghettos, they were less likely tobe moved to death campsbe moved to death camps Took over 1,000 families fromTook over 1,000 families fromthe Wilna Ghetto (which was soonthe Wilna Ghetto (which was soonafter liquidated) to his camp, HKPafter liquidated) to his camp, HKP
  36. 36. KARL PLAGGEKARL PLAGGE He gave the Jews work permitsHe gave the Jews work permitsthat protected them from the SSthat protected them from the SS However, when Plagge was onHowever, when Plagge was onleave, the Gestapo came into theleave, the Gestapo came into thecamp and killed all of the childrencamp and killed all of the children He was then told by the SS thatHe was then told by the SS thathe had to relocate his camp andhe had to relocate his camp andthat he couldn’t take the “skilledthat he couldn’t take the “skilledworkers” with himworkers” with him
  37. 37. KARL PLAGGEKARL PLAGGE When he was forced to beWhen he was forced to berelocated, he had time to warnrelocated, he had time to warnall the Jews at his campall the Jews at his camp The Jews were able to hide inThe Jews were able to hide invarious places and many of themvarious places and many of themsurvivedsurvived
  38. 38. HelpHelpFromFromAsiaAsia
  39. 39. CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA Chiune Sugihara was the JapaneseChiune Sugihara was the Japaneseconsul in Kaunas, Lithuania inconsul in Kaunas, Lithuania inMarch 1939March 1939 He saved more than 6,000 Jews –He saved more than 6,000 Jews –the second most saved during thethe second most saved during theholocaustholocaust Many Polish refugees had fled intoMany Polish refugees had fled intoLithuania after the GermanLithuania after the Germaninvasioninvasion Germany invaded Lithuania onGermany invaded Lithuania on6/15/406/15/40
  40. 40. CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA After Germany invaded bothAfter Germany invaded bothLithuania and Poland, the SovietLithuania and Poland, the SovietUnion said that they would let theUnion said that they would let theJews pass through if they couldJews pass through if they couldobtain certain travel documentsobtain certain travel documents In July 1940 all foreign embassiesIn July 1940 all foreign embassieshad to leave Lithuania but thehad to leave Lithuania but theDutch and Japanese consul gotDutch and Japanese consul gotextensionsextensions Two Dutch Caribbean Islands didn’tTwo Dutch Caribbean Islands didn’trequire formal entrance passesrequire formal entrance passes
  41. 41. CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA Thousands of Jews went to theThousands of Jews went to theJapanese consul asking for theJapanese consul asking for theJapanese transit visasJapanese transit visas Sugihara wired back to theSugihara wired back to thegovernment in Japan forgovernment in Japan forpermission to sign these visaspermission to sign these visas Three times they refused toThree times they refused togive him permissiongive him permission He disobeyed them and fromHe disobeyed them and from7/31/40 – 8/28/40 he signed7/31/40 – 8/28/40 he signed300 visas a day300 visas a day
  42. 42. Visa issued ByVisa issued ByChiune SugiharaChiune Sugihara
  43. 43. CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA On 9/1/40 his extension was upOn 9/1/40 his extension was upand he had to leave the countryand he had to leave the country Even as his train was pulling awayEven as his train was pulling awayhe still signed the visas throughhe still signed the visas throughthe windowthe window He then gave the stamper forHe then gave the stamper forthe passports to a Jew who thenthe passports to a Jew who thensigned and stamped many othersigned and stamped many otherpassportspassports
  44. 44. CHIUNE SUGIHARACHIUNE SUGIHARA The Jews who were able to getThe Jews who were able to getthe passports made their waythe passports made their wayvia trains through Russia andvia trains through Russia andJapan and arrived safely at theJapan and arrived safely at theDutch IslandsDutch Islands Despite his disobedience, theDespite his disobedience, theJapanese government still usedJapanese government still usedSugihara for the remainder ofSugihara for the remainder ofthe war but then dismissed himthe war but then dismissed himafterwardsafterwards
  45. 45. FENG SHAN HOFENG SHAN HO Issued visas toIssued visas toShanghai toShanghai toJews fromJews fromAustriaAustria Feng-Shan HoFeng-Shan Howas one of thewas one of thefirst diplomatsfirst diplomatsto help Jewsto help Jews Saved thousands of Jews fromSaved thousands of Jews from1938-19391938-1939
  46. 46. Visas Issued by FengVisas Issued by FengShan HoShan Ho
  47. 47. PAN JUN SHUNPAN JUN SHUN Took care of Ludmilla, a JewishTook care of Ludmilla, a Jewishchild who escaped while beingchild who escaped while beingtransported to a death camptransported to a death camp Alexandra and Mitrofan BabaevaAlexandra and Mitrofan Babaevaand Nadezhada helped in raisingand Nadezhada helped in raisingthe childthe child Continued to care for the girl evenContinued to care for the girl evenafter the warafter the war Was the first Chinese man toWas the first Chinese man toreceive the title Righteous Amongreceive the title Righteous Amongthe Nationsthe Nations
  48. 48. WarsawWarsawGhettoGhettoResistancResistanc
  49. 49. THE ZOBTHE ZOB Stood forStood for Zydowska OrganizacjaZydowska OrganizacjaBojowaBojowa Led by Mordecai AnielewiczLed by Mordecai Anielewicz Created October 1942 at aCreated October 1942 at aHa-Shomer Club meetingHa-Shomer Club meeting Made by occupants of the WarsawMade by occupants of the WarsawGhettoGhetto
  50. 50. GOALS OF THE ZOBGOALS OF THE ZOB1)1) To defend the Warsaw GhettoTo defend the Warsaw Ghetto2)2) To teach a lesson to the JewishTo teach a lesson to the Jewishpolice, the “shops,” thepolice, the “shops,” theWerkschutz and all informersWerkschutz and all informers3)3) To stop the deportation andTo stop the deportation andliquidation of the Jewish residentsliquidation of the Jewish residentsof the Warsaw Ghettoof the Warsaw Ghetto
  52. 52. MORDECAIMORDECAIANIELEWICZANIELEWICZ In 1942 he organized a fightingIn 1942 he organized a fightingunitunit January 1943 the Nazis roundedJanuary 1943 the Nazis roundedup a group of Jews to send toup a group of Jews to send tothe death campsthe death camps Mordecai and his fellow fightersMordecai and his fellow fightersattacked the Nazisattacked the Nazis
  53. 53. Warsaw GhettoWarsaw Ghettouprisinguprising--AprilApril 19,19,19431943 Nazis reported to headquarters:Nazis reported to headquarters:The Jewish resistance wasThe Jewish resistance wasunexpected, unusually strong, and aunexpected, unusually strong, and agreat surprise.great surprise. May 8May 8thththe Germans found the mainthe Germans found the mainbunker where the fighters werebunker where the fighters werehidinghiding The Nazis killed the Jews inside,The Nazis killed the Jews inside,including Mordecaiincluding Mordecai
  54. 54. ADAMADAMCZERNIAKOWCZERNIAKOW Spoke against the 1927 Guild LawSpoke against the 1927 Guild Law Represented Jewish artisans toRepresented Jewish artisans tothe Warsaw Municipal Councilthe Warsaw Municipal Council In the Warsaw Ghetto theIn the Warsaw Ghetto theGestapo appointed him “Gestapo appointed him “PresidentPresidentof the Jewish Religious Communityof the Jewish Religious Communityof Warsawof Warsaw”” Spoke avidly to the GermanSpoke avidly to the Germanofficers trying to convince themofficers trying to convince themnot to kill the Jewsnot to kill the Jews
  55. 55. YITZHAKYITZHAKZUCKERMANZUCKERMAN Born in Vilna,Born in Vilna,Lithuania inLithuania in19151915 1936 worked as1936 worked aspart of Zionistpart of ZionistYouth MovementYouth Movementin Warsaw,in Warsaw,PolandPoland
  56. 56. YITZHAKYITZHAKZUCKERMANZUCKERMAN He returned to Poland in 1940He returned to Poland in 1940 Promoted resistance to the NazisPromoted resistance to the Nazis December 22, 1942 participated inDecember 22, 1942 participated inattack against a Café in Cracowattack against a Café in Cracow Fought with Mordecai AnielewiczFought with Mordecai Anielewiczduring the Warsaw Ghetto Uprisingduring the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising August 1944 fought in the PolishAugust 1944 fought in the PolishUprisingUprising
  57. 57. 11,000,00011,000,000 murderedmurdered!!