Orlando Pool spa 2012 presentation

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Presentation given by Maris Jaunakais at t he 2012 Orlando Pool and Spa Show

Presentation given by Maris Jaunakais at t he 2012 Orlando Pool and Spa Show

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  • 1. Water Balance & Healthy Pool Water Maris Jaunakais, Consultant Industrial Test Systems, Inc. Orlando Pool & Spa Show • February 25, 2012
  • 2. OVERVIEW
    • Water Balance for Healthy Pool Water
    • Parameters that affect Water Balance
    • Other considerations for Healthy Pool Water
    • Chlorination of Pools/Spas
    • Cyanuric Acid as Chlorine Stabilizer
    • Health Dept Guidelines for Public Pools
    • Testing – Best Practices
    • Test results of few public pools
  • 3. WATER BALANCE
    • Healthy Water = Balanced Water
    • For Balanced Water must consider 5 things (Components of Langelier Saturation Index)
        • pH
        • Total Alkalinity
        • Calcium Hardness
        • Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
        • Temperature
        •  
  • 4. HEALTHY POOL WATER
    • Start with Balanced Source Water but other chemicals introduced that affect pH, Total Alk, Ca Hardness, TDS:
    • Sanitizer / oxidizer used to disinfect affects pH
    • Chlorine Stabilizer such as Cyanuric acid
    • And chemicals needed to address other pool water problems, such as cloudy water, algae, mold, stains, etc.
    • Rain Water
  • 5. Why the Need for Balanced Pool Water
    • Protect bathers health – prevent transmission of infectious disease, prevent skin irritation, respiratory problems, eye irritation; etc.
    • Protect Pool or Spa & Equipment from corrosion and/or scale-formation, & discoloration
    • Minimize potential hazards from disinfection by-products.
    • Maintain compliance with Health Dept regulations
    • “ Majority of pool problems are caused by poor water quality”
  • 6. WATER BALANCE
    • Defined as water that will neither scale nor corrode pool or spa surfaces and/or equipment
    • Corrosion involves the dissolving or wearing-away of a material
    • Scale is the white deposit or precipitate that builds up on fixtures, surfaces, & equipment
    • Balanced water is non-irritating to eyes & skin of bathers, & allows sanitizer to work effectively.
  • 7. Sources of Chemicals in Pool Water
    • Chemicals used to treat source water, including disinfection by-products, such as lime & alkalis, phosphates and, for chlorine treated systems, monochloramines
    • Bather’s sweat, urine, dirt, lotions, sunscreen, cosmetics, soap residues, deodorant, hair spray, etc.
    • Items introduced from environment such as debris, dirt, leaves , vegetation, etc. that also contribute chemicals
    • Chemicals used to treat pool water - pH correction chemicals, sanitizers, oxidizers, stabilizer, chemicals for treating algae, mold, etc.
    • Disinfection by-products - trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorate, nitrogen trichloride, etc.
  • 8. WATER BALANCE - pH
    • pH is most important factor
    • Affects all other chemical / balance parameters
    • Determines acidity of water
    • Measured on a scale from 0-14
    • pH 7 is neutral
    • Below 7 is acidic (e.g. lemon juice)
    • Above 7 is basic or alkaline (e.g. baking soda)
  • 9. WATER BALANCE - pH
    • pH in the ideal range will be comfortable for human eye at 7.5
    • Pool water pH is acceptable from 7.2 - 7.8
    • Ideal pH range is 7.4 - 7.6
    • Testing should be done DAILY !
    • High pH reduces Chlorine ’s effectiveness
  • 10. WATER BALANCE - pH
  • 11.  
  • 12. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL)
    • Ability of water to resist a change in pH
    • “ Buffering capacity”
    • Sum of bicarbonates, carbonates, & hydroxide in water
    • Water with an appropriate amount of AL will resist wide & rapid fluctuations in pH (called pH bounce)
    • Proper AL stabilizes pH
    • Bicarbonate buffers essentially neutralize acids & alkaline before they can affect pH
  • 13. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL)
    • If AL is low, pH will be readily affected by anything introduced into pool
    • If AL is high, pH will be difficult to adjust (water will scale)
    • Total Alkalinity is key to water balance & it is recommended that it should be adjusted FIRST , even before pH
    • Addition of acid or alkaline to adjust pool or spa AL will change pH, and vice versa
  • 14. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL)
    • Low Alkalinity can cause:
    • Wide & rapid pH fluctuations
    • Corrosion of pool or spa & equipment
    • Skin / Eye Irritation
    • Cloudy water
    • Adding acid like Muriatic Acid will lower pH and AL
  • 15. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL)
    • Because different sanitizers have different pHs, particular sanitizer used affects Alkalinity
    • Ideal level is 80-100 ppm with sanitizers like Sodium, Calcium, or Lithium Hypochlorite
    • Ideal level is 100-120 ppm with sanitizers like Dichlor, Trichlor, Bromine, or Chlorine Gas
    • NOTE: Parts per million ( ppm ) is equivalent to milligrams per liter ( mg/L ).
  • 16. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA)
    • Defined as the amount of Calcium Salts in water (reported as Calcium Carbonate)
    • Term Calcium Hardness used because hardness in tap water is due to Calcium
    • Magnesium, barium & sulfate also can contribute to Hardness
    • Source water used to fill pool will vary in its calcium content depending on region of country & whether city or well water
    • Ideal range is 200-400 ppm
  • 17. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA)
  • 18. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA)
    • Should be tested regularly
    • Pool & spa water must have a certain amount of Calcium
    • Calcium Hardness, when outside optimal range, can either allow corrosion to occur or cause scaling
    • Make-up water with high calcium is “ hard water ”
    • Make-up water with low calcium is “ soft water ”
    • Low water hardness allows corrosion or pitting of calcium rich surfaces such as concrete, plaster, & grout
  • 19. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS)
    • TDS is the total of all dissolved material in water
    • TDS value is contributed & influenced by ions of calcium, magnesium, sulfate, chloride, sodium, potassium, phosphate, nitrate, & all other ions; Alkalinity; Cyanuric Acid; & other chemicals present in water
    • If it is dissolved in the water, it is part of TDS.
  • 20.  
  • 21. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS)
    • High TDS levels may increase undesirable events:
      • Algae growth despite adequate sanitizer
      • Corrosion despite water being otherwise balanced
      • Cloudy water despite adequate filtration
      • Eye & skin irritation
      • Deposits on pool wall
  • 22. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS)
    • Over time, TDS will increase in a pool
    • TDS may actually double in a year
    • Why? - chemicals are added, debris & dirt blow or wash in, & water evaporation
    • If TDS exceeds 1500 ppm of initial level, drain & replace at least some of water
    • TDS maximum 3000 ppm ??
  • 23. TEMPERATURE
    • Temperature is important water balance factor but difficult to control
    • Pool water is usually held at between 78-82◦ F.
    • Spa water is held much higher at from 96-104◦ F
  • 24. SANITIZER AND DISINFECTANTS
    • A disinfectant kills disease-causing organisms
    • A sanitizer kills all microorganisms with impunity, (USA EPA 99.9% effective) i.e. , chlorine
    • Oxidation refers to the “chemical reaction” that organic contaminants or waste products undergo
    • Because pool environment is constantly exposed to new contaminants, two important considerations:
        • Sanitize water to kill microorganisms
        • Oxidize organic contaminants
  • 25. CHLORINE
    • Chlorine is most popular sanitizer, disinfectant, algae killer, & oxidizer in the world
    • Inexpensive, safe when used properly, & effective.
    • In a pool or a spa, chlorine pulls double-duty as a sanitizer & oxidizer
    • Chlorine is most effective under certain conditions. The pH is most important factor & must be in optimal range in order for chlorine to be effective
  • 26. pH VERSUS CHLORINE SPECIES
  • 27. CHLORINE
    • Effective against a broad range of microorganisms
    • More than 79,000 tons per year are used in United States & Canada to treat water
    • Monitoring chlorine concentrations is very important
    • Used in pools to protect bathers health, water clarity & equipment
    • Several pathogens can be transmitted in water
    • Inactivation of pathogens depends on contact time
    • In USA Health Departments require public pools to
    • be routinely tested for chlorine concentration
  • 28. GERM INACTIVATION TIME IN 1 ppm CHLORINATED WATER
    • pH 7.5, 77 F
    GERM INACTIVATION TIME E. Coli O157:H7 Bacterium Less than 1 minute Hepatitis A Virus About 16 minutes Giardia Parasite About 45 minutes Cryptosporidium Parasite About 15300 minutes (10.6 days)
  • 29. SOURCES OF CHLORINE Chemical Name Chemical Formula Form % Chlorine Chlorine Gas Cl 2 Gas 100% Calcium Hypochlorite Ca(OCl) 2 Solid 65-70% Sodium Hypochlorite NaOCl Liquid ~12%
  • 30. ABOUT SOURCES OF CHLORINE
    • Despite their chemical & physical differences they all form hypochlorous acid
    • This change occurs when added to water
    • Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the effective disinfecting agent
  • 31. CHLORINE REACTION
    • Second chlorine reaction is with ammonia (NH 3 ) & organic nitrogen compounds such as proteins & amino acids in the pool
    • A series of reactions occur that form chloramines
    • Chloramines are less effective disinfectants
    • Active chlorine can be transferred from inorganic chloramine to amine (organic) containing compounds
  • 32. CYANURIC ACID
    • Stabilizer of choice for use in chlorinated swimming pools & spas
    • Bonds with chlorine protecting it from destruction by sun ’s ultraviolet rays
    • Used in Outdoor Pools Only
    • Reduces amount of chlorine needed to maintain chlorine residual in outdoor pools
    • No know toxicity
    • Does not stabilize Bromine
  • 33.  
  • 34. CYANURIC ACID
    • Cyanuric Acid increases alkalinity
    • Provides buffer capacity
    • Contributes to the overall Alkalinity measured level of pool water
    • Does not provide corrosion protection
  • 35. CYANURIC ACID
    • Forms weak reversible bond with Free Available Chlorine
    • Does not affect DPD Test for Free CL
    • Degree to which Cyanuric Acid complexes with Free Chlorine is affected by
      • pH
      • Concentration Free CL
      • Concentration Cyanuric Acid
  • 36. CYANURIC ACID
    • Effective Concentration reported to be
    • 8 – 10 times Free Cl concentration
    • Amount CYA required to stabilize Free Cl
    • 10 ppm CYA - 1.5 ppm Free Cl
    • 25 ppm CYA - 3.0 ppm Free CL
    • 40 ppm CYA - 5.0 ppm Free Cl
    • 50 ppm CYA - 6.0 ppm Free CL
  • 37. CYANURIC ACID
    • Cyanuric Acid Levels in USA
    •   One Study 20 Years ago reported:
    • Average concentration – 75.9 ppm
    • Median concentration – 57.5 ppm
    • Maximum concentration – 406 ppm
    • Another study reported 25% (122 of 486) pools had more than 100 ppm
  • 38. CYANURIC ACID
    • Latest information suggests optimal range for cyanuric acid is 30 - 50 ppm
    • Levels above 50 ppm have been shown to reduce chlorine effectiveness
    • In USA Health Departments will close pools above 100 ppm
    • When used, maintain chlorine at no less than 1- 2 ppm
    • To reduce cyanuric acid levels, partially drain pool & refill
  • 39.  
  • 40. TESTING IS IMPORTANT
    • Pools and Spas must be maintained in a conscientious way
    • Primarily for the safety of bathers
    • Liability
    • Good testing practices reap financial rewards
    • “ Majority of pool problems are caused by poor water quality”
  • 41. STATE OF FLORIDA State Pool & Spa Regulation
    • Rule: 64E-9.004
      • Effective Date: 5/24/2009
      • Rule Title: Operational Requirements
        • Department: DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
        • Division: Division of Environmental Health
        • Chapter: PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS & BATHING
            • PLACES
      • Found online – website
    • http://www.flrules.org/gateway/ruleno.asp?id=64E-9.004&Section=0
  • 42.
    • Water Quality (Public Pools)
    • Source Water must meet FL Water Quality Standards
    • Clarity (1) 0.5 or less NTU, & (2) main drain gate readily visible from pool side
    • Quality of chemicals used to treat pool water – (1) tested & approved using National Sanitation Foundation (NSF-ANSI) Std. 60-2005, 1996a 1997, & (2) compatible with other pool chemicals
    • Bacteriological quality ( free of coliform)
    STATE OF FLORIDA 64E-9.004 Operational Requirements
  • 43.
    • Must Maintain Public Pool Water:
    • pH: 7.2 to 7.8
    • Free Cl: 1 - 10 ppm (Swimming Pool)
    • 2 - 10 ppm (Other type Pools, i.e. Spa)
    • - 5 ppm (Max. Indoor Pools)
    • Bromine: 1.5 - 10 ppm (Swimming Pool)
    • 3 - 10 ppm (Other type Pools, i.e. Spa) - 6 ppm (Max. Indoor Pools)
    • Cyanuric Acid: 100 ppm (Swimming Pool Max.)
    • 40 ppm Recommended
    • 40 ppm (Spa Pool Max.)
    STATE OF FLORIDA 64E-9.004 Operational Requirements
  • 44.
    • Must Test Public Pool Water for:
      • Calcium Hardness (ppm not specified)
      • Total Alkalinity (ppm not specified)
    • Must have tests if these chemicals are used:
      • Silver 0.1 ppm max
      • Copper 1 ppm max.
      • Quaternary Ammonium 5 ppm max.
      • Ozone (ppm not specified)
      • Sodium Chloride (salt) (ppm not specified)
    STATE OF FLORIDA 64E-9.004 Operational Requirements
  • 45. Association of Pool & Spa Professionals (APSP)
    • Suggested Standards for Public Pools & Spas:
    • Free chlorine: 2.0 - 4.0 ppm
    • Combined chlorine: 0.2 ppm Max.
    • pH 7.2 - 7.8 (ideal range of 7.4 - 7.6)
    • Total alkalinity:
      • Liquid chlorine, cal hypo, lithium hypo 80 - 100  ppm
      • Gas chlorine, dichlor, trichlor & bromine compounds 100 – 120 ppm
    • Total dissolved solids (TDS): Not to exceed 1500 ppm greater than at pool start-up
    • Calcium hardness: 200 – 400 ppm
    • Cyanuric acid (Outdoor Pools Only): 30 – 50 ppm
  • 46. “ TOTAL CHLORINE”
    • Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine
    • Free chlorine and total chlorine are monitored by automated equipment and confirmed by poolside testing for swimmer protection
    • Total Chlorine = Free Chlorine + Combined Chlorine
  • 47. TESTING TOOLS
    • Test strips
    • Colorimeters
    • Test reagents
  • 48. TO ACHIEVE GOOD RESULTS, TEST SHOULD BE:
    • Acceptable or compliant (i.e., Chlorine test uses DPD )
    • Appropriate for staff technical ability
    • Robust, reagents & equipment are reliable & stable
    • Unaffected by interferences
    • Accurate when staff performs test correctly
  • 49. TEST METHODS & EQUIPMENT Considerations:
    • Selectivity refers to how specific a method is for determining a particular chemical in presence of other components
    • Dynamic Range refers to the upper and lower test range (i.e., pH 6.0 to 9.0; Chlorine 0.01 to 11.0)
    • Limit of Detection (LOD) is lowest concentration level that can be determined to be statistically different from a blank, sometimes referred to as sensitivity
  • 50. LIMIT OF DETECTION (LOD)
    • Definition: The minimum amount of a substance that the test method can consistently detect, sometimes referred to as sensitivity
    • Applies more to instrument measurements
    • For analytical tests LOD is typically calculated as 3 times the background noise
    0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  • 51. EPA ACCEPTED TEST METHODS FOR CHLORINE
      • (ALSO ACCEPTED BY FLORIDA HEALTH DEPARTMENTS)
      • DPD Colorimetric Meter
      • DPD -FAS Titrimetric
      • DPD Colorimetric Visual
  • 52. DPD CHLORINE TESTING
    • DPD methods have become preferred for chlorine measurement
    • DPD methods determine concentration by measuring intensity of color formed when chlorine reacts with DPD
    • DPD-FAS Titration method determines chlorine by measuring amount of FAS Titrant needed to bleach out DPD-chlorine color formed
    • State health departments accept DPD tests because they are quick, enjoy wide acceptance & are US EPA approved
  • 53. COLORIMETIC TESTS
    • Four basic colorimetic methods used in testing pool & spa water:
      • Colorimetric tests use a Colorimeter & reagent delivery device such as: liquid, powder, tablet, and test strip
      • Colorimetric visual using titration (counting drops)
      • Colorimetric tests use a reagent delivery device such as: liquid, powder, tablet, or test strip with a tube & a comparator color chart
      • Colorimetric visual test strips are used most commonly for testing three parameters: Free Chlorine, pH, Alkalinity levels
  • 54. TEST METHOD #1 Colorimeter and Reagent Most accurate DPD method
    • Colorimeters use colorimetric or precipitation chemistries and measure color intensity (or precipitate) by an electronic instrument
    • No visual color matching
    • Measure transmittance of light at a given wavelength through reacted water sample
    • Most accurate of all tests
    0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  • 55. TEST METHOD #2 Colorimetric Visual using Titration Commonly used DPD method
    • Titrations use colorimetric chemistries requiring visual color change interpretation
    • Technique dependent (swirling)
    • Requires accurate counting of drops & calculation
    0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  • 56. TEST METHOD #3 Colorimetric reagent with color chart comparator
    • Inexpensive
    • Reagents may have stability issues
    • Gives only minimum resolution
    • Requires good visual judgment to match
    • colors
    0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  • 57. TEST METHOD #4 Colorimetric visual test strips with color chart
    • Quick & easy
    • Inexpensive
    • Suitable for screening
    • Relatively good shelf life
    • Does not use DPD
    • Not health dept compliant
    0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  • 58. POOLSIDE TESTING PERFORMANCE CHALLENGES
    • Poolside testing occasionally performed under harsh environmental conditions
    • Temperature, humidity, sunlight & wind can affect results & operator
    • Distractions include poolside activity & noise
    • Stability of some tests (especially liquid reagents) affected by elevated Temperature & Sunlight
    • Accurate results can be difficult
  • 59. TEST METHODS & EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS
    • Cost per test ($0.02 to $0.30 up to $10)
    • Time to run test (30 seconds to 5 minutes)
    • Ease of use
    • Required operator training
    • Portability & stability of test kits & reagents
    • Compliance with Health Dept requirements?
  • 60. TESTING Best Practices
    • Circulate pool water before collecting sample, or manually stir water in sample area
    • Rinse sample vial two or three times with pool water before sampling
    • Sample water 18 inches below surface (important consideration for Free Chlorine & Bromine measurements)
  • 61. TESTING Best Practices
    • Do not collect water sample near return lines
    • Note temperature of water to be tested (Very cold or very hot water can affect colorimetric tests)
    • Perform tests as soon as possible after collecting sample (immediate testing is required for accurate Free Chlorine results)
    • If collecting samples for later testing, handle carefully to avoid contamination, fill bottle to capacity, & seal tightly
  • 62. TESTING Best Practices
    • Pay careful attention to expiration dates on reagents & test strips
    • Keep reagent containers tightly capped & in a cool, dark place
    • Don't swap/mix the caps on reagent bottles to avoid chemical cross contamination
  • 63. TESTING Best Practices
    • Where required, measure volume of water sample to be tested (Measure the bottom of sample meniscus, not the top at fill mark)
    • Don't interchange sample vials or cells
    • Follow manufacturer ’s test directions carefully
  • 64. TESTING Best Practices
    • Add reagents carefully – make sure drops added to sample are equal & full-sized
    • Mix reagents with test samples thoroughly
    • Match visual test results under right conditions:
        • Proper light
        • Do not wear sunglasses
        • Read colors against an appropriate background
        • Do not match colors in bright sunlight
  • 65. TESTING Best Practices
    • Record results & maintain a log book at each pool or spa
    • Never add reagents to pool for flash testing (invalid)
    • Never dispose used samples & reagents in the pool
    • Rinse sample vials / cells well immediately after testing
  • 66. Four Resort Pools Phuket, Thailand March 2 - 3, 2011
    • Pool #1 #2 #3 #4
    • Alkalinity (80 – 120) 27 38 78 100
    • pH (7.2 – 7.8) 6.9 7.1 8.0 8.0
    • Phosphate 0.55 0.48 0.46 0.85
    • Ca Hardness (200-400) <10 <10 85 76
    • Chloride Salt 485 565 133 222
    • Free Cl (2 – 4) 1.12 6.81 1.12 0.22
    • Combined CL (0) 0.11 0.04 0.08 0.12
    • Cyanuric Acid (30 – 50) 27 15 3 0
  • 67. “ A” Resort Pools Phuket, Thailand March 2, 2011
    • Pool #1 #2 Tap Water
    • Alkalinity (80 – 120) 27 38 56
    • pH (7.2 – 7.8) 6.9 7.1 6.4
    • Ca Hardness (200-400) <10 <10 16
    • Chloride Salt 485 565 365
    • Free Cl (2 – 4) 1.12 6.81 0.01
    • Combined CL (0) 0.11 0.04 0.03
    • Total Chlorine 1.23 6.85 0.04
    • Cyanuric Acid (30 – 50) 27 15 -
  • 68. “ B” Resort Pools Phuket, Thailand March 3, 2011
    • Pool #3 #4 Tap Water
    • Alkalinity (80 – 120) 78 100 82
    • pH (7.2 – 7.8) 8.0 8.0 7.4
    • Ca Hardness (200-400) 85 76 80
    • Chloride Salt 133 222 230
    • Free Cl (2 – 4) 1.12 0.22 0.01
    • Combined CL (0) 0.08 0.12 0.03
    • Total Chlorine 1.20 0.34 0.04
    • Cyanuric Acid (30 – 50) 3 0 -
  • 69. Seattle Hotel Indoor Pool
    • Tested October 12, 2011 Pool AM PM Tap Water
    • Alkalinity (80 – 120) 79 69 25
    • pH (7.2 – 7.8) 7.4 7.8 7.5
    • Ca Hardness (200-400) 115 120 25
    • Free Cl (2 – 4) 3.52 3.41 1.20
    • Combined CL (0) * 0.89 0.94 0.02
    • Total Chlorine 4.41 4.35 1.22
    • * (Washington State Reg 246-250 WAC allows Max CC to be 50% of Free CL)
  • 70. Indoor Resort Pool Lancaster, PA October 26, 2011
    • Pool Tap Water
    • Alkalinity (80 – 120) 136 > 180
    • pH (7.2 – 7.8) 7.6 7.5
    • Phosphate 0.19 0.41
    • Ca Hardness (200-400) 147 24
    • Chloride Salt 5.5 -
    • Free Cl (2 – 4) 2.73 1.31
    • Combined CL (0) 0.48 0.07
    • TDS 4607 610
  • 71. Tap Water as Source Water Louisville, KY
    • Tested October 3-4, 2011 Fern Valley Kentucky
    • Road Hotel Expo Center
    • Alkalinity (80 – 120) 62 62
    • pH (7.2 – 7.8) 8.0 8.0
    • Ca Hardness (200-400) 80 80
    • Free Cl (2 – 4) 0.47 0.30
    • Combined CL (0) 2.53 2.40
    • Total Chlorine 3.00 2.70
  • 72. eXact Micro 10 Meter Used for testing Pool Water
    • Specification:
    • USEPA, DIN, & ISO Compliant for Free, Combined, & Total Chlorine Testing *
    • 525 nm Wavelength LED Transmission Photometer
    • 20 mm cell path
    • Built in sealed 4 milliliter cell volume
    • Waterproof, buoyant
    • Uses patented reagent strip technology
    • Factory Calibrated
    • * Per 4500-Cl G (2012), Standard Methods For Examination Of Water And Wastewater, DPD Colorimetric Method having max. transmission in range of 490 to 530nm with min. 10 mm light path
  • 73. SPA WATER CHEMISTRY
    • Spas differ from pools because they:
        • Have much smaller volume
        • Run at much higher temperature
    • Bather load (& sanitizer demand) is much heavier than in a pool
    • Smaller volume means that organics accumulate much faster, & demand placed on sanitizer is much higher
    • Greater sanitizer levels must be maintained (3-5 ppm for Chlorine, 4-6 ppm for Bromine) & testing must be carried out much more frequently – usually every 2 hours during periods of heavy use
    • Treatment is more demanding, because adjustments must be made more frequently, & measurements must be more precise
  • 74. SPA WATER CHEMISTRY
    • Small volume & increased sanitizer demand means that in Chlorine spas, Chloramines accumulate much faster than in a pool
    • Spas must be drained at regular intervals if water quality is to be maintained
    • High temperature (above 100 degrees F) increases Chlorine reactions & causes rapid depletion
    • High temperature increase growth of certain disease-causing bacteria such as pseudomonas aerginosa
    • High temperature increase evaporation, resulting in elevated TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)
    • Maintaining a spa presents unique challenges
  • 75. TURBIDITY
    • Turbidity  is the cloudiness of pool water caused by suspended solids  
    • Caused by several factors:
      • Body-waste contamination
      • Non-organic suspended solids
      • Algae
      • Chemical imbalance
    • Turbidity measured with a “turbidometric” meter or a colorimeter and reported in NTU units
  • 76. MAINTAINING HEALTHY POOLS & SPAS REQUIRE
    • Circulation
    • Filtration
    • Routine Cleaning and Maintenance
    • Testing pool water
    • Testing make-up water
  • 77. STRIVE FOR BEST RESULTS
    • Customers expect it
    • Health Departments require it
    • Liability issues for bad results
  • 78. HELPFUL RESOURCES
    • R. W. Lowry (2003) Pool Chlorination Facts
    • R. W. Lowry, Intermediate Training Manual Part 1- Water Chemicals
    • T. Tamminen, (2000) The Ultimate Guide to Pool Maintenance
    • T. Tamminen, (2007) The Pool Maintenance Manual  
    • Florida Health Dept: http://www.doh.state.fl.us/Environment/water/swim/index.html
    • Association of Pool & Spa Professionals (APSP), ANSI/APSP-11 2009 Standard for Water Quality in Public Pools and Spas
    • Centers for Disease Control (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/healthyswimming/
    • EW Rice, RB Baird, AD Eaton, LS Clesceri (2012) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater , 22nd Edition, American Water Works Association/American Public Works Association/Water Environment Federation
  • 79. Maris Jaunakais – Consultant [email_address] www.sensafe.com Questions?