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Orlando Pool spa 2012 presentation


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Presentation given by Maris Jaunakais at t he 2012 Orlando Pool and Spa Show

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Orlando Pool spa 2012 presentation

  1. 1. Water Balance & Healthy Pool Water Maris Jaunakais, Consultant Industrial Test Systems, Inc. Orlando Pool & Spa Show • February 25, 2012
  2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Water Balance for Healthy Pool Water </li></ul><ul><li>Parameters that affect Water Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Other considerations for Healthy Pool Water </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorination of Pools/Spas </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanuric Acid as Chlorine Stabilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Health Dept Guidelines for Public Pools </li></ul><ul><li>Testing – Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Test results of few public pools </li></ul>
  3. 3. WATER BALANCE <ul><li>Healthy Water = Balanced Water </li></ul><ul><li>For Balanced Water must consider 5 things (Components of Langelier Saturation Index) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Alkalinity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium Hardness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. HEALTHY POOL WATER <ul><li>Start with Balanced Source Water but other chemicals introduced that affect pH, Total Alk, Ca Hardness, TDS: </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitizer / oxidizer used to disinfect affects pH </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine Stabilizer such as Cyanuric acid </li></ul><ul><li>And chemicals needed to address other pool water problems, such as cloudy water, algae, mold, stains, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Rain Water </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why the Need for Balanced Pool Water <ul><li>Protect bathers health – prevent transmission of infectious disease, prevent skin irritation, respiratory problems, eye irritation; etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect Pool or Spa & Equipment from corrosion and/or scale-formation, & discoloration </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize potential hazards from disinfection by-products. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain compliance with Health Dept regulations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Majority of pool problems are caused by poor water quality” </li></ul>
  6. 6. WATER BALANCE <ul><li>Defined as water that will neither scale nor corrode pool or spa surfaces and/or equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion involves the dissolving or wearing-away of a material </li></ul><ul><li>Scale is the white deposit or precipitate that builds up on fixtures, surfaces, & equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced water is non-irritating to eyes & skin of bathers, & allows sanitizer to work effectively. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sources of Chemicals in Pool Water <ul><li>Chemicals used to treat source water, including disinfection by-products, such as lime & alkalis, phosphates and, for chlorine treated systems, monochloramines </li></ul><ul><li>Bather’s sweat, urine, dirt, lotions, sunscreen, cosmetics, soap residues, deodorant, hair spray, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Items introduced from environment such as debris, dirt, leaves , vegetation, etc. that also contribute chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals used to treat pool water - pH correction chemicals, sanitizers, oxidizers, stabilizer, chemicals for treating algae, mold, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfection by-products - trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorate, nitrogen trichloride, etc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. WATER BALANCE - pH <ul><li>pH is most important factor </li></ul><ul><li>Affects all other chemical / balance parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Determines acidity of water </li></ul><ul><li>Measured on a scale from 0-14 </li></ul><ul><li>pH 7 is neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Below 7 is acidic (e.g. lemon juice) </li></ul><ul><li>Above 7 is basic or alkaline (e.g. baking soda) </li></ul>
  9. 9. WATER BALANCE - pH <ul><li>pH in the ideal range will be comfortable for human eye at 7.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Pool water pH is acceptable from 7.2 - 7.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal pH range is 7.4 - 7.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Testing should be done DAILY ! </li></ul><ul><li>High pH reduces Chlorine ’s effectiveness </li></ul>
  10. 10. WATER BALANCE - pH
  11. 12. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) <ul><li>Ability of water to resist a change in pH </li></ul><ul><li>“ Buffering capacity” </li></ul><ul><li>Sum of bicarbonates, carbonates, & hydroxide in water </li></ul><ul><li>Water with an appropriate amount of AL will resist wide & rapid fluctuations in pH (called pH bounce) </li></ul><ul><li>Proper AL stabilizes pH </li></ul><ul><li>Bicarbonate buffers essentially neutralize acids & alkaline before they can affect pH </li></ul>
  12. 13. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) <ul><li>If AL is low, pH will be readily affected by anything introduced into pool </li></ul><ul><li>If AL is high, pH will be difficult to adjust (water will scale) </li></ul><ul><li>Total Alkalinity is key to water balance & it is recommended that it should be adjusted FIRST , even before pH </li></ul><ul><li>Addition of acid or alkaline to adjust pool or spa AL will change pH, and vice versa </li></ul>
  13. 14. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) <ul><li>Low Alkalinity can cause: </li></ul><ul><li>Wide & rapid pH fluctuations </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion of pool or spa & equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Skin / Eye Irritation </li></ul><ul><li>Cloudy water </li></ul><ul><li>Adding acid like Muriatic Acid will lower pH and AL </li></ul>
  14. 15. TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) <ul><li>Because different sanitizers have different pHs, particular sanitizer used affects Alkalinity </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal level is 80-100 ppm with sanitizers like Sodium, Calcium, or Lithium Hypochlorite </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal level is 100-120 ppm with sanitizers like Dichlor, Trichlor, Bromine, or Chlorine Gas </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Parts per million ( ppm ) is equivalent to milligrams per liter ( mg/L ). </li></ul>
  15. 16. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA) <ul><li>Defined as the amount of Calcium Salts in water (reported as Calcium Carbonate) </li></ul><ul><li>Term Calcium Hardness used because hardness in tap water is due to Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium, barium & sulfate also can contribute to Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Source water used to fill pool will vary in its calcium content depending on region of country & whether city or well water </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal range is 200-400 ppm </li></ul>
  17. 18. CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA) <ul><li>Should be tested regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Pool & spa water must have a certain amount of Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium Hardness, when outside optimal range, can either allow corrosion to occur or cause scaling </li></ul><ul><li>Make-up water with high calcium is “ hard water ” </li></ul><ul><li>Make-up water with low calcium is “ soft water ” </li></ul><ul><li>Low water hardness allows corrosion or pitting of calcium rich surfaces such as concrete, plaster, & grout </li></ul>
  18. 19. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) <ul><li>TDS is the total of all dissolved material in water </li></ul><ul><li>TDS value is contributed & influenced by ions of calcium, magnesium, sulfate, chloride, sodium, potassium, phosphate, nitrate, & all other ions; Alkalinity; Cyanuric Acid; & other chemicals present in water </li></ul><ul><li>If it is dissolved in the water, it is part of TDS. </li></ul>
  19. 21. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) <ul><li>High TDS levels may increase undesirable events: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae growth despite adequate sanitizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion despite water being otherwise balanced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloudy water despite adequate filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye & skin irritation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposits on pool wall </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) <ul><li>Over time, TDS will increase in a pool </li></ul><ul><li>TDS may actually double in a year </li></ul><ul><li>Why? - chemicals are added, debris & dirt blow or wash in, & water evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>If TDS exceeds 1500 ppm of initial level, drain & replace at least some of water </li></ul><ul><li>TDS maximum 3000 ppm ?? </li></ul>
  21. 23. TEMPERATURE <ul><li>Temperature is important water balance factor but difficult to control </li></ul><ul><li>Pool water is usually held at between 78-82◦ F. </li></ul><ul><li>Spa water is held much higher at from 96-104◦ F </li></ul>
  22. 24. SANITIZER AND DISINFECTANTS <ul><li>A disinfectant kills disease-causing organisms </li></ul><ul><li>A sanitizer kills all microorganisms with impunity, (USA EPA 99.9% effective) i.e. , chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation refers to the “chemical reaction” that organic contaminants or waste products undergo </li></ul><ul><li>Because pool environment is constantly exposed to new contaminants, two important considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitize water to kill microorganisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidize organic contaminants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 25. CHLORINE <ul><li>Chlorine is most popular sanitizer, disinfectant, algae killer, & oxidizer in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive, safe when used properly, & effective. </li></ul><ul><li>In a pool or a spa, chlorine pulls double-duty as a sanitizer & oxidizer </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine is most effective under certain conditions. The pH is most important factor & must be in optimal range in order for chlorine to be effective </li></ul>
  25. 27. CHLORINE <ul><li>Effective against a broad range of microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>More than 79,000 tons per year are used in United States & Canada to treat water </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring chlorine concentrations is very important </li></ul><ul><li>Used in pools to protect bathers health, water clarity & equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Several pathogens can be transmitted in water </li></ul><ul><li>Inactivation of pathogens depends on contact time </li></ul><ul><li>In USA Health Departments require public pools to </li></ul><ul><li>be routinely tested for chlorine concentration </li></ul>
  26. 28. GERM INACTIVATION TIME IN 1 ppm CHLORINATED WATER <ul><li>pH 7.5, 77 F </li></ul>GERM INACTIVATION TIME E. Coli O157:H7 Bacterium Less than 1 minute Hepatitis A Virus About 16 minutes Giardia Parasite About 45 minutes Cryptosporidium Parasite About 15300 minutes (10.6 days)
  27. 29. SOURCES OF CHLORINE Chemical Name Chemical Formula Form % Chlorine Chlorine Gas Cl 2 Gas 100% Calcium Hypochlorite Ca(OCl) 2 Solid 65-70% Sodium Hypochlorite NaOCl Liquid ~12%
  28. 30. ABOUT SOURCES OF CHLORINE <ul><li>Despite their chemical & physical differences they all form hypochlorous acid </li></ul><ul><li>This change occurs when added to water </li></ul><ul><li>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the effective disinfecting agent </li></ul>
  29. 31. CHLORINE REACTION <ul><li>Second chlorine reaction is with ammonia (NH 3 ) & organic nitrogen compounds such as proteins & amino acids in the pool </li></ul><ul><li>A series of reactions occur that form chloramines </li></ul><ul><li>Chloramines are less effective disinfectants </li></ul><ul><li>Active chlorine can be transferred from inorganic chloramine to amine (organic) containing compounds </li></ul>
  30. 32. CYANURIC ACID <ul><li>Stabilizer of choice for use in chlorinated swimming pools & spas </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds with chlorine protecting it from destruction by sun ’s ultraviolet rays </li></ul><ul><li>Used in Outdoor Pools Only </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces amount of chlorine needed to maintain chlorine residual in outdoor pools </li></ul><ul><li>No know toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Does not stabilize Bromine </li></ul>
  31. 34. CYANURIC ACID <ul><li>Cyanuric Acid increases alkalinity </li></ul><ul><li>Provides buffer capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to the overall Alkalinity measured level of pool water </li></ul><ul><li>Does not provide corrosion protection </li></ul>
  32. 35. CYANURIC ACID <ul><li>Forms weak reversible bond with Free Available Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Does not affect DPD Test for Free CL </li></ul><ul><li>Degree to which Cyanuric Acid complexes with Free Chlorine is affected by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration Free CL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration Cyanuric Acid </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. CYANURIC ACID <ul><li>Effective Concentration reported to be </li></ul><ul><li>8 – 10 times Free Cl concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Amount CYA required to stabilize Free Cl </li></ul><ul><li>10 ppm CYA - 1.5 ppm Free Cl </li></ul><ul><li>25 ppm CYA - 3.0 ppm Free CL </li></ul><ul><li>40 ppm CYA - 5.0 ppm Free Cl </li></ul><ul><li>50 ppm CYA - 6.0 ppm Free CL </li></ul>
  34. 37. CYANURIC ACID <ul><li>Cyanuric Acid Levels in USA </li></ul><ul><li>  One Study 20 Years ago reported: </li></ul><ul><li>Average concentration – 75.9 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Median concentration – 57.5 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum concentration – 406 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Another study reported 25% (122 of 486) pools had more than 100 ppm </li></ul>
  35. 38. CYANURIC ACID <ul><li>Latest information suggests optimal range for cyanuric acid is 30 - 50 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Levels above 50 ppm have been shown to reduce chlorine effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>In USA Health Departments will close pools above 100 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>When used, maintain chlorine at no less than 1- 2 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce cyanuric acid levels, partially drain pool & refill </li></ul>
  36. 40. TESTING IS IMPORTANT <ul><li>Pools and Spas must be maintained in a conscientious way </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily for the safety of bathers </li></ul><ul><li>Liability </li></ul><ul><li>Good testing practices reap financial rewards </li></ul><ul><li>“ Majority of pool problems are caused by poor water quality” </li></ul>
  37. 41. STATE OF FLORIDA State Pool & Spa Regulation <ul><li>Rule: 64E-9.004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Date: 5/24/2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule Title: Operational Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department: DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Division: Division of Environmental Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter: PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS & BATHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PLACES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found online – website </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  38. 42. <ul><li>Water Quality (Public Pools) </li></ul><ul><li>Source Water must meet FL Water Quality Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity (1) 0.5 or less NTU, & (2) main drain gate readily visible from pool side </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of chemicals used to treat pool water – (1) tested & approved using National Sanitation Foundation (NSF-ANSI) Std. 60-2005, 1996a 1997, & (2) compatible with other pool chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriological quality ( free of coliform) </li></ul>STATE OF FLORIDA 64E-9.004 Operational Requirements
  39. 43. <ul><li>Must Maintain Public Pool Water: </li></ul><ul><li>pH: 7.2 to 7.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Free Cl: 1 - 10 ppm (Swimming Pool) </li></ul><ul><li> 2 - 10 ppm (Other type Pools, i.e. Spa) </li></ul><ul><li> - 5 ppm (Max. Indoor Pools) </li></ul><ul><li>Bromine: 1.5 - 10 ppm (Swimming Pool) </li></ul><ul><li> 3 - 10 ppm (Other type Pools, i.e. Spa) - 6 ppm (Max. Indoor Pools) </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanuric Acid: 100 ppm (Swimming Pool Max.) </li></ul><ul><li>40 ppm Recommended </li></ul><ul><li>40 ppm (Spa Pool Max.) </li></ul>STATE OF FLORIDA 64E-9.004 Operational Requirements
  40. 44. <ul><li>Must Test Public Pool Water for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium Hardness (ppm not specified) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Alkalinity (ppm not specified) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must have tests if these chemicals are used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver 0.1 ppm max </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper 1 ppm max. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary Ammonium 5 ppm max. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone (ppm not specified) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Chloride (salt) (ppm not specified) </li></ul></ul>STATE OF FLORIDA 64E-9.004 Operational Requirements
  41. 45. Association of Pool & Spa Professionals (APSP) <ul><li>Suggested Standards for Public Pools & Spas: </li></ul><ul><li>Free chlorine: 2.0 - 4.0 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Combined chlorine: 0.2 ppm Max. </li></ul><ul><li>pH 7.2 - 7.8 (ideal range of 7.4 - 7.6) </li></ul><ul><li>Total alkalinity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid chlorine, cal hypo, lithium hypo 80 - 100  ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas chlorine, dichlor, trichlor & bromine compounds 100 – 120 ppm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total dissolved solids (TDS): Not to exceed 1500 ppm greater than at pool start-up </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium hardness: 200 – 400 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanuric acid (Outdoor Pools Only): 30 – 50 ppm </li></ul>
  42. 46. “ TOTAL CHLORINE” <ul><li>Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine and combined chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Free chlorine and total chlorine are monitored by automated equipment and confirmed by poolside testing for swimmer protection </li></ul><ul><li>Total Chlorine = Free Chlorine + Combined Chlorine </li></ul>
  43. 47. TESTING TOOLS <ul><li>Test strips </li></ul><ul><li>Colorimeters </li></ul><ul><li>Test reagents </li></ul>
  44. 48. TO ACHIEVE GOOD RESULTS, TEST SHOULD BE: <ul><li>Acceptable or compliant (i.e., Chlorine test uses DPD ) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for staff technical ability </li></ul><ul><li>Robust, reagents & equipment are reliable & stable </li></ul><ul><li>Unaffected by interferences </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate when staff performs test correctly </li></ul>
  45. 49. TEST METHODS & EQUIPMENT Considerations: <ul><li>Selectivity refers to how specific a method is for determining a particular chemical in presence of other components </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Range refers to the upper and lower test range (i.e., pH 6.0 to 9.0; Chlorine 0.01 to 11.0) </li></ul><ul><li>Limit of Detection (LOD) is lowest concentration level that can be determined to be statistically different from a blank, sometimes referred to as sensitivity </li></ul>
  46. 50. LIMIT OF DETECTION (LOD) <ul><li>Definition: The minimum amount of a substance that the test method can consistently detect, sometimes referred to as sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Applies more to instrument measurements </li></ul><ul><li>For analytical tests LOD is typically calculated as 3 times the background noise </li></ul>0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  47. 51. EPA ACCEPTED TEST METHODS FOR CHLORINE <ul><ul><li>(ALSO ACCEPTED BY FLORIDA HEALTH DEPARTMENTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DPD Colorimetric Meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DPD -FAS Titrimetric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DPD Colorimetric Visual </li></ul></ul>
  48. 52. DPD CHLORINE TESTING <ul><li>DPD methods have become preferred for chlorine measurement </li></ul><ul><li>DPD methods determine concentration by measuring intensity of color formed when chlorine reacts with DPD </li></ul><ul><li>DPD-FAS Titration method determines chlorine by measuring amount of FAS Titrant needed to bleach out DPD-chlorine color formed </li></ul><ul><li>State health departments accept DPD tests because they are quick, enjoy wide acceptance & are US EPA approved </li></ul>
  49. 53. COLORIMETIC TESTS <ul><li>Four basic colorimetic methods used in testing pool & spa water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorimetric tests use a Colorimeter & reagent delivery device such as: liquid, powder, tablet, and test strip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorimetric visual using titration (counting drops) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorimetric tests use a reagent delivery device such as: liquid, powder, tablet, or test strip with a tube & a comparator color chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorimetric visual test strips are used most commonly for testing three parameters: Free Chlorine, pH, Alkalinity levels </li></ul></ul>
  50. 54. TEST METHOD #1 Colorimeter and Reagent Most accurate DPD method <ul><li>Colorimeters use colorimetric or precipitation chemistries and measure color intensity (or precipitate) by an electronic instrument </li></ul><ul><li>No visual color matching </li></ul><ul><li>Measure transmittance of light at a given wavelength through reacted water sample </li></ul><ul><li>Most accurate of all tests </li></ul>0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  51. 55. TEST METHOD #2 Colorimetric Visual using Titration Commonly used DPD method <ul><li>Titrations use colorimetric chemistries requiring visual color change interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Technique dependent (swirling) </li></ul><ul><li>Requires accurate counting of drops & calculation </li></ul>0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  52. 56. TEST METHOD #3 Colorimetric reagent with color chart comparator <ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Reagents may have stability issues </li></ul><ul><li>Gives only minimum resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Requires good visual judgment to match </li></ul><ul><li>colors </li></ul>0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  53. 57. TEST METHOD #4 Colorimetric visual test strips with color chart <ul><li>Quick & easy </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for screening </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively good shelf life </li></ul><ul><li>Does not use DPD </li></ul><ul><li>Not health dept compliant </li></ul>0.8 0.4 0.2 0.01 LOD: Test Strip Visual Titration Meter Test Method:
  54. 58. POOLSIDE TESTING PERFORMANCE CHALLENGES <ul><li>Poolside testing occasionally performed under harsh environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature, humidity, sunlight & wind can affect results & operator </li></ul><ul><li>Distractions include poolside activity & noise </li></ul><ul><li>Stability of some tests (especially liquid reagents) affected by elevated Temperature & Sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate results can be difficult </li></ul>
  55. 59. TEST METHODS & EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>Cost per test ($0.02 to $0.30 up to $10) </li></ul><ul><li>Time to run test (30 seconds to 5 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul><ul><li>Required operator training </li></ul><ul><li>Portability & stability of test kits & reagents </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with Health Dept requirements? </li></ul>
  56. 60. TESTING Best Practices <ul><li>Circulate pool water before collecting sample, or manually stir water in sample area </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse sample vial two or three times with pool water before sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Sample water 18 inches below surface (important consideration for Free Chlorine & Bromine measurements) </li></ul>
  57. 61. TESTING Best Practices <ul><li>Do not collect water sample near return lines </li></ul><ul><li>Note temperature of water to be tested (Very cold or very hot water can affect colorimetric tests) </li></ul><ul><li>Perform tests as soon as possible after collecting sample (immediate testing is required for accurate Free Chlorine results) </li></ul><ul><li>If collecting samples for later testing, handle carefully to avoid contamination, fill bottle to capacity, & seal tightly </li></ul>
  58. 62. TESTING Best Practices <ul><li>Pay careful attention to expiration dates on reagents & test strips </li></ul><ul><li>Keep reagent containers tightly capped & in a cool, dark place </li></ul><ul><li>Don't swap/mix the caps on reagent bottles to avoid chemical cross contamination </li></ul>
  59. 63. TESTING Best Practices <ul><li>Where required, measure volume of water sample to be tested (Measure the bottom of sample meniscus, not the top at fill mark) </li></ul><ul><li>Don't interchange sample vials or cells </li></ul><ul><li>Follow manufacturer ’s test directions carefully </li></ul>
  60. 64. TESTING Best Practices <ul><li>Add reagents carefully – make sure drops added to sample are equal & full-sized </li></ul><ul><li>Mix reagents with test samples thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>Match visual test results under right conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not wear sunglasses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read colors against an appropriate background </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not match colors in bright sunlight </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 65. TESTING Best Practices <ul><li>Record results & maintain a log book at each pool or spa </li></ul><ul><li>Never add reagents to pool for flash testing (invalid) </li></ul><ul><li>Never dispose used samples & reagents in the pool </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse sample vials / cells well immediately after testing </li></ul>
  62. 66. Four Resort Pools Phuket, Thailand March 2 - 3, 2011 <ul><li>Pool #1 #2 #3 #4 </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity (80 – 120) 27 38 78 100 </li></ul><ul><li>pH (7.2 – 7.8) 6.9 7.1 8.0 8.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate 0.55 0.48 0.46 0.85 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca Hardness (200-400) <10 <10 85 76 </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride Salt 485 565 133 222 </li></ul><ul><li>Free Cl (2 – 4) 1.12 6.81 1.12 0.22 </li></ul><ul><li>Combined CL (0) 0.11 0.04 0.08 0.12 </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanuric Acid (30 – 50) 27 15 3 0 </li></ul>
  63. 67. “ A” Resort Pools Phuket, Thailand March 2, 2011 <ul><li>Pool #1 #2 Tap Water </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity (80 – 120) 27 38 56 </li></ul><ul><li>pH (7.2 – 7.8) 6.9 7.1 6.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca Hardness (200-400) <10 <10 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride Salt 485 565 365 </li></ul><ul><li>Free Cl (2 – 4) 1.12 6.81 0.01 </li></ul><ul><li>Combined CL (0) 0.11 0.04 0.03 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Chlorine 1.23 6.85 0.04 </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanuric Acid (30 – 50) 27 15 - </li></ul>
  64. 68. “ B” Resort Pools Phuket, Thailand March 3, 2011 <ul><li>Pool #3 #4 Tap Water </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity (80 – 120) 78 100 82 </li></ul><ul><li>pH (7.2 – 7.8) 8.0 8.0 7.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca Hardness (200-400) 85 76 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride Salt 133 222 230 </li></ul><ul><li>Free Cl (2 – 4) 1.12 0.22 0.01 </li></ul><ul><li>Combined CL (0) 0.08 0.12 0.03 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Chlorine 1.20 0.34 0.04 </li></ul><ul><li>Cyanuric Acid (30 – 50) 3 0 - </li></ul>
  65. 69. Seattle Hotel Indoor Pool <ul><li> Tested October 12, 2011 Pool AM PM Tap Water </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity (80 – 120) 79 69 25 </li></ul><ul><li>pH (7.2 – 7.8) 7.4 7.8 7.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca Hardness (200-400) 115 120 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Free Cl (2 – 4) 3.52 3.41 1.20 </li></ul><ul><li>Combined CL (0) * 0.89 0.94 0.02 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Chlorine 4.41 4.35 1.22 </li></ul><ul><li>* (Washington State Reg 246-250 WAC allows Max CC to be 50% of Free CL) </li></ul>
  66. 70. Indoor Resort Pool Lancaster, PA October 26, 2011 <ul><li> Pool Tap Water </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity (80 – 120) 136 > 180 </li></ul><ul><li>pH (7.2 – 7.8) 7.6 7.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate 0.19 0.41 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca Hardness (200-400) 147 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride Salt 5.5 - </li></ul><ul><li>Free Cl (2 – 4) 2.73 1.31 </li></ul><ul><li>Combined CL (0) 0.48 0.07 </li></ul><ul><li>TDS 4607 610 </li></ul>
  67. 71. Tap Water as Source Water Louisville, KY <ul><li>Tested October 3-4, 2011 Fern Valley Kentucky </li></ul><ul><li>Road Hotel Expo Center </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity (80 – 120) 62 62 </li></ul><ul><li>pH (7.2 – 7.8) 8.0 8.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Ca Hardness (200-400) 80 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Free Cl (2 – 4) 0.47 0.30 </li></ul><ul><li>Combined CL (0) 2.53 2.40 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Chlorine 3.00 2.70 </li></ul>
  68. 72. eXact Micro 10 Meter Used for testing Pool Water <ul><li>Specification: </li></ul><ul><li>USEPA, DIN, & ISO Compliant for Free, Combined, & Total Chlorine Testing * </li></ul><ul><li>525 nm Wavelength LED Transmission Photometer </li></ul><ul><li>20 mm cell path </li></ul><ul><li>Built in sealed 4 milliliter cell volume </li></ul><ul><li>Waterproof, buoyant </li></ul><ul><li>Uses patented reagent strip technology </li></ul><ul><li>Factory Calibrated </li></ul><ul><li>* Per 4500-Cl G (2012), Standard Methods For Examination Of Water And Wastewater, DPD Colorimetric Method having max. transmission in range of 490 to 530nm with min. 10 mm light path </li></ul>
  69. 73. SPA WATER CHEMISTRY <ul><li>Spas differ from pools because they: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have much smaller volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Run at much higher temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bather load (& sanitizer demand) is much heavier than in a pool </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller volume means that organics accumulate much faster, & demand placed on sanitizer is much higher </li></ul><ul><li>Greater sanitizer levels must be maintained (3-5 ppm for Chlorine, 4-6 ppm for Bromine) & testing must be carried out much more frequently – usually every 2 hours during periods of heavy use </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is more demanding, because adjustments must be made more frequently, & measurements must be more precise </li></ul>
  70. 74. SPA WATER CHEMISTRY <ul><li>Small volume & increased sanitizer demand means that in Chlorine spas, Chloramines accumulate much faster than in a pool </li></ul><ul><li>Spas must be drained at regular intervals if water quality is to be maintained </li></ul><ul><li>High temperature (above 100 degrees F) increases Chlorine reactions & causes rapid depletion </li></ul><ul><li>High temperature increase growth of certain disease-causing bacteria such as pseudomonas aerginosa </li></ul><ul><li>High temperature increase evaporation, resulting in elevated TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining a spa presents unique challenges </li></ul>
  71. 75. TURBIDITY <ul><li>Turbidity  is the cloudiness of pool water caused by suspended solids   </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by several factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body-waste contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-organic suspended solids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical imbalance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turbidity measured with a “turbidometric” meter or a colorimeter and reported in NTU units </li></ul>
  72. 76. MAINTAINING HEALTHY POOLS & SPAS REQUIRE <ul><li>Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><li>Routine Cleaning and Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Testing pool water </li></ul><ul><li>Testing make-up water </li></ul>
  73. 77. STRIVE FOR BEST RESULTS <ul><li>Customers expect it </li></ul><ul><li>Health Departments require it </li></ul><ul><li>Liability issues for bad results </li></ul>
  74. 78. HELPFUL RESOURCES <ul><li>R. W. Lowry (2003) Pool Chlorination Facts </li></ul><ul><li>R. W. Lowry, Intermediate Training Manual Part 1- Water Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>T. Tamminen, (2000) The Ultimate Guide to Pool Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>T. Tamminen, (2007) The Pool Maintenance Manual   </li></ul><ul><li>Florida Health Dept: </li></ul><ul><li>Association of Pool & Spa Professionals (APSP), ANSI/APSP-11 2009 Standard for Water Quality in Public Pools and Spas </li></ul><ul><li>Centers for Disease Control (CDC) </li></ul><ul><li>EW Rice, RB Baird, AD Eaton, LS Clesceri (2012) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater , 22nd Edition, American Water Works Association/American Public Works Association/Water Environment Federation </li></ul>
  75. 79. Maris Jaunakais – Consultant [email_address] Questions?