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Copy of water_quality_parameters.ccdu


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Copy of water_quality_parameters.ccdu

  3. 3. Distribution of water on earth <ul><li>Ocean and sea - 97% </li></ul><ul><li>Snow and ice caps - 2% </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers,lakes, Ground water - 1% </li></ul>
  4. 4. UNIVERSAL SOLVENT <ul><li>QUALITY </li></ul><ul><li>DEMERIT </li></ul><ul><li>45 LAC WELLS </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>50 LAC SEPTIC TANKS ( ?) </li></ul>
  5. 5. contamination <ul><li>Geological </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities </li></ul><ul><li>. Organic waste </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial waste </li></ul>
  6. 6. Aquifiers
  7. 7. Safe drinking water <ul><li>Free from pathogenic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Not saline </li></ul><ul><li>Free from offensive taste or smell </li></ul><ul><li>Free from compounds that may have adverse effect on human health </li></ul><ul><li>Free from chemicals that cause corrosion of water supply systems </li></ul>
  8. 8. WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS <ul><li>Physical parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriological </li></ul>
  9. 9. BUREAU OFINDIAN STANDARDS IS 10500-1991 Parameters Disirable limit Permissible limit Colour Hazen unit 5 25 Turbidity-NTU 5 10 pH 6.5-8.5 6.5-8.5 Hardness (as CaCO 3 )mg/l 0.3 1 TDS 500 2000
  10. 10. BUREAU OFINDIAN STANDARDS IS 10500-1991 Parameters Disirable limit Permissible limit Nitrate mg/l 45 45 Chloride mg/l 250 1000 Flouride mg/l 1 1.5 Arsenic mg/l 0.05 0.05 Aluminium mg/l 0.03 0.2
  11. 11. Colour <ul><li>May be due to the Presence of organic matter,metals(iron, manganese) or highly coloured industrial waste </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetically displeasing </li></ul><ul><li>Disirable that drinking water be colourless </li></ul><ul><li>Disirable limit, 5 Hazen unit </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit 25 Hazen Unit </li></ul>
  12. 12. Taste and Odour <ul><li>Mainly due to organic substances, ,Biological activity, industrial pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Taste buds in the oral cavity specially detect inorganic compounds of metals like magnesium, calcium, sodium, copper, iron and zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Water should be free from objectionable taste and odour. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Turbidity <ul><li>Caused by suspended matter </li></ul><ul><li>High level turbidity shield and protect bacteria from the action of disinfecting agents </li></ul><ul><li>Disirable limit-5NTU </li></ul><ul><li>should be below 1 NTU when disinfection is practiced </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit-10NTU </li></ul>
  14. 14. pH <ul><li>It is the measure of hydrogen ion concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral water pH-7 </li></ul><ul><li>Acidic water has pH below 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic water has pH above 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Disirable limit 6.5-8.5 Beyond this limit the water will affect the mucous membrane and water supply system </li></ul>
  15. 15. Substances that change pH of water <ul><li>Acidic </li></ul><ul><li>Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar - 5 – 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Distillery 3 - 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Electro- </li></ul><ul><li>Plating unit 2.5-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Pickle 2 - 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic </li></ul><ul><li>Paper 8 – 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Textile 8.5-11 </li></ul><ul><li>Fertiliser 6.5- 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Refine- </li></ul><ul><li>ries 6.5-9.5 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Battery acids <1.0 Milk 6.7 Carbonated Beverages 2 – 4 Rain water 6.5 Lemon juice 2.3 Blood 7.5 Orange juice 4.2 Sea water 8.0 Vinegar 3 Ammonia solution 11.3 Domestic sewage 6.5-8.5 Ground water 7.5-8.5
  17. 17. HARDNESS <ul><li>Capacity of water for reducing and destroying the lather of soap </li></ul><ul><li>It is total concentration of calcium and magnesium ions </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary hardness – Bicarbonates of Calcium and Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent hardness – Sulphates, chlorides and nitrates of calcium and magnesium </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hardness – contd… <ul><li>0 – 50 mg/l - soft </li></ul><ul><li>50 – 150 mg/l - moderately hard </li></ul><ul><li>150 – 300 mg/l - hard </li></ul><ul><li>300 above - very hard </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water is softer than ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Causes encrustations in water supply structures </li></ul>
  19. 19. ALKALINITY <ul><li>Capacity to nutralise acid </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of carbonates, bi-carbonates and hydroxide compounds of Ca, Mg, Na and K </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity = hardness, Ca and Mg salts </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity > hardness - presence of basic salts, Na, K along with Ca and Mg </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalinity < hardness – neutral salts of Ca & Mg present </li></ul>
  20. 20. IRON <ul><li>One of the earth’s most plentiful resource </li></ul><ul><li>High iron causes brown or yellow staining of laundry, household fixtures </li></ul><ul><li>Metalic taste, offensive odour, poor tasting coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Cause iron bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable limit – 0.3 mg / l </li></ul>
  21. 21. CHLORIDE <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolution of salt deposit </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge of effluents </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusion of sea water </li></ul><ul><li>Not harmful to human beings </li></ul><ul><li>Regarding irrigation – most troublesome anion </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable limit - 250 mg/l </li></ul>
  22. 22. NITRATE <ul><li>Increasing level of nitrate is due to </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural fertilizers, manure,animal dung, nitrogenous material ,sewage pollution </li></ul><ul><li>(blue baby diseases to infants) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum permissible limit 45 mg / l </li></ul>
  23. 23. FLOURIDE <ul><li>Occurs naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Long term consumption above permissible level can cause – </li></ul><ul><li>dental flurosis (molting of teeth) </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal flurosis </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable limit – 1 mg / l </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum permissible limit – 1.5 mg / l </li></ul><ul><li>Remedy – 1) Deflouridation </li></ul><ul><li>2) Mixing Fluride free water </li></ul><ul><li>3) Intake of vitamin C,D, calcium,antioxidants </li></ul>
  24. 24. FLOURIDE CAUSES <ul><li>Three types of Fluorosis </li></ul><ul><li>1. Dental Fluorosis </li></ul><ul><li>2. Skeletal Fluorosis </li></ul><ul><li>3. Non-skeletal Fluorosis </li></ul>
  25. 25. ARSENIC <ul><li>Occur in ground water from arseniferous belt </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial waste, agricultural insecticide </li></ul><ul><li>High arsenic causes 1) various type of dermatological lesions, muscular weakness, paralysis of lower limbs, can also cause skin and lung cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable limit – 0.05 mg / l </li></ul>
  26. 26. Heavy Metals <ul><li>Present as mineral in soil and rocks of earth </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities </li></ul><ul><li>Battery – Lead & Nickel </li></ul><ul><li>Textile - Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Photography – Silver </li></ul><ul><li>Steel production – Iron </li></ul>
  27. 27. Pesticides <ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Blood disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic damage </li></ul>
  28. 28. Essential bacteriological Standards Characteristics Number / 100 ml Treated water in distribution system Feacal coliform zero Total coliform not more than 10 Total coliform should not be detectible in two consecutive samples
  29. 29. RESIDUAL CHLORINE <ul><li>Chlorine added to water forms hypochlorite ions and hypochlorite acids </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine demand – Quantity required for killing micro organisms and reacting with ammonia, organic compounds etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Free residual chlorine – To take care of post contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable – 0.2 mg / liter </li></ul>
  30. 30. Common problems contd Visible effects Reasons water turns black,smell Waste water Acidic taste Low pH Alkaline taste High pH Boiled Rice hard and yellow High Alkalinity White deposits on boiling Hardness
  31. 31. Common problems Visible effects Reason Iron taste, change in colour after exposure to atmosphere, change in colour of cloths,utensils Oily appea- rance on top of water body Iron Soap not lathering hardness Brownish black streaks on teeth `Fluride Growth of Algae Nitrate, phosphate Fish kills Low pH less DO Salty taste chloride
  32. 32. Thank you