PROPER POOL & SPA TESTING PROCEDURES INCLUDING THE USE OF STANDARDS TO VERIFY RESULTS" By Ivars Jaunakais Pool Industry Expo - Thursday, September 27 / 1 – 3 PM
Over 12 million pools and 5 million spa in the United States all require maintenance "
TODAY’S TOPICS" Different testing methods and techniques" The Importance of Balanced Water" Common pool water parameters and treatment" Proper water quality testing techniques" Using a Standard to verify testing method & reagents"
FREQUENT TESTING IS VITAL" Pools and Spas must be maintained in a conscientious way and testing is the ﬁrst step" Primarily for the safety of bathers" Avoids Liability issues " Proper and frequent testing practices reap ﬁnancial rewards" A must to keep pool balanced ""
TESTING GOALS" Happy customers " Produce accurate, and reliable results" Accurate results support correct maintenance, which saves you time (and money)" The time saved will allow you to develop new customers, and you will have good reputation "
MAINTAINING HEALTHY POOLS & SPAS REQUIRE" Circulation" Filtration" Routine Cleaning and Maintenance" Testing pool water" Testing make-up water or at least know what is quality of make-up water"
POOLSIDE TESTING CHALLENGES " Poolside testing often performed under harsh environmental conditions" Temperature, humidity, sunlight & wind can affect results & operator" Distractions include poolside activity & noise"
POOLSIDE TESTING CHALLENGES " Stability of some test reagents (especially liquid reagents) are affected by prolonged exposure to elevated Temperature & Sunlight " Accurate results can be a challenge at pool-side"
TO HAVE GOOD RESULTS TEST SHOULD BE: " Acceptable or compliant (i.e., Chlorine test uses DPD) " Appropriate for staff technical ability" Quality reagents & equipment that are reliable & stable" Unaffected by interferences" Accurate when staff performs test correctly"
TEST METHODS CONSIDERATIONS " Cost per test varies ($0.02 to $0.30 up to $10)" Time to run test (30 seconds to 5 minutes)" Ease of use" Level of operator training required" Portability & stability of test kits & reagents " Compliance testing requirements if testing public or commercial pools and spas (meets State Health Department approval)" Veriﬁcation of test with a test Standard meets your expectation "
COLORIMETIC TESTS "Four basic photometric methods used in testing pool& spa water:" 1 Digital Photometer & Reagent which can be: liquid, powder, tablet, and reagent strip " 2 Colorimetric titration (counting drops)" 3 Comparator color test that uses a reagent which can be: liquid, powder, tablet, or reagent strip (test tube and comparator color chart)" 4 Test strips most for testing Free Chlorine, pH, Alkalinity, which now are available with reader or scanner devices"
SUMMARY OF TESTING TOOLS" Photometers & reagents" Titration reagents " Comparator Test" Test Strips "
TEST METHOD #1 Photometer and Reagent (Most accurate method) ! Photometers use photometric or precipitation chemistries and the color (or precipitate) is measured by an Digital measuring instrument " No visual color matching" They measure transmission of light at a given wavelength through the reacted water sample" Most accurate of all tests with 0.01PPM resolution"
TEST METHOD #2 Colorimetric (visual) titration Commonly used DPD method! Titrations use colorimetric chemistries that use visual color change for determining concentration" End point Color change can be difﬁcult to judge " Accurate counting of drops is required" Technique dependent (swirling but on site mixers are now available)" Math required" For Chlorine 0.2 PPM and for Hardness 20PPM is typical resolution"
TEST METHOD #3 Colorimetric reagent with color comparator " Inexpensive reagents" Gives only minimum resolution" Reagents may have stability issues" Requires good visual judgment" Gives only 0.4 resolution for pH " and 1PPM resolution for Chlorine"
TEST METHOD #4 Test strips with visual matching color chart " Quick and easy" Inexpensive" Suitable for screening" Good shelf life " pH resolution of 0.4" Poor chlorine resolution of 1 PPM"or greater""
WATER BALANCE" Deﬁned as water that will neither scale nor corrode pool or spa surfaces and/or equipment" Corrosion involves the dissolving or wearing- away of pool wall, pipes or equipment" Scale is the white deposit or precipitate that builds up on ﬁxtures, surfaces, & equipment " Balanced water is non-irritating to eyes & skin of bathers, & allows sanitizer to work effectively "
HEALTHY POOL WATER "You may start with BalancedWater but pool chemicals areintroduced that affect pH,Total Alkalinity, CalciumHardness, and TDS
BALANCED POOL WATER " Protects bathers health – prevent transmission of infectious disease, prevent skin irritation, respiratory problems, eye irritation; etc" Protects Pool or Spa surfaces & Equipment from corrosion and/or scale-formation, & discoloration" Minimizes potential Health hazards from disinfection by- products (combined chlorine)" Maintains compliance with Health Dept regulations"" “Majority of pool problems are caused by poor water quality”""
WATER BALANCE" Healthy Water = Balanced Water" For Balanced Water 6 things to consider (Components of Langelier Saturation Index) " pH" Total Alkalinity" Calcium Hardness" Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)" Temperature" Cyanuric Acid (CY)" "
Sources of Chemicals in Pool Water " Chemicals used to treat source or make-up water, including disinfection by-products, such as lime & alkalis, phosphates and for some chlorine treated systems, monochloramines" Chemicals used to treat pool water - pH correction chemicals, sanitizers, oxidizers, stabilizer, chemicals for treating algae, mold, etc." Bather’s sweat, urine, dirt, lotions, sunscreen, cosmetics, soap residues, deodorant, hair spray, etc." Items introduced from environment such as debris, dirt, leaves , vegetation, etc., also contribute chemicals" Disinfection by-products - trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorate, nitrogen trichloride, etc." Rain water"
pH" pH is most important factor" Affects all other chemical / balance parameters" Determines acidity of water " Measured on a scale from 0-14 " pH 7 is neutral" Below 7 is acidic (e.g. lemon juice and coke)" Above 7 is basic or alkaline (e.g. baking soda and concrete) "
pH" pH in the ideal range will be comfortable for human eye at 7.5" Pool water pH is acceptable from 7.2 - 7.8 " Ideal pH range is 7.4 - 7.6 " Testing should be done DAILY!" High pH reduces Chlorine’s effectiveness"
TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) " The measure of how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a significant change in pH Ability of water to resist a change in pH -“Buffering capacity” Water with an appropriate amount of AL will resist wide & rapid fluctuations in pH (called pH bounce) Bicarbonates, carbonates, & hydroxide in water Proper AL stabilizes pH
TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) " If AL is low, pH will be readily affected by anything introduced into pool " If AL is high, pH will be difﬁcult to adjust (water will scale) " Total Alkalinity is key to water balance" Recommended that it should be adjusted FIRST, even before pH" Addition of acid or alkaline to adjust pool or spa Alkalinity will change pH, and vice versa"
TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) "Low Alkalinity can cause:" Wide & rapid pH ﬂuctuations " Corrosion of pool or spa & equipment " Skin / Eye Irritation " Cloudy water" Adding acid such as Muriatic Acid will lower pH & Alkalinity"
TOTAL ALKALINITY (AL) " Because different sanitizers have different pHs, particular sanitizer used affects Alkalinity" Ideal level is 80-100 ppm with sanitizers such as Sodium, Calcium, or Lithium Hypochlorite" Ideal level is 100-120 ppm with sanitizers such as Dichlor, Trichlor, Bromine, or Chlorine Gas" Maximum must be below 160 PPM" NOTE: Parts per million (ppm) is equivalent to milligrams per liter (mg/L).
TOTAL ALKAINITY TEST METHODS (resolution) " Photometric (1PPM)" Titration (10PPM)" Test Strips (40PPM)"
CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA) " Deﬁned as the amount of Calcium Salts in water (reported as Calcium Carbonate) " Term Calcium Hardness used because hardness in tap water is due to Calcium" Magnesium, barium & sulfate also can contribute to Hardness" Source water used to ﬁll pool will vary in its calcium content depending on region of country & whether city or well water" Ideal range is 200-400 PPM" Maximum of 1000 PPM ???"
CALCIUM HARDNESS (CA) " Should be tested regularly" Pool & spa water must have a certain amount of Calcium " Calcium Hardness, when outside optimal range, can either allow corrosion to occur or cause scaling " Make-up water with high calcium is “hard water”" Make-up water with low calcium is “soft water” " Low water hardness allows corrosion or pitting of calcium rich surfaces such as concrete, plaster, & grout "
CALCIUM HARDNESS TEST METHODS (resolution) " Photometric (1 to 5 PPM)" Titration (20PPM)" Test Strips (over 50 PPM)"
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) " TDS is the total of all dissolved material in water" " TDS value is contributed & inﬂuenced by ions of calcium, magnesium, sulfate, chloride, sodium, potassium, phosphate, nitrate, & all other ions; Alkalinity; Cyanuric Acid; & other chemicals present in water" If it is dissolved in the water, it is part of TDS"
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) "High TDS levels may increase undesirable events:" 1. Algae growth despite adequate sanitizer" 2. Corrosion despite water being otherwise balanced" 3. Cloudy water despite adequate ﬁltration" 4. Eye & skin irritation" 5. Deposits on pool wall"
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS) " Over time, TDS will increase in a pool" TDS may actually double in a year" Why? - chemicals are added, debris & dirt blow or wash in, & water evaporates" If TDS exceeds 1500 ppm of initial level, drain & replace at least some of water" TDS maximum 3000 ppm ?? "
TESTING TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS Should test MONTHLY using Digital Conductivity meter ($20 - $900) (can do thousands of tests) Test strips ($0.30 to $0.50 per test) Maximum TDS is 1500 PPM over start-up TDS Some professionals find 5000 PPM TDS in pool water is can be OK
TEMPERATURE" Temperature is a water balance factor but difﬁcult to control" Pool water is usually held at between 78-82◦ F. " Spa water is held much higher at from 96-104◦ F" Test with digital or IR thermometer"
SANITIZER AND DISINFECTANTS" A disinfectant kills disease-causing organisms" A sanitizer kills all microorganisms with impunity, (USA EPA 99.9% effective) i.e. , chlorine" Oxidation refers to the “chemical reaction” that organic contaminants or waste products undergo " Because pool environment is constantly exposed to new contaminants, two important considerations:" 1. Sanitize water to kill microorganisms" 2. Oxidize organic contaminants"
CHLORINE" Chlorine is most popular sanitizer, disinfectant, algae killer, & oxidizer in the world" Inexpensive, safe when used properly, & effective " In a pool or a spa, chlorine pulls double-duty as a sanitizer & oxidizer" Chlorine is most effective under certain conditions – The pH is most important factor & must be in optimal range in order for chlorine to be effective"
pH VERSUS CHLORINE SPECIES " Percent HOCl and OCl- vs. pH 100 90Percent HOCl and OCl- 80 HOCl Hypochlorous Acid 70 60 HOCl 50 OCl- 40 30 OCl- 20 Hypochlorite Ion 10 0 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 pH
CHLORINE Effective against a broad range of microorganisms " More than 79,000 tons per year are used in United States & Canada to treat water " Monitoring chlorine concentrations is very important " Used in pools to protect bathers health, water clarity & equipment" Inactivation of pathogens depends on contact time" In USA Health Departments require public pools to" be routinely tested for chlorine concentration "
GERM INACTIVATION TIME IN 1 ppm CHLORINATED WATER " GERM" INACTIVATION TIME"E. Coli O157:H7 Less than 1 minute"Bacterium"Hepatitis A About 16 minutes"Virus"Giardia About 45 minutes"Parasite"Cryptosporidium About 15300 minutes Parasite" (10.6 days)"pH 7.5, 77 F"
SOURCES OF CHLORINE" Chemical Chemical Form" % Chlorine" Name" Formula" Chlorine Cl2 " Gas" 100%" Gas" Calcium Ca(OCl)2 " Solid" 65-70%"Hypochlorite" Sodium NaOCl " Liquid" ~12% "Hypochlorite"
ABOUT SOURCES OF CHLORINE" Despite their chemical & physical differences, they all form hypochlorous acid, or as more commonly know in the pool industry as Chlorine" This change occurs when added to water" Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the effective disinfecting agent "
CHLORINE CHEMSTRY" The sum of Hypochlorous acid (HOCI) and Hypochlorite ion (OCI ¯) is called free chlorine, and the chemical equation or relationship is: "51
HYPOCHLOROUS ACID REACTIONS" Two chemical reactions impact the performance of Hypochlorous acid as a disinfectant:" FIRST REACTION involves a hydroxide ion (OH¯) " OH¯ is available in aqueous solution especially when pH level is above 7 which causes Hypochlorous acid to form Hypochlorite ion " Hypochlorite ion is less than one third as effective a disinfectant as Hypochlorous acid" The next slide shows the relationship between pH versus chlorine species (Hypochlorous acid and Hypochlorite ion) "52
pH VERSUS CHLORINE SPECIES " Percent HOCl and OCl- vs. pH 100 90Percent HOCl and OCl- 80 HOCl Hypochlorous Acid 70 60 HOCl 50 OCl- 40 30 OCl- 20 Hypochlorite Ion 10 0 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 pH
CHLORINE REACTION" The SECOND REACTION is a series of chlorine reactions that occur with ammonia (NH3) & organic nitrogen compounds such as proteins & amino acids in the pool to form chloramines" Chloramines are less effective disinfectants " Active chlorine can be transferred from inorganic chloramine to amine (organic) containing compounds "
BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION The process which eliminates both the combinedchlorine and the ammonia problem responsible forcreating the chloramine is called BreakpointChlorination In the pool industry its called “Shock” also called“Super-Chlorination” Shock is required daily, weekly or monthly anddepends on a variety of considerations55
TOTAL CHLORINE Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine andcombined chlorine Free chlorine and total chlorine are monitored byautomated equipment and confirmed by poolsidetesting for swimmer protection Total Chlorine = Free Chlorine + Combined Chlorine56
EPA ACCEPTED CHLORINE TEST METHODS (FREE AND TOTAL)" DPD photometric Digital Meter" DPD-FAS Titrimetric " DPD Colorimetric Comparator" TMB Test Strip (visual but only for free chlorine)"
DPD CHLORINE TESTING" DPD methods have become preferred for chlorine measurement " DPD methods determine concentration by measuring intensity of color formed when chlorine reacts with DPD " DPD-FAS Titration method determines chlorine by measuring amount of FAS Titrant needed to bleach out DPD-chlorine color formed " State health departments accept DPD tests because they are quick, enjoy wide acceptance & are US EPA approved"
TOTAL CHLORINE (TC) = FREE CHLORINE (FC) + COMBINED CHLORINE Combined chlorine = TC - FC Free chlorine = 1.58 ppm (FC) Total chlorine = 1.89 ppm (TC) Combined chlorine = 1.89 – 1.58 = 0.31 ppm Combined chlorine is above the recommend level of 0.20 ppm and suggests pool needs to be shocked: in this example ( 10 X 0.31 = 3.1 ) this pool can be shocked by increasing the pool chlorine level by 3.1 ppm59
CHLORINE TESTING"• Test Frequency: Daily/ multiple times/daydepending on bather load"• Ideal is 2.0-4.0 ppm in a pool and 3.0-4.0 ppmin a spa"• High Chlorine level can cause Eye / skinirritation "• Low Chlorine level can cause Illness andDisease and Skin irritation from such as abacterial rash"
COLORIMETER + LIQUID DPD POOLSIDE TESTING PROCEDURE"1. Rinse out photocell 3 times with pool water"2. Fill to 10 ml line with pool water sample"3. Cap cell, wipe cell wall "4. Place cell in colorimeter and zero meter"5. remove cell and uncap"6. add ﬁve drops of buffer DPD-1 solution"7. add ﬁve drops of indicator DPD-2 solution"8. cap cell and mix for a few seconds "9. wipe cell wall "10. place in colorimeter and read chlorine result"
COLORIMETER + DPD-1 POWDER PILLOW POOLSIDE TESTING PROCEDURE"1. Rinse out photocell 3 times with pool water sample"2. Fill to 10 ml line with pool water sample"3. Cap cell, wipe cell wall "4. Place cell in colorimeter and zero meter"5. remove cell and uncap"6. Tear open powder pillow and add DPD-1 "7. Cap cell and mix for 20 seconds "8. Wipe cell wall "9. Place in colorimeter and read chlorine result"
COLORIMETER + DPD-1 TABLET POOLSIDE TESTING PROCEDURE"1. Rinse out photocell 3 times with pool water sample"2. Fill cell to 10 ml line with pool water sample "3. Cap cell, wipe cell wall "4. Place cell in colorimeter and zero meter"5. Remove cell, uncap cell, "6. Pour out water except for a few drops"7. Add DPD-1 Tablet and crush with tablet crusher"8. Add pool water back to 10 ml line "9. Cap cell and mix for about 20 seconds "10. Wipe cell wall "11. Place in colorimeter and read chlorine result"
COLORIMETER + DPD-1 TEST STRIP POOLSIDE TESTING PROCEDURE" 1. Rinse out photocell 3 times with pool water" 2. Fill meter cell to capacity with pool water" 3. Turn meter on and Zero " 4. Dip DPD-1 Test Strip into sample for 20 seconds with back and forth motion (Press “READ” button that begins countdown timer)" 5. Read chlorine result" NOTE: This is a recent development in DPD testing"
CYANURIC ACID" Accepted Stabilizer for out door chlorinated swimming pools & spas" Bonds with chlorine to protect it from sun’s ultraviolet ray destruction " Reduces the amount of chlorine needed to maintain chlorine residual in outdoor pools" No know toxicity" Does not stabilize Bromine" Over dose (above 60PPM) causes problems" CY reduces effectiveness of chlorine "
CYANURIC ACID" Contributes to the overall Alkalinity level of pool water" " Provides buffer capacity" Does not provide corrosion protection"
CYANURIC ACID"Forms weak reversible bond with Free Available ChlorineDoes not affect DPD Test for Free CLDegree to which Cyanuric Acid complexes with Free Chlorine is affected by pH Concentration of Free Chlorine Concentration of Cyanuric Acid
CYANURIC ACID"Cyanuric Acid Levels in USA " One Study 20 Years ago reported:"" Average concentration – 76 ppm" Median concentration – 58 ppm" Maximum concentration – 406 ppm" Another study reported 25% (122 of 486) pools had more than 100 ppm" ""
CYANURIC ACID (CY) " Latest information suggests optimal range for cyanuric acid is 30 - 50 ppm" Levels above 50 ppm have been shown to reduce chlorine effectiveness" In USA Health Departments will close pools above 100 ppm (Florida recommends 60PPM) " When CY is used, maintain chlorine above 1PPM and preferably above 2ppm" To reduce cyanuric acid levels, partially drain pool & reﬁll "
CYANURIC ACID TEST METHODS (resolution) " Photometric (1PPM)" Visual using black dot comparator (over 20PPM)" Test Strip (over 50PPM)"
OTHER COMMON WATERQUALITY PARAMETERS AND TREATMENT SOLUTIONS "
BROMINE" Bromine is a chemical relative of Chlorine Used more commonly in spas more stable at high temperatures. Bromine is combined with ammonia as bromamine it is still an effective sanitizer and not irritating to the eyes and skin of spa users. Bromine and bromamine are measured together as Total Bromine. More expensive than chlorine and can’t be stabilized by cyanuric acid causing it to be rapidly dissipated by the sun. Bromine is always used in tablet form Bromine as a sanitation agent cant be switched over to chlorine without completely draining and replacing the water..
BROMINE CHEMISTRY Bromines effectiveness dependent on the waters pH Bromine breaks down in water forming Hypobromous Acid (HOBr) and Hypobromite Ion (OBr -), the ratio of the two being pH-dependent HOBr has much use as an anti-algae agent. With a high pH, more of the OBr - is present Recommended pH levels are the same for bromine as for chlorine
BROMINE TESTING Test Frequency: Daily / multiple times depending on bather load Ideal levels 2.0-4.0 ppm in a residential spa 4.0-6.0 ppm in a public spa Advantages: Safe and easily handled Good sanitizer with no odor or irritation Bromine efficiency is less dependent on pH Disadvantages More expensive than chlorine Acidic; destroys total alkalinity No stabilizer available (not recommended in Sun)
BIGUANIDES Biguanides are unique for the pool market The term refers to a disinfectant polymer polyhexamethyline biguanicide (PHMB). It is an effective sanitizer but not an oxidizer Hydrogen peroxide must be applied as a monthly shock Ammonium-based supplement is needed weekly. PHMB concentrations need to be kept between 30 and 50 ppm and require a special test kit. PHMB cannot be mixed with chlorine or any other chemicals except those used as part of the package. The result of doing so would be brown water and plaster stains
BIGUANIDE TESTING Test Frequency: Once per week or before swimming Ideal levels: Concentration must be kept between 30 – 50 ppm Advantages: Useful in case of chlorine allergies Less chemical smell Easy on eyes and skin Stable in sunlight Less frequent testing and treatment Disadvantages Costlier than chlorine OR bromine May clog filters Not compatible with most pool maintenance chemicals Not approved for commercial pools
COMMERCIAL CHLORINE GENERATOR Device that produces chlorine from a mixture of salt and water (brine) through electrolysis Sometimes referred to as “salt generators” Chlorine used is produced through the electrolysis of brine Electrolysis uses two electrically-charged electrodes: 1. Anode (positively-charged) 2. Cathode (negatively-charged) Electrolyzing salt, the electrodes are contained in different chambers because the result is chlorine gas and caustic soda, also known as lye, which should not be allowed to mix The chambers are separated by a special membrane allowing sodium ions and electricity to pass through it, but not chloride ions or water.
COMMERCIAL CHLORINE GENERATOR Generator converts:120 or 240 volts AC to 4 or 6 volts DC Residential pool unit requires about 20 amps Electric current passing through the membrane from positive to negative splits the NaCl into chlorine gas and sodium Electric current carries sodium ions through the membrane to the cathode chamber where it reacts with water to produce caustic soda and hydrogen gas The hydrogen gas bubbles are vented off into the air The chlorine gas in the anode chamber passes through a tube into the pool water By-product of this process is a small amount of hydrochloric acid
COMMERCIAL CHLORINE GENERATOR Anode chamber must periodically be refilled with water and salt The caustic soda can be re-used for adjusting the pools pH balance A typical chlorine generator designed for a 25,000 – 30,000 gallon pool requires 45-50 pounds of salt, which must be replenished 2-4 times per year. A similar unit can generate Bromine by using Sodium Bromide instead of Sodium Chloride as a generating source Since chlorine and bromine generators produce water sanitizers continuously during operation, it is less necessary for chemicals to be added to the pool or spa water Water must still be tested for sanitizer levels Equipment is expensive to buy and install. In addition to regular testing, chlorine or bromine generators require salt level determination (Chloride or Bromide)
SALT TEST KITS (resolution) Photometric with SALT reagent (10 PPM) TDS meters with Salt Algorithm (10 PPM) can be used but at least annually verify level with Photometric or alternative method Salt Test Strips (500 or 1000 PPM)
OZONE GENERATION Ozone is negatively-charged oxygen atoms Occurs naturally in the atmosphere, through the action of lightning Non-toxic Useful water purifier, used for decades in municipal water systems Reduces the amount of chemicals needed to combat algae and bacteria Ozone has no effect on the pH balance, alkalinity or TDS of the pool water, but it does NOT eliminate the use of chlorine Breaks down immediately on contact with water-borne contaminants, but does not combat algae formation on pool and spa walls
OZONE GENERATION Can reduce the use of biocides and algaecides in a pool, it is not a complete solution Ozone generation involves the use of an ultraviolet (UV) or Corona Discharge (CD) unit which converts Oxygen (O2) to Ozone (O3) Advantages: Reduces the use of sanitizing chemicals No effect on water balance Disadvantages: Ineffective against algae High installation expense
IONIZATION OF COPPER AND SILVER Ionization is used for sanitation and has no effect on pH balance, alkalinity or TDS Copper ions destroy algae; silver ions have a static effect on bacteria Ionizers use electricity to generate metal ions in the pool water Voltage generates positive ions Typical location of the electrodes is in an “ion chamber” located in line between the pump and filter A control box varies the low-voltage DC charge (12-36 volts, .5-1 amp) to the electrodes that regulates the concentration of ions. One system may use only copper electrodes; another system may use a copper and a silver electrode which produce both copper and silver ions
IONIZATION OF COPPER AND SILVER Excess copper ions in the water can cause staining Copper level in the range of 0.15-0.2 ppm is recommended The ion level is adjusted by changing the current flow across the electrodes, using a manual dial on the control unit Ionization is not sufficient for complete sanitation of the pool water but can reduce the need of chemicals Ionization manufacturers recommend weekly additions of an oxidizer (like potassium peroxymonosulfate) to remove organic contaminants and assist in combating algae Advantages: Can reduce use of sanitizing chemicals No effect on water balance Disadvantages Copper ions cause staining High installation cost
COPPER TESTING Small concentrations of copper in the water can be beneficial as a biocide Excess copper causes staining that can be very difficult to remove Testing for the presence of copper can provide early warning of plumbing erosion or corrosion If pool surfaces are being stained green or blue-green, or if bathers are complaining of green hair or blue fingernails, the water usually contains excess copper. Copper concentrations can be tested with a visual photometric test, a liquid test, test strip, or photometer with Cu reagent
IRON Iron in the pool water can be a source of black or red stains on pool surfaces Above 0.1 ppm will cause the water to have a bad taste Secondary drinking water regulation by the USEPA is set at 0.3 ppm (more of an esthetic than health issue)
WHAT IS IRON? Iron is one of the most commonplace elements on Earth. Second most abundant metal (after aluminum) and fourth most abundant element. Iron has the chemical symbol “Fe” Because iron is very reactive, it does not exist on its own Iron is so common in the earth’s crust that at least a trace is found in almost everything Used in medicine
IRON BECOMES AN ION Fe → Fe+2 (Ferrous) + 2 electrons Fe → Fe+3 (Ferric) + 3 electrons Fe+2 + Cl2 → FeCl2 (Ferrous Chloride) 2Fe+3 + Cl2 → 2Fe2Cl3 (Ferric Chloride) 4Fe+3 + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3 (Iron Oxide)
HOW IRON GETS IN THE WATER Make-up water drawn from a well If a metal component that contains iron begins to rust it releases iron into the pool water
IRON REMOVAL Chelating or Sequestering Agents work best They prevent any iron coating on the pool walls
IRON TESTING(resolution)Photometric test meter with FE reagent (0.01PPM)Visual colorimetric comparator (0.3PPM)Iron Test Strips (0.3 PPM or greater)
HOW AN IRON TEST WORKS Iron testing most frequently uses TPTZ powder pillows, test strips, or tablets containing in one unit, reducing agents, buffer and TPTZ indicator Ferric iron + reducing agent = ferrous iron TPTZ + ferrous iron = blue color There is an inherent flaw in this test methodology. Turbidity issues (and most iron samples have turbidity) are addressed by adding an optional step, which is often ignored This step, when ignored, can result in false low readings.
PHOSPHATE Phosphorus is about 0.12% in the earth’s crust Human bones and teeth contain a large amount of calcium phosphate Muscle, nerves and brains of animals, contain complex organic compounds of phosphorus, which are formed from vegetable matter Red phosphorus is used for pyrotechnics and for the manufacture of safety matches and fertilizers Phosphate is an essential nutrient for algae growth
PHOSPHATE BECOMES AN ION P → P+5 + 5 electrons 4P + 5O2 → 2P2O5 P2O5 + 3H2O → 2H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) H3PO4 + H2O → H3O+ + H2PO4– (dihydrogen phosphate) Ca(H2PO4)2 Calcium Dihydrogen Phosphate is known as “Super Phosphate of Lime” and used as a fertilizer
HOW PHOSPHATE GETS IN WATER Runoff from lawns Rain water Bathers (sweat and urine) Pool treatment chemicals Blown in leaves and debris (soil and rock)
CONTROL ALGAE BY CONTROLLING PHOSPHATE Pool water should be regularly refreshed with a fraction of new make-up water daily or weekly. Increase swimming pool chlorine level. “Flock” the phosphate with a phosphate flock salt and vacuum.
ANOTHER WAY TO CONTROL ALGAE GROWTH In Florida, Catfish are used to eat the algae in abandoned pools
SALTS THAT REMOVE PHOSPHATES Iron salts (undesirable in pools) Used by municipal water and wastewater plants. Very effective in removing phosphate. HPO4-2 + Fe+3 → FePO4↓ + H+ Aluminum salts (inexpensive) Effective for levels above 1000 ppb. Does not remove phosphate below 100ppb. HPO4-2 + Al+3 → AlPO4↓ + H+ Lanthanum salts (expensive) Effective for maintaining low levels of phosphate. Easier to use and apply than Aluminum salts. Can drop phosphate levels below 100 ppb. HPO4-2 + La+3 → LaPO4↓ + H+
LATHANUM SALTS (chloride & sulfate) Form a water insoluble Lanthanum Phosphate precipitate Easily removed by the pool filter media In high concentrations, salts will not cause cloudy water or staining of the pool
HOW TO KEEP POOLS PHOSPHATE FREE Avoid lawn/garden run-off from entering the pool Remove leaves promptly Keep phosphate below 100 PPB Test the make-up water for phosphate Test the pool water phosphate levels regularly Preferred photometric test uses molybdate reaction with phosphate in mild acid solution to form molybdophosphoric acid or heteropoly blue complex
PHOSPHATE TESTING (resolution) Digital Photometric with reagent (0.01 PPM or 10 PPB) Test Strip with Comparator (0.1 PPM or 100 PPB) Ideally keep level below 0.1PPM If Chlorine is maintained above 4PPM pool can tolerate 0.5PPM phosphate without algae problem. I do not advocate this control method
TURBIDITY Another word for cloudiness Caused by several factors: 1. Body-waste contamination 2. Non-organic suspended solids 3. Algae 4. Chemical imbalance Turbidity is most commonly measured with a “turbidometric” meter – and is very accurate Can also be tested with a photometer (less accurate)
BACTERIA Bacteria is a microorganism that enters pool water through rain, blown- in contaminants, and bathers Chlorine is introduced into a pool it breaks down into hypochlorous acid (HOCL) and hypochlorite ions (OCL-). Both of these kill bacteria by attacking the bacterial cell walls and oxidizing everything inside. Bacteria testing requires culturing the water
18 MINUTE BACTERIA TEST Commercial test methods include Immunological test that can confirm bacteria levels below 1000 colonies per ml run in 18 minutes Reduces liability Gives confidence that pool is safe to reopen The Quick™ Bacteria Test is an antibody-based rapid test kit for the presence of bacteria in swimming pools, spas and rivers, lakes or streams used for swimming. The Quick™ Bacteria Test detects E.Coli, species of Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Kliebsiella, and many other Coliform and non-Coliform bacteria.
SPA WATER CHEMISTRY" Spas differ from pools because: " 1. Smaller volume of water" 2. Run at much higher temperature " Bather load (& sanitizer demand) is much heavier than in a pool" Smaller volume means that organics accumulate much faster, & demand placed on sanitizer is much higher"
SPA WATER CHEMISTRY" Greater sanitizer levels must be maintained (3-5 ppm for Chlorine, 4-6 ppm for Bromine) & testing must be carried out much more frequently – usually every 2 hours during periods of heavy use" Treatment is more demanding, because adjustments must be made more frequently, & measurements must be more precise "
SPA WATER CHEMISTRY" Small volume & increased sanitizer demand means that in Chlorine spas, Chloramines accumulate much faster than in a pool" Spas must be drained at regular intervals if water quality is to be maintained" High temperature (above 100 degrees F) increases Chlorine reactions & causes rapid depletion"
SPA WATER CHEMISTRY" High temperature increase growth of certain disease-causing bacteria such as pseudomonas aerginosa" High temperature increase evaporation, resulting in elevated TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)" Maintaining a spa presents unique challenges"
TESTING Best Practices " Circulate pool water before collecting sample, or manually stir water in sample area" Rinse sample vial two or three times with pool water before sampling" Sample water 18 inches below surface (most important for Chlorine & Bromine testing)""
TESTING Best Practices " Do not collect water sample near return lines" Note temperature of water to be tested (Very cold or very hot water can affect photometric tests)"
TESTING Best Practices " Perform tests as soon as possible after collecting sample (immediate testing is required for accurate Free Chlorine results)" If collecting samples for later testing, handle carefully to avoid contamination, ﬁll bottle to capacity, & seal tightly "
TESTING Best Practices " Pay careful attention to expiration dates on reagents & test strips" Keep reagent containers tightly capped & in a cool, dark place " Dont swap/mix the caps on reagent bottles to avoid chemical cross contamination"
TESTING Best Practices " Where required, measure volume of water sample to be tested (Measure the bottom of sample meniscus, not the top at ﬁll mark)" Dont interchange sample vials or cells" Follow manufacturer’s test directions carefully"
TESTING Best Practices " Add reagents carefully – make sure the correct number of drops are added to sample and drops are equal & full- sized" Mix reagents with test samples thoroughly"
TESTING Best Practices " Match visual test results under right conditions:" 1. Proper lighting" 2. Don’t wear sunglasses" 3. Read colors against an appropriate background" 4. Don’t match colors in bright sunlight"
TESTING Best Practices " Record results & maintain those records for each pool or spa" Never add reagents to pool for ﬂash testing (invalid)" Never dispose tested samples/reagents in the pool" Rinse sample test vials and cells well immediately after testing"
TESTING Best Practices " When using a photometer, verify your results using a Pool Water Standard to verify photometer, reagents, and operator"" Pool Water Standards can also be used for verifying titration and comparator reagents "
eXact Micro 10 Photometer USED FOR TESTING POOL WATER "Speciﬁcation:" USEPA Compliant* and Health Dept. accepted for Free, Combined, & Total Chlorine Testing" Health Dept accepted for Cyanuric Acid and pH" 525 nm Wavelength LED Transmission Photometer" 20 mm cell path length with built in 4 milliliter cell" Waterproof, buoyant (ﬂoats)" Uses patented reagent strip technology" Factory Calibration and accuracy guaranteed for 2 years" * Per 4500-Cl G (2012), Standard Methods For Examination Of Water And Wastewater, DPD Colorimetric Method having transmission in range of 490 to 530nm with minimum 10 mm cell path length"
eXact Micro 10 Photometer BENEFITS " No cell or test tube to handle" Safe and easy-use DPD Strip (delivery device)"• The eXact® DPD Strip is stable in hot summer conditions "• individual foil packet(s) available for greater integrity"
eXact Micro 10 Photometer BENEFITS " No drops to count or colors to match" Simple EZ-3™ procedure" Tolerates 15 ppm FCl without color loss" Quick " 0.01 PPM resolution " Accurate Combined Chlorine results to really know if pool needs “SHOCK”"
NEW DPD METHODOLGY FOR POOLSIDE COMPLIANCE TESTING"Step 1 and Step 2!Rinse out photocell 3 times with pool water"Fill meter cell to capacity with pool water" "
NEW DPD METHODOLGY FOR POOLSIDE COMPLIANCE TESTINGStep 3!Turn meter on and Zero """
NEW DPD METHODOLGY FOR POOLSIDE COMPLIANCE TESTINGStep 4"Dip DPD-1 Test Strip into sample for20 seconds with back and forthmotion (Press “READ” button thatbegins countdown timer)"""
NEW DPD METHODOLGY FOR POOLSIDE COMPLIANCE TESTINGStep 5! Read chlorine result" Free Chlorine = 1.58 ppm"""
NEW DPD METHODOLGY FOR POOLSIDE COMPLIANCE TESTINGStep 6! Continue the test to determine the Total Chlorine concentration: Press “ZERO” and display is 0 and then Press “READ” button and simultaneously dip eXact® Strip Micro DPD-3 into the water sample for 20 second count down. "(During the 20 seconds constantly move the strip back and forth, which releases the Potassium Iodide reagent from the strip and mixes the sample)"
NEW DPD METHODOLGY FOR POOLSIDE COMPLIANCE TESTINGStep 7! At the end of the 20 seconds the meter will display “1” at which time you remove and discard the strip and the meter automatically reads and displays the Combined chlorine concentration of 0.3 1 PPM, and stores the result in memory. " Press read again twice to display Total Chlorine value of 1.89 PPM." Discard sample and rinse with water before storage. This DPD test method is compliant for California Health Department and US EPA requirements." Free Chlorine = 1.58 PPM" Combined Chlorine = 0.31 PPM " and Total Chlorine = 1.89 PPM"""
FAS DPD POOLSIDE TESTING PROCEDURE"1. Rinse out cell 3 times with Pool water sample"2. Fill to 25 ml line with pool water sample"3. Add ﬁve drops of buffer DPD-1 solution "4. add ﬁve drops of indicator DPD-2 solution (or one scoop of DPD Powder)"5. Swirl to mix for a few seconds "6. Add one drop of FAS reagent, swirl to mix and observe color"7. Add next drop of FAS Reagent, swirl to mix and observe color (Repeated for a total of 8 drops)!8. When pink color disappears Multiple 0.2 by number of drops you have used to make color disappear This sample has (0.2 X 8 drops) 1.6 PPM Chlorine "9. Add KI reagent and continue titration which required two drops to give Combined Chlorine level of 0.4 PPM "
Ampoule (10 ml of solution) for use to verify your pool testing procedure" Tets that can be veriﬁed includes Total Alkalinity, pH, Calcium Hardness, Copper, Cyanuric Acid, Iron, Phosphate, Nitrate, Salt, and Sulfate." Speciﬁcally for eXact® Micro photometer test veriﬁcation. No dilution needed, just snap, ﬁll cell with sample, and run test as you do normally" Only conﬁrmation method available for pool service technicians "
STEP 1" Turn on the eXact® Micro 10 Photometer (M10) and rinse out three times with clean water" Break open a Ready Snap™ Method Veriﬁcation Solution in a safe manner with a paper towel as shown" Don’t use pool side"
STEP 2" Take supplied plastic pipette and squeeze bulb with ﬁnger and thumb to expel air" Dip the pipette tip to the bottom of ampoule and release squeezed bulb slowly to ﬁll pipette" Transfer ﬁlled pipette liquid to M10 cell"
STEP 3" Discard the ﬁrst liquid sample followed with a quick shake of the M10 to empty the CELL of the remaining water drops." Repeat and ﬁll the CELL to capacity"
STEP 4" Select the MENU for the test method procedure you need veriﬁed (Calcium Hardness in this example) and run the EZ-3™ test method" Verify the displayed value result against the Solution Value chart (Next Slide)"
STEP 5" If your value is within the acceptable range, you are operating the M10 correctly for this MENU test method." If your value is borderline, review the Instruction Manual and the proper procedure. "
Assigned Values for READY SNAP™ 1 (lot 513) Method Veriﬁcation Solution: Menu Parameter Test Desired Acceptable Borderline Item Value Value Value AL1* Total Alkalinity 150 ppm 140-160 130-170 PH2* pH 7.4 7.2-7.6 7.1-7.7 CL3 Free Chlorine <0.10 - - PO4* Phosphate 0.90 ppm 0.70-1.10 0.60-1.20 CA5* Calcium as CaCO3 67 ppm 57-87 47-97 TH5 Total Hardness as CaCO3 130 ppm 110-150 100-160 CH6* Chloride as NaCl (÷2 for M20) 270 ppm 240-300 220-320 CY7* Cyanuric Acid 84 ppm 74-94 64-104 CU8* Copper as Cu+2 0.33 ppm 0.28-0.38 0.23-0.43 NH4 Ammonia <0.05 ppm - - NO3 Nitrate 21 ppm 18-24 16-26 Mn7 all +2 Metals Mn, Cu, Zn, etc 0.55 ppm - - Mn7 Manganese 0.08 ppm - - AL3 Aluminum 0.18 ppm 0.14-0.23 0.12-0.25 CR6 Chromium VI 0.17 ppm 0.13-0.22 0.11-0.23 F Fluoride 0.31 ppm - - SO4 Sulfate 50 ppm 35-65 30-70 PB2 Lead as Pb+2 82 ppb TDS Total Dissolved Solids 245 ppm (504µS) as NaCl NOTE: Values reﬂect current concentrations as found at time of manufacture. R060712 *These tests are available as Direct Read Parameters in the M10 Photometer. Other tests can be performed in M20 or LeadQuick Photometers. Ready Snap™ 2 Method Veriﬁcation Solution is available for veriﬁcation of Ammonia, Arsenic, Iron, and Manganese.
NEW METHOD USING FIELD SCANNER (Pool Check I - Coming soon) !
THE FUTURE OFPOOL TESTING COMING SOONIS DIGITAL" WITH
Pool Check® i Digital Test Strip Analyzerdirectly reads: Alkalinity, Total Hardness,Free Chlorine, Total Chlorine, CyanuricAcid and pH • Tests three or six parameters in 35seconds with only one test strip • Digital results eliminate visual test stripcolor matching • Medical technology adapted for pools " COMING SOON WITH
• Incorporates into pool service software fromApp on the Run and RB Control Systems • Download results to a computer or phone -unit stores results with time and date markers • Portable and rechargeable" COMING SOON WITH
STRIVE FOR BEST RESULTS" Customers expect it" Health Departments require it" Liability issues for bad results"
HELPFUL RESOURCES" Book: Pool Chlorination Facts by Robert W. Lowry" Book: Intermediate Training Manual Part 1-Chemicals by Robert W. Lowry" Book: The Ultimate Guide to Pool Maintenance by Terry Tamminen" Book: The Pool Maintenance Manual by Terry Tamminen " Internet: Florida Health Dept: http://www.doh.state.ﬂ.us/Environment/water/swim/index.html " Internet: CDC http://www.cdc.gov/healthyswimming/ "