Cross country analysis, challenges, responses conclusions and recommendations - William Bartlett, LSE
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Cross country analysis, challenges, responses conclusions and recommendations - William Bartlett, LSE

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Cross country analysis, challenges, responses conclusions and recommendations - William Bartlett, LSE Cross country analysis, challenges, responses conclusions and recommendations - William Bartlett, LSE Presentation Transcript

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  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Outline of Presentation 1. Aims and Methodology 2. Overview and key findings • Policy framework • Entry into school: selection and choice • Experience at school • Dropping out • The transition from education to work • Social cohesion 3. Conclusions and Recommendations 2
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Aims and Methodology • To understand the barriers and opportunities for building inclusive and equitable VET systems in the Western Balkans, Turkey and Israel • To provide new evidence on the role of VET in combating social exclusion and contributing to more cohesive societies • Methods included a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods: • Interviews and focus groups • student and teacher surveys 3
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 VET Policy Orientations • VET Strategies that emphasize social inclusion and social cohesion – Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia • VET Strategies that emphasize adjustment to labour market – Albania, BiH, Croatia, Israel, Kosovo, Turkey 6
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Youth Unemployment (%) Austria 8.7 Turkey 15.7 EU-28 23.0 Hungary 28.1 Bulgaria 28.1 Israel 29.1 Italy 35.3 Montenegro 41 Croatia 43.0 Serbia 48.4 Macedonia 51.8 Spain 53.2 Kosovo 55.3 Greece 55.3 BiH 63.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 7 70
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Similar school systems… Turkey 6 5 Macedonia 6 5 Serbia 7 Montenegro 4 4 4 4 4 5 7 4 4 4 6 Croatia 3 4 4 4 4 Bosnia 6 5 4 Albania 6 5 4 0 1 Pre-school 2 3 4 5 6 Primary education 7 8 3 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Lower secondary 2A 8 Upper secondary 3A
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 …but difference in VET enrolment Albania 14.4% Israel Vocational/All Programmes Public 40.3% Turkey 46.5% Montenegro 68.6% Croatia 73.1% BiH 75.5% Serbia 76.3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 9 80%
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Selection and its effects • In most countries, entry into upper secondary education is selective • Selection reinforces social differentiation – – children of middle class parents are more likely to enter academic schools, children of working class parents are more likely to enter vocational school • Vocational schools tend to be less well resourced than academic schools leading to lower quality of education • Consequently, initial gaps in student performance may widen, increasing inequality in educational outcomes 10
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Parents’ educational level 45 40 40 Father's education level 34 35 30 Mother's education level 26 23 25 19 20 21 13 13 15 10 5 3 3 2 3 0 No education Primary education Secondary vocational Secondary general University Other 11
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Parental employment and home study deficit 35.0 33.3 Parents do not work 30.0 27.1 27.1 25.8 25.7 Parents work 24.0 25.0 20.3 20.0 15.9 14.0 15.0 12.7 11.3 10.0 8.1 5.0 0.0 No quiet place No internet No own room No books No computer No desk 12
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Happiness at school Kosovo 13% 23% Albania 20% Montenegro 20% Macedonia 35% 46% 31% 29% Croatia 64% 49% 29% 33% 42% 40% Unhappy 28% Content Bosnia 34% 35% 31% Israel 36% 32% 32% Serbia 38% Turkey 40% 0% 20% 30% 32% 37% 40% Happy 60% 24% 80% 100% 14
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Experience at school: main trends • Almost three fifths of the students say that „much‟ or „very much‟ improvement is needed in school equipment, while almost a half say the same for school buildings • One fifth of students found teachers were not welcoming when they began their schooling • A fifth of students also experienced some form of bullying at school • Students are ambitious – Almost all (84%) realise that it is very important for them to do well at school for their future job prospects. 15
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Whether teachers were friendly and student happiness 100% 90% 80% 28% 70% 60% 21% 19% 24% 35% 55% 27% 39% 50% 42% 40% 30% 20% 51% 26% 54% 36% 23% 19% Friendly Very friendly 10% 0% Very unfriendly Unfriendly Unhappy Average Content Happy 16
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Experience at school: teaching quality • Students were ambivalent about the quality of teaching: – Over half say that they learn “very much” or “much” from their course, while 10% say they learn “little” or “nothing” – Only one fifth of students said that they thought the teaching methods were “very good” while 15% found them “very bad” or “poor” – Over two thirds reported that teachers’ knowledge of their subjects is “very good” or “good”, while 13.4% found then to be “very bad” or “poor”. 17
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 How much students learn Kosovo Nothing Israel A little Serbia A moderate amount Turkey Montenegro Macedonia Croatia Bosnia Albania 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 18 70%
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Practical training • Practical training, either within school or in a local company as an intern or apprentice, is insufficient to provide a sound basis of vocational knowledge and experience (interviews) • Hours in work placement in a company differ widely across schools and countries vary from a low of 0.6 hours in Podgorica to 15.2 hours in Karlovac in Croatia • There is also a huge between-school and cross-country variation in weekly hours spent in practical lessons 19
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Hours spent in practical lessons Turkey 16.0 12.3 10.4 10.0 Albania Israel 8.1 7.7 Croatia All 6.9 4.4 Kosovo 3.6 BiH Students 7.1 Teachers 6.9 4.6 2.5 Montenegro 1.8 1.6 Macedonia 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 20 18
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Social networks and job search • Over three quarters of students expect to receive help from their families – Only about one third expect help from PES or school • A major hindrance to students in their attempts to find a job is the lack of career guidance and counselling • Students whose parents do not go out to work rely less on family assistance in finding a job than those with a parent in work • This suggests the importance of social networks and connections in finding a job in the WBT+I countries. 24
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Conclusions (I) • Education systems are a powerful source of transmission of social exclusion • Cascading effect of exclusion as students progress through school and beyond • Selection on entry channels disadvantaged children into vocational school • Family background has strong effect on school selection and on educational outcomes 25
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Conclusions (II) • Experience in school reinforces social exclusion of disadvantaged students due to: • • • • • Under-investment in equipment and buildings Outdated curricula Poor teaching methods Apprenticeships offered to more advantaged students Transition from school to work • • Lack of career guidance Strong role of family contacts in finding a job 26
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 What can be done? - Students’ views • What do students think could be done to improve their job prospects? • Almost two thirds - better access to computers • Almost two thirds - better teaching methods • Three fifths of - better job counselling • More than half - better equipment • More than half - more relevant curricula • Almost half - better buildings • Just under a half - better out of school training in companies 27
  • Recommendations 28
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 VET policy • More cooperation needed between ministries and agencies involved in setting the institutional and policy framework for inclusive VET systems • More integration between education and social policies for vulnerable groups • More engagement by the social partners and local government institutions in the policy debate 29
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Entry to school • VET secondary schools should improve cooperation with primary schools to improve selection of disadvantaged students • The number of scholarships for VET studies from local and national governments and other stakeholders (e.g. businesses) should be increased 30
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Experience at school • Parents representatives and social partners should play a stronger role in school governance • The skills and professionalism of teachers should be improved though additional teacher training especially for dealing with socially excluded students • Governments should seek infrastructure loans to improve school buildings from WBIF and other sources 31
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Dropping Out • Reduce drop out by creating a more friendly environment for all students • Offer individual guidance to students at risk of dropping out • Improve the capacity of schools and local institutions to monitor dropout and identify its causes 32
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Transition from Education to Work • Provide more and better career guidance services to improve the social inclusion impact of vocational education • Local employers should enhance their cooperation with schools to: – ensure updated curricula – increase the number of practical classes out of school – provide apprenticeship training for students 33
  • MAPPING OF VET POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION AND SOCIAL COHESION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS, TURKEY AND ISRAEL Tel Aviv, Israel, 11-13 November 2013 Social Cohesion • Schools should seek to support more extra-curricular activities, including volunteer internships, voluntary work, and greater involvement with youth clubs and other community organisations • Vocational schools should forge closer links with local communities especially with NGOs and other voluntary organisations to develop a socially inclusive profile for VET schools 34
  • Thank you for your attention !!! 35